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The International Mycological Association: its history in brief with summaries of its International Mycological Congresses and diverse international relationships

Abstract

This history presents a review of International Mycological Association activities, its international congresses, and its relationships with regional mycological associations as well as with international organizations of other scientific disciplines. The IMA was organized in 1971 during the First Mycological Congress (IMC-1) convened at Exeter, U.K. In the period 1971 to 2010, nine international congresses have been held, each with its own organizational structure but under the guidance of one of the successive inter-Congress management groups of IMA officers and executive committee members. The congress list includes Exeter, U.K.; Tampa, U.S.A.; Tokyo, Japan; Regensburg, Germany; Vancouver, Canada; Jerusalem, Israel; Oslo, Norway; Cairns, Australia; and Edinburgh, Scotland. Inter-congress activities of each IMA executive group are summarized. The characteristics of each congress are surveyed as to organization, programming, attendance numbers, finances, and satellite meetings.

The IMA has sponsored the establishment of Regional Mycological Associations beginning in 1977 and has lent operational funding. Regional associations currently are functional and hold their own regional congresses in Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, and Latin America. The relationships of the IMA with other organizations recognized within the supra-national International Council of Scientific Unions are discussed.

Introduction

In past centuries it was common practice for a writer to preface his work with a page labeled “Apologia.” The usage was simply a defense of opinions, positions, or actions. The tone sometimes was flattering to an anticipated audience and often self-protective in style. Usually, however, it simply set the historical stage, the background, for the text.

The apologia offered for this historical survey of International Mycological Association activities, its congresses, and its scientific relationships is of that latter positioning sort. Essentially the entire presentation is derived from IMA Executive Committee correspondence, IMC Proceedings and Programs, professional IMA and non-IMA correspondence, widely-distributed Reports prepared by organizations other than the IMA, correspondence with representatives of such non-IMA entities, and related documentation. Entries rarely, but occasionally, are based on unrecorded conversations and informal notes.

My own involvement in the subject began with an exchange of letters with G. C. Ainsworth in 1967, before the IMA existed. This participation in IMA affairs has been continuous to the present. Other professional relationships that inform my input to the IMA story have been primarily through offices in the Mycological Society of America; participation for many years in activities and offices of the World Federation for Culture Collections; sometime member of the UNEP/UNESCO/ICRO Panel on Microbiology; and occasional participant and combatant in congresses of the International Association [later Union] of Microbiological Societies.

The Prologue of this History (Ch. 1, leading up to 1971) precedes summaries of IMC-1 (Exeter) and the activity of eight successive rosters of Officers and Executive Committees of the IMA. Each of the eight executive terms after IMC-1 (Exeter) is followed by an overview of its terminating International Mycological Congress, with IMC-9 (Edinburgh, 2010) in preview. Included also is a section on the Regional Mycological Associations that began functioning in 1977 and that have increased in numbers to become major activators of professional interest and development in several parts of the world.

It is inevitable that I pay more than routine attention to the period 1971–1977, which led up to IMC-2 (the Tampa congress), and to 1977–1983, when the structure and composition of several international biological entities were in a state of reorganization. I acted as Chairman of the International Delegates at IMC-1 (Exeter), functioned as a member of the proposal-initiating Steering Committee of IMC-1, and was Chairman of the Executive Committee of IMC-2 (Tampa) during its three years of organizing effort. In the 15+ years extending from pre-Exeter thru Tampa to Tokyo (1968–1983+), I was active, sometimes battered, in the biopolitical maneuvers associated with maintaining the IMA as the principal focus of mycological organization in the international picture, in contrast to the schismatic IAMS proposal to separate “taxonomic” mycology from other mycological subdisciplines.

Personal involvement has been spine-strengthening, sometimes amusing, often frustrating, professionally satisfying, and worth every minute of lost sleep. The scores of collegial friendships established through these years are cherished.

Professional titles and personal names; Acronyms; Acknowledgements (final page)

Use of professional titles and personal names

Professional titles (Dr., Prof.) sometimes appeared in supporting records but just as frequently were omitted. Personal names also appeared, or not, depending on the source document. In any case, nearly every name in the text has a Dr. or Prof. relationship (sometimes both), so titles are included in some places in the text, but usually are not. Personal names usually have been reduced to initial letters.

Chapter 1

Prologue (before IMC-1 Exeter 1971 and founding of IMA)

The focus of activity leading directly to the establishment of the International Mycological Association was one person, Dr. Geoffrey C. Ainsworth. His proposal to hold the First International Mycological Congress (IMC-1, Exeter, U.K., 1971) was strongly supported by professional societies and individual mycologists in the U.K. (initially by the British Mycological Society) and by national and regional mycological societies elsewhere. He chaired the Organizing Committee of IMC-1, which convened 8–15 September 1971. The Ainsworth career-long efforts to strengthen mycological activity and interests worldwide were recognized in his election in 1977 to life tenure as Honorary President of the IMA.

Records of IMC-1 show that on 11 September 1971 a formal meeting of 31 delegates from 16 countries plus 15 observers (E. G. Simmons, Chmn., U.S.A.) developed a resolution for consideration at the final plenary session of IMC-1. The resolution invited the members of the congress to vote to establish an International Mycological Association, to ratify the Draft Statutes that had been distributed widely among mycological constituents, and to support a slate of three officers proposed for the new association (C. J. Alexopoulos, President, U.S.A.; C. Booth, Secretary, U.K.; J. A. von Arx, Treasurer, The Netherlands). The approximately 750 IMC-registered mycologists, representing some 45 countries, approved the resolution. The International Mycological Association was formally established on 15 September 1971 during the final plenary session of IMC-1.

Events preliminary to the Exeter congress, the structure and program of the congress, and its plenary sessions that led to formation of the IMA were documented in a publication Proceedings of the First International Mycological Congress (Ainsworth, 1972.). Portions of this summary are abstracted elsewhere in this History in the context of a discussion of the first IMA congress itself.

The statutes and activities associated with the first set of IMA Officers and Executive Committee members also are considered elsewhere in a section devoted to the period 1971–1977, which led to the Second International Mycological Congress (IMC-2) in Tampa, Florida, U.S.A., in 1977.

A few remarks here serve to describe the international mycological atmosphere that prevailed during a few years that immediately preceded the establishment of the IMA. Before assembling an Executive Committee of British mycologists in 1969 to make arrangements for a congress, Dr. Ainsworth had taken great care to canvas the opinions and support of mycologists and mycological organizations worldwide. I was president of the Mycological Society of America for the term 1967–1968 and, at the time, a vocal mycological component of the World Federation for Culture Collections. Dr. Ainsworth contacted me with his plans. It is reassuring that comments shared with me by J. Webster (organizer of IMC-1) during the writing of this document coincide with my major recollections of the period.

Dr. Ainsworth was aware that shortly after our initial discussions (1969) I would be traveling in Japan and elsewhere in Asia. We agreed that I should arrange to meet with officers of the influential Mycological Society of Japan in order to pass on his views and to urge their contribution of views and support of an international organization to promote mycological interests. A most successful discussion in Tokyo revealed that the MSJ had similar concerns about the health of mycology as a discipline among sciences of international significance. The MSJ proposal, scarcely variant from the Ainsworth plan, was that a Federation of Mycological Societies be devised.

Knowing in 1969 that Ainsworth had support of at least four of the largest societies of professional mycologists (American, British, French, Japanese), the Council of the British Mycological Society invited C. T. Ingold to be President of a congress. Immediate steps were taken to establish an Executive Committee representing relevant British organizations and to enlist the help of a panel of 45 Corresponding Members who represented 40 countries and included representatives of at least 21 international or national mycological or lichenological societies or groups.

Ainsworth had been on the staff of the Botany Department of the University of Exeter for several years; and in 1967 John Webster had been appointed Head of the Department of Biological Sciences at Exeter, with the responsibility (beginning October 1969) of merging the earlier Departments of Botany and Zoology. The combination of Ainsworth heading an IMA movement and Webster organizing IMC-1 on his home campus proved decisively effective in its assurance of continuation of the IMA concept and of production of an outstanding congress. Both activities are considered in more detail below.

Before 1971, mycologists customarily programmed meetings in the context of International Botanical Congresses. However, this practice seldom lent itself to adequate consideration of mycological interests or to the aspirations of our rapidly developing, biologically unique field of interest. Disillusionment with the level of visibility within the botanical congress format was strong. Mycology had outgrown its traditional relationship with botany in both practical and scientific terms. At the same time mycologists were increasingly uncomfortable with the variable and therefore confusing definitions of the term “microbiology” then in use within the biological umbrella organization, the International Union of Biological Societies (IUBS). This led to an openly-declared intention by mycologists to segregate ourselves into an alliance that would be broadly inclusive of all mycological interests and that would organize our own international congresses.

Rumblings outside the general mycological community began to be heard in this pre-IMC-1 period. Plans to create an international entity such as the IMA, which would represent all of the numerous branches of mycological activity, were widely known through meetings of the British Mycological Association, the Mycological Society of America (MSA), and similar regional groups.

Inevitably, the pre-IMA plans were a subject of discussion among mycologists (largely of medical orientation) preceding and at the 1970 congress of the International Association of Microbiological Societies (IAMS) in Mexico City. In any case, 23 mycologists at the Mexico City assembly met and approved creation of a Mycology Section within the IAMS. The approval, however, was only in principle. Further organization was to be postponed until the International Mycological Congress that had been announced for 1971 in Exeter.

Correspondence from U.S.A. mycologists present at the IAMS congress in Mexico City addressed this subject of partitioning the discipline. The proposal that reached me, as recent President of MSA and as an active mycologist within the U.S. Federation for Culture Collections, suggested that “medical and experimental” mycology be segregated from “taxonomic” mycology, with the former to be assigned to the IAMS, the latter to the planned IMA. How this schismatic plan would be put into practice was not divulged. The concept has contaminated the IMA and IAMS (later IUMS) relationship ever since. Unsurprising to most mycologists of the period, and perhaps today, is a published history of the IAMS (Gibbons, 1974), which reports that at the Mexico City congress “Suggestions were made for officers [of a Mycology Section within the IAMS]… and after a lengthy correspondence all refused.”

