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Table 1 Information regarding isolates used in this study. GenBank accession numbers are listed in Table S1.

From: An expanded phylogeny for the genus Phytophthora

    Isolate identification d   Isolate origins  
(Sub)clade a Species b Papilla c CH CBS ATCC IMI WPC MG Type e Host or Substrate Location Year Reference
1a P. cactorum P 22E6     P10194 p25   Rhododendron sp. Ohio, USA n.a.f (Schröter 1886)
    22E7   16693 21168 P0715 p6   n.a. UK n.a.  
    22E8   16694, MYA-3653 50470 P10193 p7   Malus sp. Zimbabwe n.a.  
  P. hedraiandra P 33F3   MYA-4165    p225   Rhododendron sp. Minnesota, USA 2002 (de Cock & Lévesque 2004)
    38C2        Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2006  
    62A5 111725    P19523   T Viburnum sp. The Netherlands 2001  
  P. idaei P 34D4 971.95 MYA-4065 313728 P6767 p220 T Rubus idaeus Scotland, UK 1987 (Kennedy & Duncan 1995)
    62A1 968.95      A Rubus idaeus Scotland, UK 1985  
  P. pseudotsugae P    52938 331662 P10339   T Psendotsuga menziesii Oregon, USA n.a. (Hamm & Hansen 1983)
  P. aff. hedraiandra P 33F4      p226   Rhododendron sp. Minnesota, USA 2003 n.a.
  P. aff. Dseudotsugae P 29B3      p185 A Psendotsuga menziesii Oregon, USA 1975 n.a.
1b P. clandestina P 32G1 347.86 58713, 60438 278933 P3943 p200 T Trifolium subterraneum Australia 1985 (Taylor et al. 1985)
    33D8   MYA-4064 287317   p215 A Trifolium subterranea Australia 1985  
    38D4      p304   n.a. Australia n.a.  
  P. iranica P 61J4 374.72 60237 158964 P3882 p218 T Solanum melongena Iran 1969 (Ershad 1971)
  P. tentaculata P 29F2 552.96    P8497   A Chrysanthemum leucanthemum Germany n.a. (Kröber & Marwitz 1993)
    30D5        Bacopa sp. The Netherlands 2004  
    30G8   MYA-3655      Argyranthemum frutescens Germany 2004  
1c P. andina SP 60A2      p460 A Solanum betaceum Ecuador n.a. (Oliva et al. 2010)
    60A3      p461 A Solanum betaceum Ecuador n.a.  
        P13365   T Solanum brevifolium Ecuador 2001  
  P. infestans SP 27A8        Solanum tuberosum Mexico 1992 (De Bary 1876)
        P10650    Solanum tuberosum Mexico n.a.  
  P. ipomoeae SP 31B4     P10226   A Ipomoea longipedunculata Mexico n.a. (Flier et al. 2002)
    31B5 109229    P10225   T Ipomoea Mexico 1999  
    31B6     P10227   A Iongipedunculata Ipomoea Mexico n.a.  
           Iongipedunculata    
  P. mirabilis SP 30C1   64069, MYA-4062   P3006 p145 A Mirabilis jalapa Mexico n.a. (Galindo-A & Hohl 1985)
    30C2   64070, MYA-4063   P3007 p153 A Mirabilis jalapa Mexico n.a.  
  P. phaseoli SP 23B4      p106   Phaseolus lunatus Delaware, USA 2000 (Thaxter 1889)
    35B6        Phaseolus sp. Delaware, USA 2000  
        P10145    Phaseolus lunatus Delaware, USA n.a.  
        P10150    Phaseolus lunatus Delaware, USA n.a.  
1 P. nicotianae P 22F9   15410, MYA-4037    p23   Nicotiana tabacum North Carolina, USA n.a. (Breda de Haan 1896)
    22G1   15409, MYA-4036    p22   Nicotiana tabacum North Carolina, USA n.a.  
        P10116    Metrosideros excelsa California, USA 2002  
        P1452    Citrus sp. California, USA n.a.  
2a P. botryosa P 22H8   MYA-4059    p44   Heavae sp. Thailand n.a. (Chee 1969)
    46C2   26481    p384 A Hevea brasiliensis Thailand n.a.  
    62C6 581.69   136915 P3425   T Hevea brasiliensis Malaysia 1966  
       130422 P6945    Hevea brasiliensis Malaysia 1986  
  P. citrophthora P 03E5      p132   Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2000 (Smith & Smith 1906)
    26H3      p31   n.a. n.a. n.a.  
