Illustration of salient morphological features of the stromata of Xylaria hypoxylon, based on specimens collected in France from the collection of J. Fournier: A–C, F, H, I: JF 04258; D, E: JF 05066; G: JF 04039. A–E. Mature stromata at sexual state (except two in A upper row with white apices). G. Stromata at the asexual stage. F, I. Stromatal surface of immature stromata showing raised-discoid ostioles and white-striped peeling outer layer. H. Stroma in longitudinal section showing perithecia lying beneath the thin black crust. Bars: A, C–E = 1 cm; B, G = 5 mm; F = 1 mm; H– I = 0.5 mm.