Eventually a chairman for the IAMS Mycology Section was located and the section became functional. The histories of IMA and of the IAMS Mycology Section have been parallel for 40 years, each periodically holding its own international congress. Members of major specialist organizations such as the WFCC and ISHAM function readily in both mycological groups. But despite intermittent attempts to engineer rapprochement in terms of congress schedules and mutual programs, neither the IMA nor the IAMS Mycology Section has viewed its mandate as workably subordinate to the functions of the other group.

Chapter 2

IMC-1: 8–15 September 1971 — Exeter, Devon, U.K. Figs 1, 2

Fig. 1
figure1

IMC1 — Exeter (1971). A. C.T. Ingold. B. C. Booth. C. E.G. Simmons, M. Madelin, R. Campbell. D. G.C. Ainsworth. E. J.A. von Arx. F. F.E. Eckblad, C.J. Alexopoulos. G. J. Webster. H. E.G. Simmons. I. Campbell, E.G. Simmons, R. Campbell.

Fig. 2
figure2

IMC1 — Exeter (1971). A. Opening ceremony in the Great Hall; P.W. Brian, C.T. Ingold, M. McGahey (Sheriff), H.S. Sargent (Mayor), R. Heim, L.E. Hawker, E. Müller, A. Bresinsky, M. Ubrizsy, P.W. James, G. Gulden, J. Webster. B. M. Lisiewska, D.A. Reid. C. G. Banbury, R.T. Trinci. D. I.L. Gay. E. C.G.C. Chesters, F.E. Eckblad. F. C. Dickinson, P.H. Gregory. G. L.E. Hawker, C.K. Campbell, B. Della Torre. H. Gaertner, H.T. Tribe. I. O.L. Gilbert, G.C. Dobbs, A. Fletcher. J. Group photo. K. I. Colhoon, H.I. Hudson. L. M. Carlile, G. Butler. M. Mrs Dobbs, T.E. Hering. N. P.H. Gregory, R.R. Davies. O. Group photo.

In the autumn of 1969 the Council of the British Mycological Society acted on its decision to hold a first international congress by appointing an Executive Committee. Officers of IMC-1 were to be President C. T. Ingold and Executive Vice-Presidents P. W. Brian, P. H. Gregory, and L. E. Hawker. These officers were to be members ex officio of the Executive Committee.

The organization work was entrusted to additional members of the Executive Committee, with G. C. Ainsworth as Chairman, J. Webster (Secretary), J. G. Manners (Treasurer), and representatives of seven British societies and institutions with mycological interests. Represented were the British Lichen Society (P. W. James); the British Mycological Society (J. H. Burnett, H. O. W. Eggins, S. A. Hutchinson, J. L. Gay, E. B. Gareth Jones, R. L. Lucas, R. C. F. Macer, M. F. Madelin, D. Park, and D. Pitt); the British Society for Mycopathology (R. R. Davies); the Commonwealth Mycological Institute (C. Booth); the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh (D. M. Henderson); the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (D. A. Reid); and the Royal Society (J. L. Harley).

Ainsworth had recently retired from the Commonwealth Mycological Institute (later International Mycological Institute) and had moved to a village in Cornwall, just over 100 km from Exeter. He thus was able to make frequent trips to Exeter to help with plans. The Executive Committee held regular meetings in London and a few members of the committee met almost daily to discuss and resolve problems.

The burden of on-site preparation at Exeter remained with John Webster, wearing several hats in the process: Secretary of the Executive Committee (requiring regular trips to London for meetings), congress organizer and coordinator, and Program Chairman. Just under 45 years of age at the time, he records that he never had had the experience of attending an international congress and that, while attending to IMC-1 organization and program duties, he also was overseeing a merger of the Departments of Botany and Zoology as newly arrived Head of the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Exeter. A bonus of the Webster headship was the availability of a volunteer [?] workforce of recently qualified M.Sc. students in Plant Pathology, who were enlisted to help in numerous ways.

Guidance Principles Agreed for Organization of IMC-1

The main function of IMC-1 would be to provide for mycologists of all kinds and from all countries a meeting place where they could discuss and consider their mycological activities and problems.

The congress program should be based on a series of comprehensive symposia, without pronounced emphasis on or segregation into subgroups defined by applied mycological practice (medical, phytopathology) but with broad perspectives to provide material relevant to interests of all specialists.

A primary task of the congress would be to establish a professional organization whose main function would be to arrange for future congresses. The proposed organization would be either a Federation of Mycological Societies or an International Mycological Association with membership undefined by society affiliation.

Corresponding Members

Officially recognized Corresponding Members (45) represented 40 countries. They included members of at least 21 international or national mycological or lichenological societies or groups. Established societies that were represented at IMC-1 were:

Austria Oesterreichische Mykologische Gesellschaft
Canada Canadian Botanical Association — Mycology Section
Czechoslovakia Československá Mykologicka Společnost
  Československá vědecká Společnost pro mykologii
Denmark Foreningen til Svampekundskaben Fremme
Finland Suomen Sieniseura-Finlands Svampvänner
France Société Mycologique de France
German Federal Republic Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pilzekunde
Hungary Magyar Mikológiai Társaság
Japan Mycological Society of Japan
Mexico Sociedad Mexicana de Micologia
Netherlands Nederlandse Mycologische Vereniging
Norway Norsk Soppforening
Switzerland Schweizerischer Verein für Pilzkunde
U.K. British Mycological Society
  British Lichen Society
  British Society for Mycopathology
U.S.A. Mycological Society of America

Attendance

Total attendance was 950, including 109 student members and 114 spouses. Some 45 countries were represented, including Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Eire, Estonian S.S.R., Finland, German Democratic Republic, German Federal Republic, Ghana, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Lesotho, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Papua-New Guinea, Poland, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Trinidad, U.K., U.S.A., U.S.S.R., Uruguay, Yugoslavia.

Plenary Sessions of the Congress

The scientific program activities of the congress were bracketed between a First and a Final Plenary Session. During the first plenary session President Ingold appointed a Steering Committee with duties related to resolutions to be presented at the final session. Appointed and later co-opted members of the committee were G. C. Clark (Ghana), J. M. Dingley (New Zealand), Y. Kobayashi (Japan), R. P. Korf (U.S.A.), M. Moser (Austria), E. Müller (Switzerland), J. A. Nannfeldt (Sweden), J. Nicot (France), E. G. Simmons (U.S.A.), the Chairman of the Executive Committee (G. C. Ainsworth, U.K.), and the Secretary of the Congress (J. Webster). The Steering Committee met three times during the congress.

Following the opening formalities and business of the First Plenary Session, President Ingold delivered his Presidential Address “The Advance of Mycology” (Ingold, 1972).

The Final Plenary Session, as the terminating function of the IMC-1 and the founding occasion of the International Mycological Association, was chaired by President Ingold. The main business of the session was presentation of a set of Resolutions, all of which were passed by congress vote.

Resolutions of the First International Mycological Congress

  1. I.

    This Congress agrees:

    1. (1)

      That an International Mycological Association (IMA) be formed with the object of encouraging mycology in all its branches, in particular internationally by promoting Mycological Congresses and by liaison with other international bodies having mycological interests.

    2. (2)

      That the Constitution of the IMA be based on the Draft Statutes as printed in the Congress Programme. (See Chapter 21, Statutes of the IMA. The Draft Statutes of 1971 occupied about 1.5 printed pages in their original form.)

    3. (3)

      That the first three Officers of the IMA be:

      President: Prof. C. J. Alexopoulos (U.S.A.)
      Secretary: Dr. C. Booth (U.K.)
      Treasurer: Dr. J. A. von Arx (Netherlands)
    4. (4)

      That the first three Officers be instructed to invite Membership as defined in the Draft Statutes (Membership I a, I b).

    5. (5)

      That the Executive Committee of the IMA should then decide on the value to be given to the subscription unit and make any necessary modifications in the Draft Statutes so that Statutes in a final form can be submitted to the first General Assembly of the IMA on the occasion of the Second International Mycological Congress.

    6. (6)

      That the IMA seeks recognition by the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) as the Section of Mycology in the Division of Botany.

    7. (7)

      General Resolutions on modification of the Constitution and IMA dissolution.

    The Constitution of the IMA can be modified only by a majority of members present at a General Assembly. Any proposed modifications must be received by the Secretary-General at least six months before the Assembly and shall be circulated to societies and groups at least three months before the Assembly. In case of urgency the Executive Committee has the right to modify the Constitution until the following General Assembly which shall approve or reject the changes.

    A motion to dissolve the IMA must be approved by a two-thirds majority of those present at a General Assembly, who must represent at least half of the affiliated societies and groups. If the IMA is dissolved any funds are to be used for scientific purposes in the field of mycology.

  2. II.

    This Congress resolves that the International Mycological Association be advised of the earnest desire of mycologists interested in nomenclature for the formation of a Standing Nomenclature Committee of the IMA

  3. III.

    This Congress draws the attention of the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) and governments to the scientific and economic importance of regional mycological herbaria and culture collections, and recommends the support of such services in all countries.

  4. IV.

    This Congress agrees with the objectives of the World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) as set forth in its statutes.

    However, recognizing the problems inherent in the working of such an international federation of culture collections under the sponsorship of only the Division of Microbiology of the IUBS which does not represent all the disciplines concerned, this Congress resolves:

    1. (1)

      That immediate steps be taken to include in the WFCC representatives of all the pertinent Divisions of the IUBS.

    2. (2)

      That proposed agendas for meetings of the General Assembly of the WFCC and minutes of meetings of the Executive Board and of the WFCC be published in journals representing all relevant disciplines.

    3. (3)

      That affiliation with the WFCC be available to any culture collection regardless of its ability or willingness to supply detailed information regarding its accessions.

  5. V.

    It has become increasingly clear that there is an urgent need to facilitate communication in the field of mycotoxins. This Congress, therefore, requests the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization to improve the means of interdisciplinary communication in this connexion.

  6. VI.

    This Congress has demonstrated the growing importance of Mycology for the benefit of human welfare, for example, in fields of fungal diseases of man, animals and plants, food production, detoxification of organic compounds, and ecological balance. In order to meet further requirements, this Congress asks Governments to support basic and applied mycological research. To ensure this, mycological training should be expanded and research work encouraged.