  P. colocasiae SP 22F8   MYA-4159    p47   Colocasia esculenta n.a. 1992 (Raciborski 1900)
    35D3      p276   Colocasia esculenta Hawaii, USA 2005  
  P. himalsilva P 61G2 128767      T Quercus leucotricophora Nepal 2005 (Vettraino et al. 2011)
    61G3 128753      A Quercus Nepal 2005  
  P. meadii P 22G5   MYA-4043    p75   leucotricophora Citrus sp. India 1992 (McRae 1918)
    61J9 219.88   129185     Hevea brasiliensis India 1987  
  P. occultans SP 65B9 101557      T Buxus sempervirens The Netherlands 1998 (Man In’t Veld et al. 2015)
  P. terminalis SP 65B8 133865      T Pachysandra terminalis The Netherlands 2010 (Man In’t Veld et al. 2015)
  P. aff. citrophthora P 26H4      p32 A n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
       342898 P10341   A Syringa sp. England, UK 1990  
  P. aff. himalsilva P 61G4 128754      A Castanopsis sp. Nepal 2005 n.a.
  P. sp. 46C3 n.a. 46C3   66767   P6713 p385 A Hevea brasiliensis Malaysia n.a. n.a.
  P. sp. P6262 n.a.      P6262   A Hevea brasiliensis India n.a. n.a.
  P. sp. P6310 n.a.      P6310   A Theobroma cacao Indonesia n.a. n.a.
2b P. capsici P 22F4   15399, MYA-4034    p8 A Capsicum annum New Mexico, USA 1948 (Leonian 1922)
     121656 46012   P0253 P10386    Theobroma cacao Cucumis sativus Mexico Michigan, USA 1964 1997  
  P. glovera SP 31E5      p167 A Nicotiana tabacum Brazil n.a. (Abad et al. 2011)
    62B4 121969    P11685   T Nicotiana tabacum Brazil 1995  
  P. mengei SP 42B2   MYA-4554    p340 T Persea americana California, USA n.a. (Hong et al. 2009)
    42B3   MYA-4555    p341 A Persea americana California, USA n.a.  
  P. mexicana P 45G4 554.88 46731 92550 P0646 p355   Solanum lycopersicum Argentina n.a. (Hotson & Hartge 1923)
  P. siskiyouensis SP 41B7 122779 MYA-4187   P15122   T Stream water Oregon, USA 2003 (Reeser et al. 2007)
    41B8       A Soil Oregon, USA 2003  
  P. tropicalis P 22H5      p27   Vanila sp. Tahiti n.a. (Aragaki & Uchida 2001)
    35C8 434.91 76651, MYA-4218    p272 T Macadamia integrifolia Hawaii, USA n.a.  
  P. aff. capsici P 22F5   15427, MYA-4035    p9   Nicotiana tabacum North Carolina, USA n.a. n.a.
  P. sp. brasiliensis n.a.    46705   P0630   A Theobroma cacao Brazil 1969 (Oudemans & Coffey 1991)
2c P. acerina SP 61H1 133931      T Acer pseudoplatanus Italy 2010 (Ginetti et al. 2014)
    61H2       A Soil Italy 2010  
  P. capensis SP 62C1 128319    P1819   T Curtisia dentata South Africa n.a. (Bezuidenhout et al. 2010)
    62C2 128320    P1822   A Stream water South Africa n.a.  
    62C3 128321    P1823   A Olea campensis South Africa 1986  
  P. citricola SP 33H8 221.88 60440 21173 P0716 p396 T Citrus sinensis Taiwan 1987 (Sawada 1927)
    33J2 295.29     p375 A Citrus sp. Japan 1929  
  P. multivora SP 55C5 124094      T Soil Western Australia, Australia 2007 (Scott et al. 2009)
  P. pachypleura SP 61H6       A Soil UK 2006 (Henricot et al. 2014)
    61H7    502404    T Acuba japonica UK 2008  
    61H8       A Soil UK 2009  
  P. pini SP 22F1   MYA-3656    p53 A Rhododendron sp. West Virginia, USA 1987 (Hong et al. 2011)
    45F1   64532    p343 T Pinus resinosa Minnesota, USA 1925  
  P. plurivora SP 22E9   MYA-3657    p101   Kalmia latifolia Western Australia, Australia 1998 (Jung & Burgess 2009)
    22F2      p52   Rhododendron sp. cv. “Olga Mezitt” New York, USA n.a.  
    33H9 379.61       Rhododendron sp. Germany 1958  
  P. sp. 22F3 SP 22F3      p33 A n.a. Ohio, USA n.a. n.a.
  P. sp. 28D1 SP 28D1      p119 A Fagus sylvatica New York, USA n.a. n.a.
    28D3      p121 A Fagus sylvatica New York, USA n.a.  
