Carbon assimilation traits versus nuclear genes. Distribution of carbon assimilation patterns and related enzymes in the genus Protomyces. Yeast cells were grown in api® 50 CH strips with a starting OD = 0.1, and were visually scored for growth on day seven (Table 5). Growth patterns were classified as growth (+), weak growth (w) and no growth (−). Numbers indicate the enzyme hits found for each carbon assimilation pathway. Genes encoding Protomyces carbon metabolism enzymes were identified using sequences of conserved homologs that have been characterized in model yeast species, see Supplemental file 2 for the protein sequences used as BLAST queries. Selection criteria for BLAST results is an E value <1e−30. Species name abbreviations used: Protomyces inundatus (Pinu), P. macrosporus (Pmac), P. gravidus (Pgra), P. lactucaedebilis (Plac), P. inouyei (Pino), P. pachydermus (Ppac), and P. arabidopsidicola strain C29 (Para).