Steering Committee evaluations that were too negative to become proposals

Resolutions voted by a congress usually represent positive results of behind-the-scenes committee discussions. In other cases the debates of a resolutions committee may never reach the attention of the voting assembly, simply because a reaction or decision has been overwhelmingly negative. Such was the case with the pre-IMA Steering Committee in its approach to the vexatious international relationships of mycology as an inclusive discipline within an incipient IMA.

In brief, proposals were heard at Exeter that the IMA should establish itself as a subordinate unit within the International Association of Microbiological Societies. The 1971 Steering Committee devoted extensive attention to the idea, in that the Secretary-General of IAMS had been permitted to hold a session on the subject at Exeter. The committee discussion was unrestrained and to the point. Affiliation with the IAMS, as proposed, could not muster a single supporting voice; the response in fact was totally negative. The Steering Committee, with its array of international viewpoints, recognized that such an affiliation would be adverse to the basic concept and function ofan International Mycological Association.

Scientific Program

The congregation of large numbers of mycologists at an international meeting has at least three major purposes: Plenary sessions, at which the professional and global interests of mycology are addressed; a Scientific Program, in which the widest range of professional experience is voiced; and the off-hours that surround plenary and program sessions, when mycologists of every persuasion and degree of experience can meet, face to face, and discuss their projects and problems.

The scientific program at IMC-1 comprised General Lectures by distinguished colleagues, Symposia with invited speakers, and Sessions of offered papers related to symposium topics. Four General Lectures were presented:

  • Prof. P. W. Brian The economic value of fungi

  • Prof. T. S. Sadasivan Fungi and deranged host physiology

  • Prof. R. Emerson Mycological relevance, 1971

  • Prof. N. Fries Effects of volatile organic compounds on the growth and development of fungi

Congress symposia covered 42 topics with 348 papers presented. Offered papers that could not be accommodated within the time allotment of symposia were given in five afternoon sessions with a total of 54 presentations. Twenty-five films were shown in four evening sessions. The Executive Committee arranged 21 Special Meetings, some of which merited resolutions that were later offered to the Final Plenary Session.

The entire program, with speakers’ names and paper titles, was published in the Proceedings of the congress (Ainsworth, 1972). Names of the conveners and chairpersons of the sessions were a register of well-connected and knowledgeable mycologists able to organize the attendance of speakers prominent in the areas treated at the congress. The major symposium headings documented the broad range of mycological research and practice of the time, including Structure and Morphogenesis, Cytology and Genetics, Taxonomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Industrial and Applied Mycology, Ecology, Symbiosis and Pathogenicity, Crop Pathogens, Cytogenetics, Physiology, Soil Fungi.

Film Presentations: 25 films on a variety of subjects showing motility or progressive development were shown in four evening sessions.

Slide Shows: On two evenings, concurrently with film shows, there were sessions for the informal showing of slides, which included examples of the largerfungi of America, Europe, and New Zealand, myxomycetes, and lichens.

Special Meetings, arranged by the Executive Committee, were convened for group or panel discussions of a variety of topics of concern to the mycological community. Some of these special meetings resulted in resolutions presented at the Final Plenary Session. Subjects included:

  • Culture collections

  • Herbaria and their management

  • Mycological education

  • Mycological nomenclature

  • Retrieval of mycological information

  • Biocoenotic relationships

  • I.B.P. Aerobiology theme reports

  • Fungal nucleic acids: state of the art

  • Phytophthora

  • Breeding, biology, and taxonomy of the genus Coprinus

  • Conidium ontogeny: is it the key to a new systematics of the Fungi Imperfecti?

  • Taxonomy of operculate Discomycetes

  • International aspects of plant quarantine

  • Fruiting body initiation and development in higher fungi

  • Taxonomy, genetics, and biology of Botryotinia and Botrytis

  • Prospects in experimental mycological research

  • Informal discussion on fungi on insects Round table discussion to aid the development of a suitable terminology for the organelles at the poles of mitotic spindles in fungi

  • Downy mildew fungi

  • Life-history of Oomycetes in relation to cytogenetic studies

  • Spore liberation in fungi

International Association of Microbiological Societies

The first meeting of the Mycology Section of IAMS was held on the evening of 10 September 1971. This meeting was scheduled at the request of and as a courtesy to the Secretary-General of the IAMS, who was present. The agenda was a proposal that the IMA, or a significant portion of IMA, should become a unit of IAMS rather than to organize itself as a stand-alone organization with its own broad interests. This meeting was well attended. Discussion was heated, sometimes hostile, and the reaction to the IAMS proposal of partition within the mycology discipline totally negative. (See Congress Steering Committee evaluations above.)

Forays and Social Events

A Precongress Foray based at Davos, Switzerland, was arranged by E. Horak and E. Müller for 27 August to 3 September. There were more than 50 participants.

The British Lichen Society organized a Precongress Lichen Field Excursion, based on Ilfracombe, North Devon, U.K., from 1 to 5 September. There were 28 participants.

On Wednesday 8 September, the City of Exeter and the University of Exeter held a reception for the congress in Devonshire House. On Saturday 11 September a reception for the congress was given in Devonshire House by the British Mycological Society, the British Lichen Society, and the British Society for Mycopathology.

In the evening of Sunday 12 September the Darlington String Quartet gave a concert of quartets by Haydn, Britten, and Schubert in the Northcott Theatre.

Four all-day excursions were arranged for Sunday 12 September. These were to Saltram House (Plymouth) and Buckland Abbey, both via Dartmoor; to Exmoor; and to Chesil Beach and Maiden Castle.

Financial Considerations of IMC-1

Budgeting for IMC-1 was based entirely on expected attendance subscriptions, without reliance on potential donations. In the event, donations totaling £1526.50 arrived from numerous industrial sources in the U.K. and from the International Plant Pathology Congress. As working capital, a total of £2500 was available in loans from the British Mycological Society, the Royal Society, and the International Union of Biological Sciences.

The total turnover of congress funds was about £34,000, yielding a surplus of about £2,500 after repayment of loans. At its final meeting, the Executive Committee of the congress decided that £2,000 should be given to the International Mycological Association and £500 to the International Association for Lichenology. Any residual funds on closing of the congress bank account were to be given to the IMA. (The £34,000 turnover of congress funds in 1971 was the equivalent of about £340,000 in 2008 (U.K. retail price index). The 1971 £1 had an exchange rate of about US$2.40, giving a very approximate congress cost of $70,000 at 1971 rates (not including repaid loans and surplus funds given to IMA and IAL).

Congress Papers

The major source of information about IMC-1 and the Plenary Sessions associated with formation of the IMA was the Proceedings authored by G. C. Ainsworth and published as a Supplement to volume 58 of the Transactions of the British Mycological Society (Ainsworth, 1972). Mimeographed details of the sessions and an address list of registrants were issued at the congress itself. A volume of abstracts of symposium contributions was distributed; it did not constitute formal publication of its contents. A unique effort took the form of an International Mycological Directory, which was assembled by Ainsworth and was published for the congress by the Commonwealth Mycological Institute; each registrant received a copy of the directory. Copies of the Programme, the Abstracts, the Directory, and the Proceedings of IMC-1 as well as a volume of photographs taken at IMC-1 are held in the Archives of the British Mycological Society, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K.

International Mycological Directory

In making arrangements for the First International Mycological Congress, Corresponding Members of the Executive Committee and national mycological societies were asked to supply information about the organization of mycology in their own countries or regions. The Executive Committee decided to publicize the data in the form of a Directory. The result was far from comprehensive but proved to be a major platform for further communication among mycologists worldwide.

The Directory comprised lists of organizations and institutions relevant to mycological interests, often with names and addresses of current officers or staff, and sometimes with comments on the nature of group relationships with mycological interests as they existed just prior to formation of the IMA.

Chapter 3

IMA 1971–1977: between IMC-1 Exeter and IMC-2 Tampa

The management structure of IMA affairs was established under Resolutions of the First International Mycological Congress accepted at IMC-1, Exeter, 15 September 1971. Overall authority was assigned to a General Assembly, which was to meet to consider IMA business on the occasion of each international mycological congress. The IMA President was to be convenor of the General Assembly, which was to have no continuing responsibility between congresses.

The inter-congress administrative body of the IMA for the period 1971–1977 was established in accord with the same IMC-1 Resolutions. There were to be Officers and an Executive Committee with interim responsibilities. The first three Officers of the IMA were named by action of the IMC-1 Final Plenary Session.

  • President: Prof. C. J. Alexopoulos (U.S.A.)

  • Secretary: Dr. C. Booth (U.K.)

  • Treasurer: Dr. J. A. von Arx (Netherlands)

Other officers and members of an Executive Committee were chosen subsequently in line with other resolutions of the new IMA Constitution, which permitted appointments in any interval between congresses. Guidelines were that:

The Officers would comprise a President, two to four Vice Presidents, a Secretary-General and a Treasurer. Officers (after IMC-1) were to be elected by the General Assembly on the nomination of the Executive Committee.

The Executive Committee would be composed of:

  1. (a)

    one representative nominated by each affiliated national or international society or group;

  2. (b)

    co-opted members (not more than six in number) who are elected by the Executive Committee for four years and are not immediately eligible for re-election;

  3. (c)

    the Officers.

The Officers and Executive Committee members who functioned between IMC-1 and IMC-2 (1971–1977)were:

President: C. J. Alexopoulos (U.S.A.)
Secretary: C. Booth (U.K.)
Treasurer: J. A. von Arx (Netherlands)
Vice-Presidents:  
  R. J. Heim (France)
  Y. Kobayasi (Japan)
  A. Pilát (Czechoslovakia)
  C. V. Subramanian (India)
Executive Committee:  
  IMA Officers, ex officio, and
  O. Fidalgo, Chairman (Brazil)
  R. F. Cain (Canada)
  J. M. Dingley (New Zealand)
  J. A. Ekundayo (Nigeria)
  R. Emerson (U.S.A.)
  K. Esser (German Federal Republic)
  I. Gamundí de Amos (Argentina)
  G. Guzmán (Mexico)
  R. C. F. Macer (U.K.)
  F. Mangenot (France)
  E. Parmasto (Estonian S.S.R.)
  H. J. Phaff (U.SA)
  K. S. Thind (India)
  K. Tubaki (Japan)
  J.H. Warcup (Australia)
  G. C. A. van der Westhuizen (South Africa)

The foundation argument of the International Mycological Association in 1971 was simple but firm. It has remained essentially unchanged to date. Specifically: “The object of the IMA is the encouragement of mycology in all its branches, particularly international aspects, by promoting International Mycological Congresses and by liaison with other international bodies having mycological interests.”