  P. sp. citricola VIII SP 27D9       A Unidentified leaf Hainan, China n.a. n.a.
  P. sp. pini-like SP 56G1       A Taxus sp. Pennsylvania, USA 2011 n.a.
  P. taxon emzansi SP 61F2       A Agathosma betulina South Africa 2005 (Bezuidenhout et al. 2010)
    61F3       A Agathosma betulina South Africa 2005  
2d P. bisheria SP 29D2        Rubus idaeus cv. Canby Wisconsin, USA 1989 (Abad et al. 2008)
    31E6 122081    P10117   T Fragaria ×ananassa North Carolina, USA 1999  
        P1620    Rhododendron sp. North Carolina, USA n.a.  
  P. elongata SP 33J3       A n.a. Australia 1995 (Rea et al. 2010)
    33J4       A n.a. Australia 1995  
    55C4 125799      T Soil Western Australia, Australia 2004  
  P. frigida P 47G6       A Eucalyptus smithi South Africa n.a. (Maseko et al. 2007)
    47G7       A Eucalyptus smithi South Africa n.a.  
    47G8       T Eucalyptus smithi South Africa 2001  
2e P. multivesiculata SP to NP 29E3 545.96    P10410   T Cymbidium sp. The Netherlands n.a. (Ilieva et al. 1998)
    30D4       A Cymbidium sp. The Netherlands n.a.  
  P. taxon aquatilis SP 38J5   MYA-4577     A Stream water Virginia, USA 2006 (Hong et al. 2012)
3 P. ilicis SP 23A7   56615, MYA-3897   P3939 p113   Ilex sp. Canada n.a. (Buddenhagen & Young 1957)
    34D6        Quercus sp. Germany 1999  
    62A7 114348      T Ilex aquifolium The Netherlands n.a.  
  P. nemorosa SP 28J3   MYA-4061    p141   Umbellularia californica California, USA n.a. (Hansen et al. 2003)
    41C4   MYA-2948    p320 T Lithocarpus densiflorus California, USA n.a.  
  P. pluvialis SP 60B3   MYA-4930     T Rainwater Oregon, USA 2008 (Reeser et al. 2013)
  P. pseudosyringae SP 30A8 111772 MYA-4222    p284 T Quercus robur Germany 1997 (Jung et al. 2003)
    30B1      Pp285 A Quercus robur Germany 1997  
  P. psychrophila SP 29J5 803.95      T Quercus robur Germany 1995 (Jung et al. 2002)
    29J6   MYA-4083    p288 A Quercus ilex France 1996  
4 P. alticola P 47G5 121939    P16948   A Eucalyptus dunnii South Africa n.a. (Maseko et al. 2007)
  P. arenaria P 55C2 127950      T Soil Western Australia, Australia 2009 (Rea et al. 2011)
    62B7 125800      A Soil Western Australia, Australia 2009  
  P. megakarya P 22H7   MYA-4040    p42   Theobroma cacao Africa n.a. (Brasier & Griffin 1979)
    61J5 238.83 42100 202077    T Theobroma cacao Cameroon n.a.  
    61J6 239.83 42099 106327    A Theobroma cacao Nigeria n.a.  
  P. palmivora P 22G8   MYA-4039   P10213 p65   Citrus sp. Florida, USA n.a. (Butler 1910)
    22G9   MYA-4038    p26   Theobroma cacao Costa Rica n.a.  
  P. quercetorum P 15C7        Soil South Carolina, USA 1997 (Balci et al. 2008)
    15C8        Soil South Carolina, USA 1997  
  P. quercina P 30A4 783.95      A Quercus robur Germany 1995 (Jung et al. 1999)
    30A5 784.95 MYA-4084     T Quercus robur Germany 1995  
    30A7        Quercus sp. Serbia 2003  
  P. sp. ohioensis n.a.      P16050   A Soil Ohio, USA 2006 n.a.
5 P. agathidicida P 67D5       T Agathis australis New Zealand 2006 (Weir et al. 2015)
  P. castaneae P 22H6   MYA-4060    p45   Castanea sp. Japan n.a. (Katsura 1976)
    30E7        Soil Hainan, China n.a.  
    61J7 587.85 36818 325914    T Soil Taiwan n.a.  
  P. cocois P 67D6       T Cocos nucifera Hawaii, USA 1990 (Weir et al. 2015)
  P. heveae P 22J1    180616   p28 T Heavae sp. Malaysia n.a. (Thompson 1929)
    22J2   16701, MYA-3895    p17   soil Tennessee, USA 1964  
6a P. gemini NP 46H1 123382      A Zostera marina The Netherlands 1999 (Man in’t Veld et al. 2011)
    46H2 123383      A Zostera marina The Netherlands 1999  
  P. humicola NP 32F8 200.81 52179, MYA-4080   P3826 p198 T Soil Taiwan 1976 (Ko & Ann 1985)
    32F9     P6702 p199 A Phaseolus vulgaris Taiwan n.a.  
