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Table 2 Summary of the distinctive features of the most similar species, Lactarius baliophaeus, and L. griseogalus, and those of L. subbaliophaeus, using data from Verbeken & Walleyn (2010).

From: The genus Lactarius s. str. (Basidiomycota, Russulales) in Togo (West Africa): phylogeny and a new species described

Features L. baliopheus L. griseogalus L. subbaliophaeus
Basidiomata Pileus 30–70(−90) mm; greyish yellow to brownish (4A3–5 to 4B3–5), dark blond to yellowish brown (5D4–5 to 5E4–5) Pileus to 36 mm, very dark brown, almost black Pileus 40–65 mm; greyish brown to beige- brown (5CD3 to 6DE3)
Lamellae and lamellulae Broadly adnate, to decurrent, crowded L+l = 4+12 to 3+6/cm Broadly adnate, not decurrent, distant (total 28) Broadly adnate, to slightly subdecurrent, distant L+l = 4–5/cm
Context Firm, white to cream then orange-red, greyish red, finally black Very thin and transparent, turning red then red- orange, finally black Firm, first whitish becoming blackish finally black
Latex Water-like, then successively brownish, blood-red, buff, cream Hyaline turning grey then dark brown Transparent white, becoming pinkish grey (7A2) then blackish
Reaction of context to FeSO4 Unchanging Weakly greyish green Bluing
Taste Mild, then acrid Mild, slightly astringent Bitterand acrid
Basidiospores Globose to subglobose Usually ellipsoid, rarely subglobose Globose, subglobose rarely ellipsoid
  Q = 1.01–1.07–1.09–1.15 Q = 1.07–1.21–1.36–1.55 Q = 1.04–1.11–1.27
  Plage distally amyloid Plage not, or slightly amyloid Plage not amyloid
Cystidia Pleurocystidia 40–55 × 9–11 µm scarce to abundant, often arising deep in the hymenium, slightly thick-walled Pleurolamprocystidia 50–65 × 7–10 µm abundantfusiform or irregular, thick-walled Pleurocystidia 35–56 × 6–9 µm, scarce, inconspicuous subcylindrical, subclavate, thin-walled
Marginal cells 21–40 × (2−)3–5 µm, cylindrical, tortuous or fusiform, rounded, mucronate, with tapering apex 20–35 × 4–7 µm, rarely clavate, mostly fusiform 23–72 × 3–6 µm, subcylindical, fusiform or tortuous, almostly septate, mostly with tapering apex
Pileipellis Hymeniderm, suprapellis 10–25 × 3–5 µm, thin-walled Palisade, suprapellis thick, 25–40 × 3–5 µm, thin-walled Palisade, suprapellis thin 20–60 × 3–5 µm, thin-walled