The first communication from officers of IMA appeared in an IMA Newsletter that was undated but, from internal evidence, was in 1972. An introductory page, unsigned but almost certainly written by Alexopoulos, reemphasized the IMA mission statement: “The International Mycological Association has a duty to enhance the international co-operation in all branches of mycology. One important aspect of this co-operation is to welcome individuals or groups from small or isolated countries where no mycological society exists into the IMA…”

This Newsletter introduction continued with an expectation that the major mycological societies in the world would support the ambitions of IMA and would engage in mycological activities across international boundaries. A key hope was that societies and individuals on an international scale would co-operate in the organization of the Second International Mycological Congress.

Approaches to groups with specific mycological concerns in the IMA concept resulted in a register of 15 affiliated organizations as early as 1972. These included:

  • Botanical Society of Edinburgh

  • British Lichen Society

  • British Mycological Society

  • Czechoslovak Scientific Society for Mycology

  • Gruppo Micologico “Giacomo Bresadola” (Trento, Italy)

  • Indian Mycological Society

  • Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, Muséum

  • National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France)

  • Mycological Society of America

  • Mycological Society of Japan

  • Mycological Society of Korea

  • Nederlandse Mycologische Vereniging

  • Schweizerischer Verein für Pilzkunde

  • Sociedad Argentina de Botánica

  • South African Society for Plant Pathology and Microbiology

  • Unione Micologica Italiana

Activities and Concerns of IMA Officers and Executive 1971–1977

The professional files of President C. J. Alexopoulos were sealed and archived at the University of Texas, Austin, before the time of his death in 1986. They were not readily if at all available during the composition time of this history. However, most official activities of the period can be accounted for from newsletters and correspondence of the period.

Arrangements fora Second International Mycological Congress

The most important IMA item of business after 1971 was the matter of place and time for the Second International Mycological Congress. IMA officials agreed that a location in North America, either in Canada or in the United States, would be an appropriate choice. Alexopoulos approached the Council of the Mycological Society of America as a potential host organization. His proposal went to the MSA Council in August 1972.

The 1972 MSA Council asked that an ad hoc committee be appointed to consider appropriate sites, dates, and conditions for holding the Second International Mycological Congress in the United States or Canada. They expressed intent to extend an invitation from the MSA to the International Mycological Association if Council reaction was favorable to a report from the ad hoc committee. MSA President R. W. Lichtwardt appointed R. P. Korf, R. A. Shoemaker, and E. G. Simmons to this committee.

Apparently the ad hoc committee performed its assigned work, for the 1973 MSA Council voted to extend an invitation to the International Mycological Association to hold IMC-2 on the campus of the University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, during the last two weeks of August 1977.

The next MSA Council, 1974, was informed that a Local Arrangements Committee for an IMC-2 had been appointed; that an Executive Committee for IMC-2 had been approved, with Emory G. Simmons as Chairman; and that it was agreed that an MSA loan of up to $2000 would be made available to the IMC-2 Executive Committee for preparatory activities.

Finally, in June 1975, the IMC-2 Officers were able to report to IMA President Alexopoulos and to the MSA Council that IMC-2 had been incorporated (IMC-2, Inc.) for U.S. legal purposes (and for protection of its officers) and that the dates for the Congress had been set for August 27 through September 3, 1977, at the University of South Florida, Tampa, as planned. This concluded the active participation of both IMAand MSA, as organizations, in the problems, preparations, and financial responsibilities of the congress except for the repayable loans extended from both organizations and for financial support of social functions.

Other activities and considerations of the IMA Executive Committee 1971–1977

A founding principle of the IMA was “encouragement of mycology in all its branches … by liaison with other international bodies having mycological interests.” IMA President Alexopoulos expanded this principle in a suggestion (1972 IMA Newsletter): “One important aspect of this co-operation is to welcome individuals or groups from small or isolated countries where no mycological society exists into the IMA …” The 1971–1977 Executive Committee dealt with several items of business related to these objectives.

Invitation from the International Society for Plant Pathology

The first organization with worldwide membership that approached the IMA with an offer of affiliation, rather than schism, was the International Society for Plant Pathology (ISPP; established in July 1968). The ISPP proposal, made to IMA in August 1972, addressed the value of mutual interests and activities. However, it embodied one fatal flaw, namely, that the link of IMA to the highly influential umbrella coalition, the International Union of Biological Sciences, would be through the ISPP.

The IMA Executive Committee recognized the incompatibility of the ISPP overture with IMA objectives. The Executive response was overwhelmingly in favor of IMA retaining its independence without allowing itself to be dominated by any particular faction of mycologists. The decision carried with it assurances of full collaboration with ISPP on all mycological aspects involving our mutual interests—but as equal partners.

Affiliation of the IMA with the International Union of Biological Sciences

The significance of the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS, the highest biological echelon within the international scientific hierarchy) was not lost on the original IMA Executive Committee. Biological aspects of international policy, international activity and cooperation, and international funding were all involved.

The proposal that the IMA carry out its programs within the IUBS through the intermediary of a phytopathology group, the ISPP (see above), was, at the time (1972), not unreasonable from the ISPP viewpoint, though unacceptable from that of the IMA. The ISPP had organized formally during its first congress in 1968; in 1970 it had been accepted as one of the five highest operational Sections of the IUBS Division of Botany.

The IMA, as an unattached new unit within IUBS, had little representation, or none, at the IUBS Division level. It was not until 1973 that the IMA was officially established in the IUBS as the organizational base of a “Commission of Mycology in the Division of Botany.” Commission status did not match the concept of international representation and activity visualized in the IMA enterprise. (Division status for Mycology (based on the IMA), and equivalent to that of the Division of Botany, was not gained until1979 at the General Assembly of IUBS in Helsinki, Finland, and only after strong representation and clarification of IMA credentials by the IMA officers elected for the 1977–1983 period.)

During the IMA 1971–1977 inter-congress period there was intermittent pressure to revisit the subject of IMA affiliation with the International Association of Microbiological Societies. Also, IMA Secretary Booth found it necessary to inform President Alexopoulos (August 1974) that his correspondence showed that “The affiliation of the IMA within the Division of Botany of the IUBS has not been accepted very enthusiastically by many medical and industrial or research orientated mycologists.” Booth suggested that the subject be addressed within IMA, with the possibility of IMA seeking dual or triple affiliation within the appropriate Divisions of IUBS (presumably Botany, Plant Pathology, and/or Microbiology).

The proposal that the IMA should seek multiple affiliations was not pursued within the 1971–1977 period; the idea was too variant from IMA’s foundation principles.

World Federation for Culture Collections

It may be noted that the World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) had set an example of multiple affiliation in 1970 when it severed its unitary tie to the International Association of Microbiological Societies and sought broader linkage. The WFCC originally was established in 1962 as a Section on Culture Collections within the IAMS. The WFCC took its new name in 1970 and then established dual affiliations when it became a Multidisciplinary Commission of the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) and a Federation within the International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS).

The IMA and the WFCC always had had close ties through mutual interest in conserving isolates and in promoting training activities on an international basis. Many officers as well as individual members of the IMA worked professionally within both organizations. For these reasons strong formal Resolutions were passed at IMC-1 Exeter to further these interests:

  • III. This Congress [IMC-1] draws the attention of the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) and governments to the scientific and economic importance of regional mycological herbaria and culture collections, and recommends the support of such services in all countries.

  • IV. This Congress agrees with the objectives of the World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) as set forth in its statutes. However, recognizing the problems inherent in the working of such an international federation of culture collections under the sponsorship of only the Division of Microbiology of the IUBS which does not represent all the disciplines concerned, this Congress resolves:

    1. (1)

      That immediate steps be taken to include in the WFCC representatives of all the pertinent Divisions of the IUBS.

    2. (2)

      That proposed agendas for meetings of the General Assembly of the WFCC and minutes of meetings of the Executive Board and of the WFCC be published in journals representing all relevant disciplines.

    3. (3)

      That affiliation with the WFCC be available to any culture collection regardless of its ability or willingness to supply detailed information regarding its accessions.

International Mycological Directory

Within a year or so after the Exeter congress, Brian Sutton at the Commonwealth Mycological Institute (Kew, U.K.) had taken responsibility for the compilation of a new International Directory of Mycology that would be more comprehensive than the one that Ainsworth had prepared for IMC-1. A note from Sutton in August 1974 reported that he had “enlarged the Directory by expanding the detailed information it contains but [that] no great increase in the societies listed has occurred.”

(Second and third editions of the Directory eventually were published in 1990 and 1994 by CAB International Mycological Institute (Hall, G. S., and D. L. Hawksworth, 1990; Hall, G. S., and D. W. Minter, 1994). An updated version in digital format is cited as under preparation by D. W. Minter (2008); www.cybertruffle.org.uk/imd).

Mycological Nomenclature

General Resolution II of IMC-1 (Exeter) recorded that “This Congress resolves that the International Mycological Association be advised of the earnest desire of mycologists interested in nomenclature for the formation of a Standing Nomenclature Committee of the IMA.” By early 1973 an IMA Nomenclature Committee Secretariat had been established, with R. P. Korf as Chairman and with members D. L. Hawksworth, G. L. Hennebert, D. P. Rogers, L. K. Weresub, and Z. Pouzar.

The Nomenclature Secretariat defined its duty in terms of liaison between IMA Subcommittees and the Special Committees of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy, which are conduits to the Nomenclature Section of International Botanical Congresses and the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Discussions at Exeter had identified at least five areas in the governing ICBN that were of special mycological concern. By January 1974, in preparation for IMC-2 (Tampa), six IMA subcommittees had been established and their topics defined. The subcommittee rosters comprised at least 60 names, with considerable duplication due to overlapping fields of interest and expertise. The topics that these specialists marked for discussion were:

  • Names of fungi with a pleomorphic life cycle [ICBN Article 59]

  • Living Type Material [ICBN Article 8.4]

  • Registry and ICBN Article 39 [Illustration requirement]

  • Starting-point Dates [ICBN Article 13]

  • Infraspecific Taxa Not Now Covered in ICBN

  • Generic Names with Misapplied Type-species Names

IMA General Assembly at IMC-2 Tampa

Final reports of IMA President Alexopoulos, Secretary Booth, and Treasurer von Arx were followed by discussion of the IMA Draft Statutes proposed at IMC-1 (Exeter). The draft version was not fully adopted or revised at this time. (A November 1982 revision was presented to the IMA General Assembly of IMC-3, Tokyo, where it was approved on 3 September 1983.)