  P. inundata NP 30J3    390121   p291 T Olea sp. Spain 1996 (Brasier et al. 2003b)
    30J4    389751   p298 T Salix matsudana UK 1972  
        P8619    Pistacia vera Iran n.a.  
  P. rosacearum NP 22J9   MYA-3662    p82 A Prunus sp. California, USA 1987 (Hansen et al. 2009)
    41C1      p321 A Prunus sp. California, USA n.a.  
    47J1   MYA-4456     T Malus domestica California, USA n.a.  
  P. sp. 48H2 NP 48H2       A Stream water Virginia, USA 2008 n.a.
  P. sp. 62C9 NP 62C9       A Stream water Taiwan 2013 n.a.
  P. sp. personii n.a.      P11555   A Nicotiana tabacum North Carolina, USA n.a. n.a.
  P. taxon walnut NP 40A7       A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2006 (Brasier et al. 2003a)
    43G1       A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2007  
6b P. amnicola NP 61G6 131652      T Stream water Western Australia, Australia 2009 (Crous et al. 2012)
    62C5 133867       Pachysandra sp. The Netherlands n.a. ]
  P. bilorbang NP 61G8 131653      T Soil Western Australia, Australia 2010 (Aghighi et al. 2012)
  P. borealis NP 60B2 132023 MYA-4881     T Stream water Alaska, USA 2008 (Hansen et al. 2012)
  P. crassamura NP 66C9       A Picea abies Italy 2012 (Scanu et al. 2015)
    66D1 140357      T Soil Italy 2011  
  P. fluvialis NP 55B6 129424      T Stream water Western Australia, Australia 2009 (Crous et al. 2011)
  P. gibbosa NP to SP 55B7       A Soil Western Australia, Australia 2009 (Jung et al. 2011)
    62B8 127951      T Soil Western Australia, Australia 2009  
  P. gonapodyides NP 21J5   46726    p117   Water England, UK n.a. (Buisman 1927, Petersen 1910)
    34A8 554.67 60351   P6872    Reservoir water n.a. 1967  
  P. gregata NP 55B8       A Soil Western Australia, Australia 2009 (Jung et al. 2011)
    62B9 127952      T Soil Western Australia, Australia 2009  
  P. lacustris NP 61D6       A Soil Germany 2003 (Nechwatal et al. 2013)
    61D8       A Soil Germany 2003  
   NP 61E1       A Soil Germany 2006  
       389725 P10337   T Salix matsudana England, UK 1972  
  P. litoralis NP 55B9 127953      T Soil Western Australia, Australia 2008 (Jung et al. 2011)
  P. megasperma NP 62C7 402.72 58817 32035 P3599   T Althaea rosea Washington DC, USA 1931 (Drechsler 1931)
  P. mississippiae NP to SP 57J1       A Irrigation water Mississippi, USA 2012 (Yang et al. 2013)
    57J2       A Irrigation water Mississippi, USA 2012  
    57J3   MYA-4946     T Irrigation water Mississippi, USA 2012  
    57J4       A Irrigation water Mississippi, USA 2012  
  P. ornamentata NP 66D2 140647      T Soil Italy 2012 (Scanu et al. 2015)
    66D3       A Soil Italy 2012  
  P. pinifolia NP 47H1 122924      T Pinus radiata Chile 2007 (Duran et al. 2008)
    47H2 122922      A Pinus radiata Chile 2007  
  P. riparia NP 60B1 132024 MYA-4882     T Stream water Oregon, USA 2006 (Hansen et al. 2012)
  P. thermophila NP 55C1 127954      T Soil Western Australia, Australia 2004 (Jung et al. 2011)
  P. ×stagnum NP 36H8       A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2006 (Yang et al. 2014c)
    36J7       A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2006  
    43F3   MYA-4926     T Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2007  
    44F9       A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2007  
  P. sp. 26E1 NP 26E1      p116 A Malus domestica New York, USA n.a. n.a.
  P. sp. canalensis n.a.      P10456   A Canal water California, USA 2002 n.a.
  P. sp. delaware NP 63H4       A Pond water Delaware, USA 2014 n.a.
    63H7       A Pond water Delaware, USA 2014  
  P. sp. gregata-like NP 22J5   16698    p16 A n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
  P. sp. megasperma-like NP 23A1      p81 A Prunus sp. California, USA n.a. n.a.
    23A3   MYA-3660    p79 A Actinidia chinensis California, USA 1987  
6 P. asparagi NP 33D7    384046    A Asparagus officinalis New Zealand 1980 (Crous et al. 2012)
    62C4 132095 MYA-4826     T Asparagus officinalis Michigan, USA 2006  
  P. sp. sulawesiensis n.a.      P6306   A Syzygium aromaticum Indonesia 1989 n.a.
7a P. attenuata NP 67C5       T Soil Taiwan 2013 (Jung et al. 2017)
  P. europaea NP 30A3        Quercus sp. France 1998 (Jung et al. 2002)
    34C2        Quercus sp. Germany 1999  
    62A2 109049      T Soil France 1998  
  P. flexuosa NP 67C3       T Soil Taiwan 2013 (Jung et al. 2017)
  P. formosa NP 67C4       T Soil Taiwan 2013 (Jung et al. 2017)
  P. fragariae NP 22G6   11374   P3570 p114   Fragaria ×ananassa Maryland, USA n.a. (Hickman 1940)
    30C5        Fragaria ×ananassa Virginia, USA n.a.  
    61J3 209.46   181417 P6231   T Fragaria ×ananassa England, UK n.a.  
  P. intricata NP 67B9       T Soil Taiwan 2013 (Jung et al. 2017)
  P. rubi NP 30D7      p186 A Rubus sp. Australia n.a. (Man in ‘t Veld 2007)
    41D5        Rubus sp. Norway 2005  
    46C7   90442    p389 T Rubus idaeus cv. “Glen Clova” Scotland, UK n.a.  
  P. uliginosa NP 62A3 109054    P10413   T Soil Poland 1998 (Jung et al. 2002)
    62A4 109055    P10328   A Soil Germany 1998  
  P. ×alni NP 32J6 392317 MYA-4081    p205 A Alnus glutinosa France 1996 (Brasier et al. 2004, Husson et al. 2015)
    32J7 392318     p206 A Alnus sp. Austria 1996  
    47A7    392314    T Alnus sp. UK 1994  
    47A8       A Alnus sp. The Netherlands n.a.  
  P. ×cambivora NP 22F6   46719, MYA-4076    p64   Abies sp. Oregon, USA n.a. (Buisman 1927, Jung et al. 2017)
    26F8   MYA-4075    p38   n.a. New York, USA n.a.  
  P. ×heterohybrida NP 67C1       T Stream water Taiwan 2013 (Jung et al. 2017)
  P. ×incrassata NP 67C2       T Stream water Taiwan 2013 (Jung et al. 2017)
  P. sp. europaea SW NP 33F7      p229 A Soil West Virginia, USA 2005 n.a.
7b P. asiatica NP 45G1   90455    p352 A Robinia pseudoacacia Jiangsu, China n.a. (Rahman et al. 2014a)
    46C6   56194    p388 A Robinia pseudoacacia Jiangsu, China n.a.  
    61H3 133347      T Pueraria lobata Japan 2005  
  P. cajani NP 33D9      p214   Cajanus cajani India n.a. (Amin et al. 1978)
    45F6   44389    p348 A Cajanus cajani India n.a.  
    45F7   44388   P3105 p349 T Cajanus cajani India n.a.  
  P. melonis NP 32F6   MYA-4079   P1371 p196 A Cucumis sativus China n.a. (Katsura 1976)
    41B4      p318 A Cucumis sativus Iran n.a.  
    45F3 582.69 52854     T Cucumis sativus Japan n.a.  
  P. niederhauserii NP 01D5      p312 A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2000 (Abad et al. 2014)
    23J6   MYA-4163    p57 A Unknown ornamental Israel n.a.  
    31E7     P10617 p169 A Thuja occidentalis North Carolina, USA 2001  
  P. pisi NP 60A4       T Pea Sweden 2009 (Heyman et al. 2013)
    60A5       A Pea Sweden 2009  
  P. pistaciae NP 33D6   MYA-4082 386658   p216 T Pistacia vera Iran 1986 (Mirabolfathy et al. 2001)
    41A9      p314 A Pistacia vera Iran n.a.  
  P. sojae NP 22D8 312.62 16705, MYA-3899 131375   p19   Glycine max Ontario, Canada 1959 (Kaufmann & Gerdemann 1958)
    28F9      p236   Glycine max Mississippi, USA 1970  
  P. vignae NP 45G6   46735    p357 A Glycine max n.a. n.a. (Purss 1957)
    45G9   64832 316196 P3420 p379   Vigna unguiculata Sri Lanka n.a.  
    46C1 112.76 64129    p380   Vigna sinensis n.a. n.a.  