The chairman of the IMA Nomenclature Committee, R. P. Korf, reported recommendations from subcommittees of the Nomenclature Committee, with the note that they would be forwarded to the IAPT Special Committee for Fungi and Lichens for further study and potential action at a botanical congress. Reports from the individual subcommittees were edited into formal proposals by the incoming new chairman of the Nomenclature Committee, K. T. van Warmelo, and were published as Proposals for modification of the Code of Botanical Nomenclature: IMC2 proposals, Taxon 28: 424–431. 1979.

Informal offers to host the next congress, IMC-3, were heard on behalf of mycologists in India and in Japan. Since more detailed official invitations needed to be considered, a decision on place and timing of IMC-3 was tabled for consideration by the incoming slate of IMA officers. (An IMA Executive decision to accept the invitation from Japan was announced in September 1978. A likely venue would be either Tokyo or Kyoto, probably in late August of 1983.)

K. T. van Warmelo (South Africa) was appointed Chairman of the IMA Nomenclature Secretariat for the inter-congress period leading to IMC-3. Other members subsequently added to the Secretariat were K. W. Gams (Netherlands), D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.), P. W. James (U.K.), Y. Otani (Japan), R. H. Petersen (U.S.A.), and Z. Pouzar (Czechoslovakia).

Aslate of officers to head the IMA until IMC-3 was presented to the assembled IMA members and was accepted. Members of the Executive Committee, to be invited as representing IMA Affiliated Societies, were selected later by the new officers as an early order of business. The roster of Officers and Executive Committee members who were to function between IMC-2 and IMC-3 (1977–1983) became:

President: C. V. Subramanian (India)
Vice-Presidents:  
  S. J. Hughes (Canada)
  E. Müller (Switzerland)
  E. Parmasto (Estonian S.S.R.)
  J. Webster (U.K.)
Secretary: D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
Treasurer: J. A. von Arx (Netherlands)
Executive Committee:  
  IMA Officers, ex officio, and
  O. Fidalgo, Chairman (Brazil)
  C. Booth (U.K.)
  J. A. Ekundayo (Nigeria)
  R. Emerson (U.S.A.; d. 1979)
  K. Esser (Germany)
  G. Guzmán (Mexico)
  M. V. Gorlenko (U.S.S.R.)
  A. F. Moustafa (Kuwait)
  J. F. Peerally (Mauritius)
  H. J. Phaff (U.SA)
  L. Ryvarden (Norway
  J. A. Saenz Renauld (Costa Rica)
  E. G. Simmons (U.S.A.)
  A. Skirgiełło (Poland)
  K. S. Thind (India)
  K. Tubaki (Japan)
  J. Walker (Australia)
  G. C. A. van der Westhuizen (South Africa)

Chapter 4

IMC-2: 27 August–3September 1977 — Tampa, Florida, U.S.A. Fig. 3

Fig. 3
figure3

IMC2 — Tampa (1977). A. D.L. Hawksworth. B. J.A. von Arx. C. F.K. Sparrow. D. J. Webster.

The unqualified success of the First International Mycological Congress, Exeter, 1971, encouraged mycologists in North America to undertake arrangements for a second one. Feasibility and location studies were made in 1972 by an ad hoc committee of the Mycological Society of America under the chairmanship of R. P. Korf. By mid-1973 an offer to act as academic site host of a congress was accepted from the University of South Florida, Tampa. On receipt of this information, the President of the International Mycological Association, Prof. C. J. Alexopoulos, acknowledged the proposal and requested the MSA Council to select a Chairman of an Executive Committee to be responsible for organization of the Second International Mycological Congress, IMC-2.

E. G. Simmons was selected as Chairman in June 1974. At the same time, the MSA Council asked that the Executive Committee include MSA presiding officers for the years 1974, 1975, 1976, and 1977: R. L. Shaffer, S. J. Hughes, M. S. Fuller, and H. E. Bigelow. Subsequent additions to the Executive Committee represented cosponsoring organizations and chairpersons of committees. For legal and fiscal reasons, the officers of the Executive Committee managed the operations of the congress through a U.S.A. corporation, IMC-2, Inc.

All national mycological organizations known to the sponsors were invited to name correspondents to help in publicizing the congress. At least one mycologist in each country or region was invited to further the interests of mycology by acting as a Correspondent for the area. Membership in the congress was open to any individual interested in mycology, without regard to society affiliation or country of residence. Every expression of interest in the preparations received encouragement. A mechanism was established by means of which any individual could contribute or display the results of his professional activities.

The scientific program comprised symposia, contributed papers, and evening activities at different levels of formal and informal organization. Symposia initiated by the Program Committee were based on invited speakers. All other individual scientific contributions were organized into poster sessions. Evening activities were predominantly workshop and roundtable discussion groups.

Extraordinary portions of the program included Congress General Lectures; meetings of the International Mycological Association and of its Nomenclature Committee; and continuous Special Exhibits centered on mycological art, history, films, and microscopy.

Officers and Executive Committee of IMC-2

President: F. K. Sparrow (U.S.A.)
Executive Vice-Presidents:  
  R. Emerson (U.S.A.)
  O. Fidalgo (Brazil)
  R. Pomerleau (Canada)
Honorary Vice-Presidents:  
  G. C. Ainsworth (U.K.)
  J. Webster (U.K.)

Executive Committee of IMC-2

The Officers, ex officio, and

Chairman: E. G. Simmons (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, U.S.A.)
Secretary: M. S. Fuller (University of Georgia, Athens, GA, U.S.A.)
Treasurer: L. Shanor (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, U.S.A.)

Members of the Executive Committee (all U.S.A. except as noted): Henry C. Aldrich, Howard E. Bigelow, Frederick I. Eilers, Clifford W. Hesseltine, Stanley J. Hughes (Canada), Paul Lemke, Paul L. Lentz, Diane Wagner Merner, Clark T. Rogerson, Emanuel D. Rudolph, Robert L. Shaffer, Robert A. Shoemaker (Canada) and, ex officio, Constantine J. Alexopoulos, President, International Mycological Association, and Teuvo Ahti (Finland), President, International Association for Lichenology.

Committees and Special Assignments

Program: Henry C. Aldrich, Chairman, University of Florida/Gainesville Program Members (all U.S.A. except as noted):

Neil A. Anderson, Salomon Bartnicki-Garcia, Charles Bracker, Irwin Brodo, Glenn Bulmer, George C. Carroll, Peter R. Day, Kent Dumont, Edward F. Haskins, Paul Lemke, Robert W. Lichtwardt, James S. Lovett, Ronald H. Petersen, Kris A. Pirozynski (Canada), Don R. Reynolds, Donald T. Wicklow

Local Arrangements and Organization: Diane T. Wagner Merner and Frederick I. Eilers, Co-Chairpersons, University of South Florida/Tampa

Publications and IMC Gazette: Howard E. Bigelow, University of Massachusetts

Finance: Leland Shanor, Chairman, University of Florida/Gainesville

Finance Members (all U.S.A.): Everett S. Beneke, Edward E. Butler, Clifford W. Hesseltine, Leon R. Kneebone, Paul A. Lemke

International Relations: Stanley J. Hughes (Canada) and Robert A. Shoemaker (Canada)

General Congress Events: Robert L. Shaffer (U.S.A.)

Coordination of Extra-Congress Activities: Clark T. Rogerson (U.S.A.)

History of Mycology in North America: Donald P. Rogers (U.S.A.)

Historical Exhibit: Donald H. Pfister (U.S.A.)

Art and Artifacts: Melvin S. Fuller (U.S.A.)

Mycomotion Films: Edward F. Haskins (U.S.A.)

Opening Plenary Session

The congress was opened by its President, Professor F. K. Sparrow, at 3:00 PM, Sunday, 28 August 1977, in the Gymnasium of the University. Dr. Carl Riggs, Vice-President for Academic Affairs, University of South Florida, welcomed participants to the campus and offered his full support toward success of the meetings.

Professor Sparrow introduced Emory G. Simmons, Chairman of the Executive Committee, who proceeded to introduce other members of the Platform Party and of the Executive Committee. The Platform Party included Professor C. J. Alexopoulos, President of the International Mycological Association; Dr. Teuvo Ahti, President of the International Association for Lichenology; Prof. Ralph Emerson and Dr. Oswaldo Fidalgo, Executive Vice-Presidents of IMC-2; and Professor John Webster, Honorary Vice-President of the congress.

The congress heard the appointment of a Resolutions Committee, charged with receiving proposals and with preparing them for presentation to the IMA General Assembly at the Final Plenary Session. Members of the Resolution Committee were E. G. Simmons, Chairman, and C.-Y. Chien (Taiwan), C. de Bièvre (France), A. Milanez (Brazil), A. F. Moustafa (Kuwait), L. Rákóczy (Poland), K. Tubaki (Japan), G. C. A. van der Westhuizen (South Africa), C. Booth (Secretary, I.M.A.), T. Nash (Secretary, I.A.L.).

C. J. Alexopoulos then assumed the Chair, and Professor Sparrow delivered his Presidential Address: Professor Anton de Bary.

Closing Plenary Session

The Closing Plenary Session was held at 5:00 PM, Saturday, 3 September 1977, with Professor Sparrow presiding. E. G. Simmons read the Report of the Resolutions Committee. Component resolutions subsequently were passed by vote of IMA members present.

Report of the IMC-2 Resolutions Committee

Most of the proposals that were submitted to the Congress Resolutions Committee carried a central theme. This theme emphasized the strengthening of our discipline throughout the world, but especially in those geographic areas where communication, training, and facilities related to mycology are inadequate for modern sustained work and service. With these problems in mind, your Committee on Resolutions proposes the following statements for approval in this Plenary Session and for transmittal both to the International Mycological Association and to the International Association for Lichenology as well as, where appropriate, to other international scientific organizations whose support is solicited, at a minimum: the International Union of Biological Sciences; the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization; the United Nations Environment Programme; and the World Health Organization.