7c P. cinnamomi NP 23B1   15400, MYA-4057    p10   Camellia japonica South Carolina, USA n.a. (Rands 1922)
    23B2   15401, MYA-4058    p11   Persea americana Puerto Rico 1960  
    61J1 144.22 46671 22938 P2110   T Cinnamomum burmannii Indonesia 1922  
  P. parvispora NP 30G9   MYA-4078    p178 A Beaucarnea sp. Germany 1991 (Scanu et al. 2014)
    46F6       A Beaucarnea sp. Germany 1992  
    66C7 132771      A Arbutus unedo Italy 2008  
    66C8 132772      T Arbutus unedo Italy 2011  
  P. sp. ax NP 46H5       A Ilex glabra cv. “Shamrock” Virginia, USA 2008 n.a.
7d P. fragariaefolia NP 61H4 135747      T Fragaria ×ananassa Japan 2005 (Rahman et al. 2014b)
  P. nagaii NP 61H5 133248      T Rosa sp. Japan 1968 (Rahman et al. 2014b)
8a P. cryptogea NP 61H9 113.19   180615 P1738   T Solanum lycopersicum Ireland n.a. (Pethybridge & Lafferty 1919)
  P. drechsleri NP 15E5        Soil South Carolina, USA 1997 (Tucker 1931)
    15E6        Soil South Carolina, USA 1998  
    23J5 292.35 46724   P1087 p41 T Beta vulgaris var. altissima California, USA n.a.  
        P10331    Gerbera jamesonii New Hampshire, USA 2003  
  P. erythroseptica NP 61J2 129.23   34684 P1693   T Solanum tuberosum Ireland n.a. (Pethybridge 1913)
  P. medicaginis NP 23A4   MYA-3900    p37   Medicago sativa Ohio, USA n.a. (Hansen & Maxwell 1991)
    28F1   44390   P1057 p124   Medicago sativa California, USA 1975  
  P. pseudocryptogea NP    52402   P3103    Solanum marginatum Ecuador n.a. (Safaiefarahani et al. 2015)
  P. richardiae NP 31E8     P10355 p170   Zantedeschia sp. Japan 1989 (Buisman 1927)
    45 F5 240.30 60353, 46734 325930   p347 T Zantedeschia aethiopica USA n.a.  
        P10811    Zantedeschia aethiopica Japan 1989  
  P. sansomeana NP 47H3   MYA-4455     T Glycine sp. Indiana, USA n.a. (Hansen et al. 2009)
    47H4       A Glycine sp. Indiana, USA n.a.  
    47H5       A Glycine sp. Indiana, USA n.a.  
  P. trifolii NP 29B2   MYA-3901    p142 A Trifolium vesiculosum Mississippi, USA 1978 (Hansen & Maxwell 1991)
    62A9 117687      T Trifolium sp. Mississippi, USA n.a.  
  P. aff. cryptogea NP 22G2 308.62 15402, MYA-4161 325907   p12   Aster sp. California, USA n.a. n.a.
  P. aff. erythroseptica NP 22J4   MYA-4041    p50   n.a. Ohio, USA n.a. n.a.
    33A1      p207   Solanum tuberosum Maine, USA 2004  
  P. sp. kelmania NP 24A7   MYA-4162    p102 A Abies concolor West Virginia, USA 1998 n.a.
    31E4     P10613 p166 A Abes fraseri North Carolina, USA 2002  
8b P. brassicae SP 29D8 686.95      A Brassica oleracea The Netherlands 1995 (Man in’t Veld et al. 2002)
    61J8 179.87    P7517, P19521   T Brassica oleracea The Netherlands 1986  
  P. cichorii SP 62A8 115029      T Cichorium intybus var. foliosum The Netherlands 2004 (Bertier et al. 2013)
  P. dauci SP 61E5 127102      T Daucus carota France 2009 (Bertier et al. 2013)
    32E5        Duscus carota France 2004  
    32E6     P10728    Duscus carota France 2004  
    32E7      p194   Duscus carota France 2004  
  P. lactucae SP 61F4       T Lactuca sativa Greece 2001 (Bertier et al. 2013)
    61F7       A Lactuca sativa Greece 2002  
    61F8       A Lactuca sativa Greece 2003  
  P. primulae SP 29E9 620.97     p286   Primula acaulis Germany 1997 (Tomlinson 1952)
    29F1      p287   Primula sp. The Netherlands 1998  
  P. aff. brassicae-2 n.a.   112968    P6207   A Allium cepa Switzerland n.a. n.a.
  P. aff. cichorii SP 61E3 133815      A Cichorium intybus var. foliosum UK 1999 n.a.
  P. sp. 29E7 SP 29E7       A Allium porrum The Netherlands n.a. n.a.
  P. taxon castitis SP 61E7 131246      A Fragaria ×ananassa Sweden 1995 (Bertier et al. 2013)
  P. taxon parsley SP 61G1       A Petroselinum crispum Greece 2006 (Bertier et al. 2013)
8c P. foliorum SP 49J8 121655 MYA-3638   P10974   T Rhododendron sp. Tennessee, USA 2004 (Donahoo et al. 2006)
  P. hibernalis SP 22H1 270.31 60352 36906 P6871 p115   Citrus sinensis Portugal 1931 (Carne 1925)
    32F7 114104 56353, MYA-3896 134760 P3822 p197   Citrus sinensis Western Australia, Australia 1958  
  P. lateralis NP to SP 22H9   MYA-3898    p51 A Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Oregon, USA n.a. (Tucker & Milbrath 1942)
    29A9   201856    p128   Chamaecyparis lawsoniana California, USA 1997  
  P. ramorum SP 32G2        Camellia japonica South Carolina, USA n.a. (Werres et al. 2001)
    33F2       Quercus agrifolia California, USA n.a.   
8d P. austrocedrae SP 41B5   MYA-4073    A Austrocedrus chilensis Argentina n.a. (Greslebin et al. 2007)  
    41B6 122911 MYA-4074    T Austrocedrus chilensis Argentina 2005   
  P. obscura SP 60E9 129273     T Soil Germany 1994 (Grünwald et al. 2012)  
    60F1      A Pieris sp. Oregon, USA 2009   
    60F2      A Kalmia latifolia Oregon, USA n.a.   
  P. syringae SP 21H9   34002 P0649 p187   Citrus sp. California, USA n.a. (Klebahn 1905)  
    23A6   MYA-3659   p35   n.a. New York, USA n.a.   
8 P. stricta NP 58A1   MYA-4944    T Irrigation water Mississippi, USA 2012 (Yang et al. 2014a)  
    58A2      A Irrigation water Mississippi, USA 2012   
    58A3      A Irrigation water Mississippi, USA 2012   
    58A4      A Irrigation water Mississippi, USA 2012   
9a (cluster 9a1) P. aquimorbida NP 40A6   MYA-4578    T Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2006 (Hong et al. 2012)  
    40E3      A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2006   
    44G9      A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2007   
  P. Chrysanthemi NP 61E9      A Chrysanthemum sp. Japan 1998 (Naher et al. 2011)  
    61F1 123163     T Chrysanthemum ×morifolium Japan 2000   
  P. hydrogena NP 44G8      A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2007 (Yang et al. 2014b)  
    46A3   MYA-4919    T Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2007   
    46A4      A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2007   
  P. hydropathica NP 05D1   MYA-4460   p366 T Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2000 (Hong et al. 2010)  
    5C11   MYA-4459   p365 A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2000   
  P. irrigata NP 04E4   MYA-4458   p335 A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2000 (Hong et al. 2008)  
    23J7   MYA-4457   p108 T Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2000   
    44E4      A Stream water Virginia, USA 2007   
  P. macilentosa NP 58A5      A Irrigation water Mississippi, USA 2012 (Yang et al. 2014a)  
    58A6      A Irrigation water Mississippi, USA 2012   
    58A7   MYA-4945    T Irrigation water Mississippi, USA 2012   
    58A8      A Irrigation water Mississippi, USA 2012   
  P. parsiana NP 47C3    395329   T Ficus carica Iran 1991 (Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa et al. 2008)  
  P. virginiana NP 40A9       A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2006 (Yang & Hong 2013)
    44G6       A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2007  
    46A2   MYA-4927     T Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2007  
  P. aff. parsiana G1 NP 47C7       A Pistacia vera Iran n.a. n.a.
    47C8       A Pistacia vera Iran n.a.  
       395328 P8618   A Pistacia vera Iran 1992  
  P. aff. parsiana G2 NP 47C5    395330    A Pistacia vera Iran 1992 n.a.
    47C6    395331    A Pistacia vera Iran 1992  
  P. aff. parsiana G3 NP 47D5       A Pistacia vera Iran n.a. n.a.
    47D8       A Pistacia vera Iran n.a.  
    47E1       A Pistacia vera Iran n.a.  
  P. sp. 35G4 NP 35G4       A Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2005 n.a.
  P. sp. 38D9 NP 38D9       A Dianthus caryophyllus Taiwan n.a. n.a.
  P. sp. 40J5 NP 40J5       A Unknown leaf in seawater Hainan, China n.a. n.a.
  P. sp. cuyabensis n.a.      P8213   A n.a. Ecuador 1993 n.a.
  P. sp. lagoariana NP 60B4     P8220   A n.a. Ecuador n.a. n.a.
    60B5     P8217   T n.a. Ecuador n.a.  