Resolution I. That international scientific organizations consider allocating significant financial support to projects designed to strengthen mycological training, research, and service in countries and regions where such activities now are inadequate.

  • Item 1. It is recommended strongly that financial support be provided by international sponsoring agencies to allow specialist mycologists to visit tropical countries and other areas that request such expertise, and to hold workshops and demonstrations in their own specialty but under local conditions.

  • Item 2. It is suggested that workshops and seminars based on subjects of regional significance be held as needed in the regions concerned, but with imported support and expertise.

  • Item 3. It is requested that responsible international agencies foster a program intended to improve facilities for exchange of scientific materials, including exsiccati, cultures, and bibliographic materials.

  • Item 4. It is requested that international funding agencies support international centers of excellence in fungal identiication.

  • Item 5. Support of international agencies is solicited to strengthen the input and involvement of the mycological community in the UNEP/Unesco Microbiological Research Center program (the MIRCEN concept), with specific attention to the need for professional mycological expertise at high levels in the centers.

Additional recommendations related to the mission of the International Mycological Association and its adherent members are consolidated as:

Resolution II. That the International Mycological Association expand its responsibilties, as follows:

  • Item 1. To establish special committees for the development of mycology in Latin America, Tropical Africa, the Middle East, and Tropical Far-East Asia, with activities to include establishment of directories of institutions, herbaria, living collections, and research staffs in mycology for all countries of each area, as well as informational material on national regulations governing the collection and transport of fungal materials.

  • Item 2. To establish a liaison office to improve cooperation and coordination in the work of regional committees.

  • Item 3. To establish a mechanism to explore the possibility of transfer of funds between countries to support identification services and other international mycological activities.

IMC-2 President Sparrow expressed his thanks to the International Mycological Association for their role in sponsoring the congress and transmitted the IMC-2 Resolutions to the new President of the IMA, Professor C. V. Subramanian.

Professor Sparrow continued his statements of gratitude, addressing them to the University of South Florida and to the numerous individual and institutional donors who contributed to making the congress a success. He extended his appreciation further by introducing and thanking individual members of the Congress Executive Committee who constituted his Platform Party: E. G. Simmons, M. S. Fuller, L. Shanor, Henry C. Aldrich [Program Chairman, for whom a standing ovation ensued], H. E. Bigelow, D. Wagner Merner, and F. I. Eilers. After the delivery of an expression of thanks by Prof. John Webster on behalf of foreign participants, Prof. Sparrow declared the congress closed.

Regional mycological groups

During the course of IMC-2, representatives of two groups of mycologists presented documents announcing their intention to organize formally in the interests of mycology in their constituent regions. Their proposals were forwarded to the IMA Executive for attention preceding IMC-3 (Tokyo).

Prof. K. S. Thind (India) submitted a letter (2 September 1977) that reported the decision of his group to form a Committee for the Development of Asiatic Mycology. Group members at IMC-2 who initiated the report were from India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand.

Dr. Gastón Guzmán (Mexico) submitted a letter (3 September 1977) announcing that mycologists of Latin America had made a similar decision. They planned to organize under an initial title of Association of Latin American Mycology. Their representatives at IMC-2 were K. P. Dumont, Oswaldo Fidalgo, and Gastón Guzmán.

Attendance

The total adult attendance was 1,207, which included 915 full registrants, 163 graduate students, and 129 spouses, relatives, and friends. National origins of participants were: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, England, Finland, France, German Democratic Republic, German Federal Republic, Ghana, Hong Kong, India, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Scotland, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, U.S.A, U.S.S.R., Wales.

Sponsored Social Events

The Mycological Society of America hosted all Members of the congress at a reception on Sunday, 28 August, in the dining halls of Andros Center, University of South Florida. The University of South Florida held a social hour for spouses of congress participants on Tuesday, 30 August, in the President’s Dining Room in the University Center.

Congress Publications

In addition to the printed Program, IMC-2 published a Directory of Registrants as of 1 August 1977, which was supplemented at the congress by an issue of Additions and Corrections to the Directory; a guide to the exhibit of Mycological Art and Artifacts (M. S. Fuller); a souvenir folder introducing the Historical Exhibit of Books, Manuscripts and Original Illustrations from the W. G. Farlow Collection (D. H. Pfister); A Brief History of Mycology in North America, from a manuscript prepared and generously contributed to the congress by D. P. Rogers; and an IMC Gazette of news and notices, issued on each of six days of the congress (H. E. Bigelow).

The two volumes of abstracts submitted by participants were issued in a bound, photo-offset format (Bigelow, H. E., and E. G. Simmons, eds. 1977). (Note: In addition to distribution at the congress, the two printed volumes of IMC-2 Abstracts were advertised for public sale and were intentionally deposited in libraries of several educational and governmental institutions. Initial distribution was 27 August 1977. All authored contributions contained in the abstracts were, therefore, considered to have been published effectively within the definition of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.)

Scientific Program

The titles and authorship of all presentations as well as the names of chairpersons and organizers appeared in the printed Program, copies of which are archived in many public and institutional libraries.

Congress General Lectures

Prof. D. C. Smith (U.K.) What Can Lichens Tell Us about Real Fungi?

Prof. H. C. Whisler (U.S.A.) Bugging the Molds

Poster Sessions

Sessions for display and discussion of posters were held each day of the congress, Monday through Saturday. Nineteen subject groupings included a total of 396 posters presented by 719 authors and co-authors (some duplication of names).

Symposia

Seventy-one symposia comprising 364 invited papers were programmed in morning and afternoon sessions on all six days of the congress.

Special Interest Meetings

Evening sessions allowed for meetings focused on particular interests of small groups that wished to interact in a format less structured than the formal program. The format included, for example, presentation of short papers with emphasis on discussion, roundtable and invited panel discussions, workshops with cultures and fresh field collections, data computerization proposals, and closely circumscribed taxonomic group conversations. A total of 38 such meetings were arranged for the first five evenings of the congress.

IMA Nomenclature Committee

Subcommittee meetings and Committee plenary sessions of the Nomenclature Committee were held daily from Saturday, 27 August, through Thursday, 1 September. Members of the IMA Nomenclature Committee Secretariat at the time of IMC-2 were R. P. Korf (U.S.A., chairman), D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.), G. L. Hennebert (Belgium), D. P. Rogers (U.S.A.), and L. K. Weresub (Canada).

Discussions focused on perceived mycological problems and proposals related to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature:

  • Art. 59 (Names of fungi with a pleomorphic life cycle)

  • Unification of starting point dates for different groups of fungi

  • Registry of new names and of proposals for conservation

  • Art. 39 (Illustration requirement)

  • Generic names with misapplied type-species names

  • Provision for handling infraspecific taxa not now covered by the Code

  • Designation of living materials as types in fungi

Special Interest Presentations

Four extraordinary productions featuring mycological material were available in readily accessible sites throughout the congress.

Mycological Art and Artifacts, organized by M. S. Fuller, displayed articles of artistic and cultural merit in a gallery setting.

Historical Exhibit, organized by D. H. Pfister, was introduced in a souvenir folder Books, Manuscripts and Original Illustrations from the W. G. Farlow Collection. Unique items from the W. G. Farlow Collection at Harvard University were displayed in a Special Collections suite of the University library. Included were early manuscripts; early publications with annotations of historical interest; and original illustrations, some unpublished.

Mycomotion Films, organized by E. F. Haskins, included 42 films of predominantly professional mycological interest as well as five films of more general interest.

Conidial Fungi in SEM, organized by G. T. Cole and R. A. Samson, exhibited a collection of scanning micrographs on the subject “Patterns of Development in Conidial Fungi.

Pre-Congress and Post-Congress Scientific Events

Several extra-congress lichenological and mycological events were arranged or publicized in the interests of registrants. Clark T. Rogerson coordinated information and timing of the several activities. These included (with the organizer):

  • Lichenological foray in Pellston, Michigan (I. M. Brodo)

  • Symposium Bryology and Lichenology in Austral Islands, convened in conjunction with the American Institute of Biological Sciences (H. A. Imshaug)

  • Lichenological foray in the Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina, and in Florida (I. M. Brodo)

  • Third American Conference on Mycorrhizae, Athens, Georgia (D. H. Marx)

  • Foray in the area of Gainesville, Florida (J. W. Kimbrough)

  • Foray in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee (R. H. Petersen) Foray in the collecting areas of Charles Horton Peck, near Albany, New York, in conjunction with the annual Charles Horton Peck Foray (J. H. Haines) Foray in central Idaho, in conjunction with the annual Daniel E. Stuntz Foray (M. C. Wicklow)

  • Foray in Minnesota, in conjunction with the annual Alexander H. Smith Great Lakes Foray (E. L. Stewart)

IMC-2 Organization Structure and Finances

The IMC-2 originated in July 1974 with the appointments of a Chairman of an Executive Committee and of a Local Arrangements Committee. Although the titular sponsor of the congress, the Mycological Society of America, was at the time a legally protected, non-profit-making organization under U.S. law, the prospective congress and its officers were not. Without legal status as a non-profit entity (Exempt Organization, U.S. Department of the Treasury), it was the officers of the congress, not the congress itself or the MSA, who faced personal financial ruin if anything went seriously wrong.

The congress officers obtained federal, non-profit-making corporation status as IMC-2, Inc., in Washington, D.C., in February 1975. Until this occurred, requests to industrial supporters for financial support were hampered (tax deductions on their gifts not allowable); initial requests to the National Science Foundation for funds in support of foreign participants in the congress were denied (IMC-2 had no legal existence); and the officers felt a bit nervous. With incorporation and following the financially responsible Tampa congress, IMC-2, Inc., was dissolved on August 23, 1978—all financial assets of the organization having been reduced to zero.

The initial working budget in 1975 US dollars was about $95,000. When books were closed in 1978, the congress had operated on a total of just under $102,000 (approximately $400,000 in 2008 US$). Of this total, $11,200 represented loans, all of which were repaid. The lenders were the International Mycological Association, International Union of Biological Sciences, American Bryological and Lichenological Society, American Society of Microbiology, U. S. Federation for Culture Collections, and, oddly enough, the titular host, the Mycological Society of America. None of these organizations made a non-repayable donation to the organizational expenses of IMC-2, which was routine practice and understandable in most cases, not so in others.

Industry and government gifts, grants, and contracts yielded $18,480. Some of this originated in the U.S. National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Army Research Office, and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The balance was in gifts from 62 commercial and industrial donors and a few anonymous individuals.

In closing IMC-2 books, a small surplus of a few hundred dollars was donated to the IMA. The small amount was balanced against the IMC-2 repayment of $11,200 in loans as well as a total of about $31,000 spent in support of travel of foreign participants.

International Mycological Association Business

The IMA held two business meetings under the chairmanship of its Vice-President Oswaldo Fidalgo (President C. J. Alexopoulos being indisposed). Reports on the activities and finances of the I.M.A. were heard; invitations for the next international congress were received; and new Officers and Members of the Executive Committee for the inter-congress period 1977–1983 were elected. New officers and appointees were:

President: C. V. Subramanian (India)
Vice-Presidents:  
  S. J. Hughes (Canada)
  E. Müller (Switzerland)
  E. Parmasto (Estonian S.S.R.)
  J. Webster (U.K.)
Secretary: D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
Treasurer: J. A. von Arx (Netherlands)
Executive Committee:  
  Dr O. Fidalgo, Chairman (Brazil)
Nomenclature Committee:  
  Dr K. T. van Warmelo, Chairman (South Africa)

See Chapter 5, IMA 1977–1983, for complete roster of new Executive Committee members and for other IMA business matters of this period.

Chapter 5

IMA 1977–1983: between IMC-2 Tampa and IMC-3 Tokyo

A slate of officers for the post-Tampa IMA era was assembled by the retiring IMA Executive Committee acting at IMC-2. All individuals proposed were voted into office at the final assembly of IMC-2. Other members of the new Executive Committee were selected primarily as representatives of affiliated societies or of otherwise unrepresented geographic areas. A full complement of members for the new Executive Committee was in place by December of 1977.

President: C. V. Subramanian (India)
Vice-Presidents:  
  S. J. Hughes (Canada)
  E. Müller (Switzerland)
  E. Parmasto (Estonian S.S.R.)
  J. Webster (U.K.)
Secretary: D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
Treasurer: J. A. von Arx (Netherlands)
Executive Committee:  
The Officers ex officio and  
  O. Fidalgo, Chairman (Brazil)
  C. Booth (U.K.)
  J. A. Ekundayo (Nigeria)
  R. Emerson (U.S.A.; d. 1979)
  K. Esser (Germany)
  G. Guzmán (Mexico)
  M. V. Gorlenko (U.S.S.R.)
  A. F. Moustafa (Kuwait)
  J. F. Peerally (Mauritius)
  H. J. Phaff (U.SA)
  L. Ryvarden (Norway
  J. A. Saenz Renauld (Costa Rica)
  E. G. Simmons (U.S.A.)
  A. Skirgiełło (Poland)
  K. S. Thind (India)
  K. Tubaki (Japan)
  J. Walker (Australia)
  G. C. A. van der Westhuizen (South Africa)

The 1977–1983 IMA administration had a few duties carried over in Resolutions from the previous IMC-2. Turbulence within the societal organization of the International Union of Biological Sciences required extensive communication within IMA as well as IMA representation at a variety of congresses, assemblies, and executive meetings. These concerns and their solutions, as well as an interim meeting of the IMA Executive Committee in August 1981 in Sydney, Australia (during the XIII International Botanical Congress), led to a conclusion of Executive Committee activity during the 1983 IMC-3 in Tokyo.

Continuing items of business following IMC-2 included choice of a venue for IMC-3; increased attention to establishing and actively engaging with regional mycological groups; and the possibility of funding a Liaison Office to improve and coordinate global IMA activities.

Invitations to host IMC-3

Two invitations to host IMC-3 reached the Executive Committee. One was from A. K. Sarbhoy, representing K. S. Thind (member of IMA Executive Committee) and mycologists of India. The second was from the Mycological Society of Japan. A ballot decision of the IMA Executive was that IMC-3 should be held in Japan in 1983.

In June 1979 IMA Secretary Hawksworth distributed information from IMC-3 Chairman N. Hiratsuka. IMC-3 was to be held in Tokyo 28 August – 3 September, 1983. An Executive Committee for the congress had been chosen and a first circular of information was planned for 1981.

Regional mycological groups

The IMA Secretary announced the organization of two regional groups. Both had formally declared their decisions to organize in September 1977 during IMC-2. Their original proposals were as a “Committee for the Development of Mycology in Asian Countries” and for an “Organization of an Association of Latin American Mycology.”

These first two regional organizations under the IMA banner are known currently as the Asian Mycology Committee (AMC), sometimes as the International Mycological Association Committee for Asia (IMACA), and as La Asociación Latinoamericana de Micologia (ALM). Both have been active continuously since 1977 in supporting regional cooperation and congresses in their areas. Their activities are discussed further in Chapter 19.

IMA Liaison Office

Although there was a felt need for a permanent facility that could coordinate international mycological business, it seemed always to be a difficult decision to implement. The Executive Director of the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) had approved the concept of the establishment of an IMA Liaison Office at the Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew (CMI), provided that appropriate financial arrangements could be made. There was no resolution of the topic within this 1977–1983 period.

Interim IMA business activities 1977–1983

Business Meeting of the IMA Executive Committee, Sydney, Australia, August 1981, during the XIII International Botanical Congress

Most of the items discussed during this session were reports of progress in continuing activities: The establishment of the IMA as the foundation society for mycology in the IUBS Division of Botany and Mycology and the subsequent potential for strengthening the impact of mycology in global biology. (Detailed below.)

The efforts of the IMA Nomenclature Secretariat to clarify and stabilize fungus-related Rules in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, including the starting-point dates for fungus nomenclature (successful); to devise a new version of the Rules that govern the names of fungi with pleomorphic life cycles (successful); and proposals to introduce into the Code acceptance of living types for fungus taxa (failed).

Endorsement of Resolutions from IMC-2 by the IUBS General Assembly in Helsinki in 1979. Prominent among these Resolutions from 1977 were those related to projects designed to strengthen mycological training, research, and service in countries and regions where such activities now are inadequate.

Review of plans for the approaching IMC-3 in Tokyo in 1983.

Relationships with IUBS and IUMS

1971–1979: Position and distinctive nature of the IMA within the international biological framework (and see 1982, below)

The period 1977–1983 between IMA congresses was turbulent, in the sense that the IMA Executive was trying, and was determined, to establish itself as the broadly inclusive organization for mycological interests in the international biological network.

The 1977–1983 Executive Committee was well aware of the history of a movement to create partitions within the mycological community. Thus, it was essential that the IMA preserve its singular identity if it were to be successful in promoting not only the interests of established professional societies but also the interests of newly organizing mycological groups in poorly represented regions. However, such high global intentions require a presence in government-sponsored and funded agencies where multiregional programs are approved and financed. And that presence must be of meaningful status at a respectably high level of recognition. This the IMA did not have.

Initially, following the organization of the International Mycological Association in 1971, the IMA had been assigned a relatively minor niche as a Commission of Mycology in the Division of Botany in IUBS in 1973. The rank held no direct voice in the governance of the IUBS, neither voting rights nor direct funding support. The IMA Executive considered the situation to be most unsatisfactory, actually unacceptable, in terms of IMA’s broad representation and activities at both the regional and the international level.

The early pattern of schism within the mycological discipline, which hampered the IMA in its professional plans, had started in 1970 with a proposal that originated within that year’s congress of the International Association of Microbiological Societies (IAMS) in Mexico City. The proposal was that “medical and experimental” mycology should be segregated from “taxonomic” mycology, with each group allied to a different organization. The proposal was carried further in 1971 at IMC-1, when the Secretary-General of the IAMS was allowed to lead a session of discussion on the proposal. His position was that an IAMS Mycology Section would concern itself with “the medical, veterinary, and industrial aspects of mycology and would not concern itself with the systematics of fungi.” The reaction of the IMC-1 audience to this presumption verged on the impolite. In his later History of the International Association of Microbiological Societies (Gibbons, 1974), the IAMS Secretary-General skimmed lightly over the negative reception given to his proposition in that heated two-hour session.

The 1977–1983 IMA Executive decided to present a formal proposal to adjust the status of IMA within the IUBS. President Subramanian and Secretary Hawksworth prepared a position paper for presentation at the1979 General Assembly of the IUBS in Helsinki. Its central argument was that a Division of Mycology should be established within the IUBS and that the IMA should be recognized as the organizational base of that Division. The submission document presented a strong case, which was based on the general acceptance of fungi as constituting a separate biological Kingdom outside of botany; on the necessity of giving a face to mycology as a discipline distinct from botany in the jungles of international funding agencies; and on the errors of the IUBS Committee on Admissions and Structure in its thinking that the IMA in some manner was competing for status with an unofficial, unstructured “Section of Mycology” within the IUBS Division of Microbiology.

IMA President Subramanian and Secretary Hawksworth took the proposal to the 1979 Helsinki IUBS Assembly. A manuscript letter to Simmons from Subramanian (Helsinki, 24 August 1979) reports behind-the-scenes moves; IAMS biopolitical activity; and the helpful, probably decisive input of IMA’s Karl Esser, who at the time was a member of the IUBS Executive Committee as well as a member of the IMA Executive Committee.

A more formal report by Hawksworth to the IMA Executive Committee (10 September 1979) discussed the tenor of the debate on IMA’s request. It touched on factors such as the impossibility of obtaining a two-thirds majority for a separate Division of Mycology, the concerns about fragmentation of disciplines within the IUBS, and the heated debate in the General Assembly after the Division of Botany sided unanimously with IMA in its request for Division status in IUBS.

The very welcome outcome at Helsinki, which was only a minor compromise, was that the IUBS reorganized its Division of Botany into a Division of Botany and Mycology, which included two parallel units, a Section of General Botany and a Section of General Mycology. IMA President Subramanian was named to represent mycology in the IUBS Executive Committee.

The irony of heated debate against the recognition of IMA at a Division level within IUBS was obvious to IMA Executive individuals. Von Arx and Simmons had been present by invitation at the IAMS Executive Board meeting in Munich the previous September 1978. It was at this Munich meeting (pre-Helsinki 1979) that the IAMS voted to divorce itself entirely from IUBS and to establish itself independently as the International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS), that is, with a new name and at the same higher hierarchic level as the International Union of Biological Societies. The divisive intentions of the IAMS in relation to mycologists remained intact, claiming medical and industrial practice as its sphere. The International Association of Microbiological Societies left the Biological Union in 1980.