        P8223   A n.a. Ecuador 1993  
9a (cluster 9a2) P. macrochlamvdospora-G1 SP 33E1     P10264    Glycine max New South Wales, Australia n.a. (Irwin 1991)
        P10267    Glycine max New South Wales, Australia 1994  
  P. macrochlamvdospora -G2 SP 31E9    351473 P8017 p171   Glycine max Queensland, Australia n.a. (Irwin 1991)
    33D5 240.30 60353 340618     Zantedeschia aethiopica The Netherlands 1927  
  P. quininea NP 45F2 406.48 56964    p344 A Cinchona officinalis Peru n.a. (Crandall 1947)
    46C4 407.48 46733    p386 T Cinchona officinalis Peru n.a.  
9a (cluster 9a3) P. insolita NP 327E1   MYA-4077    p123   Waterfall water Hainan, China n.a. (Ann & Ko 1980)
    38E1 691.79 38789 288805    T Soil Taiwan 1980  
        P6703   A Soil Taiwan n.a.  
  P. polonica NP 40G9        Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2006 (Belbahri et al. 2006)
    43F9        Irrigation water Virginia, USA 2007  
    49J9     P15005   A Soil Poland 2006  
9b P. captiosa NP 46H6       A Eucalyptus saligna New Zealand 1999 (Dick et al. 2006)
    46H7     P10719   T Eucalyptus saligna New Zealand 1992  
    46H8       A Eucalyptus saligna New Zealand 2000  
        P10721   A Eucalyptus saligna New Zealand 1998  
  P. constricta NP to SP 55C3 125801      T Soil Western Australia, Australia 2006 (Rea et al. 2011)
  P. fallax NP 46J2     P10722   T Eucalyptus delegatensis New Zealand 1997 (Dick et al. 2006)
    46J3       A Eucalyptus nitens New Zealand 2000  
    46J5       A Eucalyptus nitens New Zealand 2000  
        P10725   A Eucalyptus fastigata New Zealand 2004  
10 P. boehmeriae P 45F9 291.29   180614 P6950   T Boehmeriae nivea Taiwan 1927 (Sawada 1927)
  P. gallica NP 50A1 111474    P16826   T Quercus robur France 1998 (Jung & Nechwatal 2008)
    61D5 111475    P16827   A Phragmites australis Germany 2004  
  P. gondwanensis P 22G7   MYA-3893      n.a. Ohio, USA n.a. (Crous et al. 2015)
  P. intercalaris NP 45B7 140632 TSD-7     T Stream water Virginia, USA 2007 (Yang et al. 2016)
    48A1       A Stream water Virginia, USA 2008  
    49A7 140631      A Stream water Virginia, USA 2009  
  P. kernoviae P 46C8     P10956 p390   Rhododendron ponticum England, UK 2004 (Brasier et al. 2005)
    46J6     P10681    Annona cherimola New Zealand 2002  
    46J8     P10671    Soil New Zealand 2003  
  P. morindae P 62B5 121982      T Morinda citrifolia var. citrifolia Hawaii, USA 2005 (Nelson & Abad 2010)
  P. sp. boehmeriae-like P 45F8 357.52 60173 32199 P1378 p350 A Citrus sinensis Argentina 1939 n.a.
n.a. P. Iilii NP   135746      T Lilium sp. Japan 1987 (Rahman et al. 2015)
outgroup Elongisporangium undulatum P   101728   337230 P10342   T Larix sp. Scotland, UK 1989 (Uzuhashi et al. 2010)
  Phytopythium vexans P   340.49 12194   P3980   T n.a. n.a. n.a. (de Cock et al. 2015)
  Halophytophthora fluviatilis P 57A9   MYA-4961     T Stream water Virginia, USA 2011 (Yang & Hong 2014)
  1. a Molecular (sub)clade as designated in Fig. 1
  2. b Names of taxa informally designated for the first time in this study are underlined.
  3. c Sporangial papillation: NP = non-papillate, P = papillate, and SP = semi-papillate.
  4. d Isolate identification abbreviations: CH, Chuanxue Hong laboratory at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia Beach, VA, USA; CBS, Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands; ATCC, American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA, USA; IMI, CABI Biosciences, UK; WPC, the World Phytophthora Genetic Resource Collection at University of California, Riverside, USA; MG, Mannon E. Gallegly laboratory at West Virginia University, USA. Local identifications of respective isolates are provided in Table S1.
  5. e Ex-types (T) or authentic (A) isolates (designated as representative isolates by the originators of the respective species).
  6. f n.a.= not available.