1982: More IMA Activity in the International Biological Network

Goodwill efforts continued toward finding a vehicle to accommodate both the broad interests of the IMA and the narrower focus of organizations affiliated with the IUMS Mycology Division. In August 1982 the IUMS Bacteriology and Mycology divisions met in congress at Boston, Massachusetts. IMA Secretary Hawksworth joined an informal meeting of representatives of the IUMS Mycology Division and two of its major affiliated organizations: ISHAM (International Society for Human and Animal Mycology) and ICYYLM (International Commission on Yeast and Yeast-Like Microorganisms).

In brief, suggestions that the IMA should affiliate with the IUMS Mycology Division were not acceptable to the IMA, as IMA represents a much wider spectrum of mycologists than does the IUMS Division. It is noteworthy, in this context, that both ISHAM and ICYYLM recognize an affiliation with the IUMS but retain their identities as independent organizations.

There remained a strong interest in the possibility of establishing a single body to represent the interests of mycology in both IUMS and IUBS, so an ad hoc liaison committee was established to study the possibility, with K. Esser, L. Ryvarden, E. G. Simmons, and D. L. Hawksworth representing IMA interests. Prof. K. Iwata, as chairman of the Mycology Division of IUMS, headed the IUMS companion group.

An episode tangential to the Boston meeting was personally irksome to Simmons, though bordering on the amusing. The IUMS, at least since 1970, had pointedly disavowed any claim to represent the taxonomic aspects of mycology, and the Simmons views opposed to that schismatic viewpoint were well known to the IUMS executives. However, in October 1981 IMA representative Simmons received a request from Prof. Iwata to “organize and chair a proposed International Committee on Taxonomy of Fungi” within the IUMS. A follow-up letter in July 1982 from J. C. Senez, Secretary General of the IUMS, expressed his pleasure at the development and presumed that Simmons would, at the IUMS Boston meeting that year, report progress on the constitution and program of the new ICTF to IUMS Mycology Division Council and to the Executive Board of IUMS.

The Simmons replies to these presumptions were prompt and negative as far as organizing and chairing such an endeavor were concerned. Had they been positive, his complicity in helping IUMS to establish a newly-recognized taxonomic persona would have been professionally duplicitous and, under the circumstances, negative to IMA objectives. Nevertheless, his replies were positive in the interests of mycotaxonomy—if the IUMS could find it expedient to work with IMA taxonomists who had spent their entire careers devoted to this special field. In any case, the IUMS executives found another mycologist of taxonomic bent to actualize their new-found interest in taxonomy, and an International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi was established within the IUMS hierarchy in 1982. The ICTF remains operational, both as a Commission in the Mycology Division of the IUMS and within the IUBS. At its request, the ICTF became a Commission within the IMA framework on 1 September 1990.

Later in August 1982 the IUBS General Assembly was held in Ottawa, Canada. IMA President Subramanian, Vice-President S. J. Hughes, Secretary D. L. Hawksworth, and Executive Committee Member K. Esser represented IMA interests. At the time, the Biological Union was in the process of reorganizing its internal group structure to reflect the multi-discipline interests of some groups.

In spite of strong opposition from the IUBS Division of Botany and Mycology, the Assembly decided to abolish its divisional structure and to permit its component organizations to group and regroup themselves to reflect diverse interests and activities. The former Division of Botany and Mycology resolved to retain its relationship, probably with a slightly different name. (Currently the International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies — IABMS).

It was also at this Ottawa Assembly that the IUBS introduced an innovation in bio-Union relationships, namely, that it was agreed that IUBS constituent members were free to form affiliations with units in other bio-Unions, giving an example that the culture collection community, in the form of the World Federation for Culture Collections, already was seeking multiple-Union affiliation. The medical mycologists, through ISHAM, already had a dual affiliation with IMA and the IUMS Mycology Division.

Other business completed or reported at the IMA Business Meeting and General Assembly September 1983, Tokyo IMC-3

Nomenclature Secretariat

The IMA Nomenclature Secretariat reported that all of its proposals made at IMC-2 Tampa had been published (van Warmelo, 1979) and that some of them had been accepted by the XIII International Botanical Congress and incorporated in the new edition of the Code of Nomenclature.

The IMA Nomenclature Secretariat was disbanded and its responsibilities transferred to the Special Committee on Fungi of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy.

Regional Committees

The Committee for Development of Mycology in Asian Countries reported its formal adoption of Statutes to govern its activities. On 30 August 1983 during IMC-3, twenty representatives of Asian interests in mycology met to discuss mutual concerns and activities and to adopt Statutes. Founding members were S. T. Chang, Z. C. Chen, H. S. Chung, I. Gandjar, F. C. Garcia, S. W. Hong, S. H. Iqbal, K. Katoh, G. Lim, K. Natarajan, S. Pichyangkura, T. H. Quimio, M. Rifai, J. K. D. Saono, T. K. Tan, K. Tubaki, F. R. Uyenco, and T. Yokoyama. Countries represented were Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, R.O.C., Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand (plus the U.S.A. by adoptees S. C. Jong and E. G. Simmons).

The Committee for the Development of Mycology in Latin-American Countries reported little activity for the period. Note was taken of IMC-3 Resolutions that mention the existence of additional regional committees for Tropical Africa and for the Middle East.

Affiliated Organizations

The significance of IMA in promoting activities of mycological groups and in organizing international mycological congresses was becoming widely known and supported. Affiliations with the IMA increased, always with a transparent statement of purpose, as in a reply written September 1979 by Secretary Hawksworth to a request from the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) for affiliation with IMA:

“The IMA is keen to encourage co-operation between all affiliated organizations and to increase their involvement in the planning of future International Mycological Congresses. Cohesion, rather than fragmentation, for mycology in the hierarchy of international biology can in our view only be to the benefit of the subject as a whole.”

The IMA 1977–1983 Secretariat remained active in contacting and discussing the mutual advantages of affiliation with the IMA in promoting mycological interests globally. By 1981 the Affiliated Organizations roster included:

  • Australian Plant Pathology Society

  • Botanical Society of Edinburgh

  • British Lichen Society

  • British Mycological Society

  • Czechoslovak Scientific Society for Mycology

  • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pilzkunde

  • Elias-Fries-Gesellschaft für Pilzforschung

  • Gruppo Micologica Giacomo Bresadola

  • Hungarian Society of Microbiology

  • International Association for Lichenology

  • International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM)

  • International Society for Plant Pathology

  • Korean Society of Mycology

  • Medical Mycological Society of the Americas

  • Mycological Society of America

  • Mycological Society of India

  • Mycological Society of Japan

  • Mycological Society of the Republic of China (Taiwan) [added 1983]

  • Nederlands Mycologische Vereniging

  • Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Pilzkunde

  • Sociedad Argentina Botanica

  • Sociedad Mexicana de Micologia

  • Societas Mycologica Fennica

  • Society for General Microbiology

  • South African Society for Plant Pathology and Microbiology

  • Unione Micologico Italiana

Revision of IMA Statutes

The IMA Draft Statutes that were accepted as such at IMC-1 Exeter had not been fully adopted or revised in 1977 at IMC-2 Tampa. The 1977–1983 IMA Executive Committee supplied revisions that provided for greater involvement of individual mycologists and that were designed to place the organization on a firmer financial basis. By November 1982 the revision was ready for distribution and consideration by representatives of the 25 international and national organizations affiliated with the IMA. The revised Statutes were offered to the General Assembly of IMC-3 Tokyo and were approved. (See Chapter 21 on IMA Statutes.)

Resolutions of the General Assembly of IMC-3

Resolutions of IMC-3 were published in a Notice of IMA business meetings and the IMC-3 General Assembly (Hawksworth, 1984). They are included below in a Chapter 6 on proceedings at the IMC-3 Tokyo.

IMA Officers and Executive Committee for 1983–1990

Nominations for Executive Committee members and officers of the IMA were received from Affiliated Associations and Individual Members until 1 September 1983. Recommendations by a Nominations Committee were unanimously accepted by the Executive Committee and endorsed by the General Assembly. At the Opening Ceremony of IMC-3, IMA President Subramanian had proposed honoring G. C. Ainsworth for his efforts in establishing the IMA and C. J. Alexopoulos as first president of the IMA, and both for their influence in the service of mycology, by naming them Honorary Presidents of IMA. The IMA Executive roster for 1983–1990 became:

President: J. Webster (U.K.)
Honorary Presidents: G. C. Ainsworth (U.K.)
  C. J. Alexopoulos (U.S.A.)
Vice-Presidents: K. Esser (Germany)
  M.V. Gorlenko (U.S.S.R.)
  E. G. Simmons (U.S.A.)
  K. Tubaki (Japan)
Secretary-General: D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
Treasurer: H. A. van der Aa (The Netherlands)
Executive Committee: L. R. Batra (U.S.A.)
  A. Bresinsky (Germany)
  I.A. Dudka (U.S.S.R.)
  M. Galun (Israel)
  G. Guzmán (Mexico)
  L. Holm (Sweden)
  K. Iwata (Japan)
  S. C. Jong (U.SA/Taiwan)
  C. Kurtzman (U.S.A.)
  A. Peerally (Mauritius)
  G. F. Pegg (U.K.)
  J. I. Pitt (Australia)
  C. J. Rabie (South Africa)
  M. A. Rifai (Indonesia)
  A. K. Sarbhoy (India)
  R. A. Shoemaker (Canada)

The Fourth International Mycological Congress (IMC-4)

The IMA Executive agreed to keep IMCs distinct from International Botanical Congresses. The year 1990 was selected for IMC-4 with a view to a six-year interval being established thereafter. The Executive Committee announced the acceptance of the proposal on behalf of German mycological and botanical societies to host IMC-4 in August 1990 in Regensburg, Germany.

Chapter 6

IMC-3: 28 August – 3 September 1983 — Tokyo, Japan. Fig. 4

Fig. 4
figure4

IMC3 — Tokyo (1983). A. K. Tubaki. B. N. Hiratsuka. C. C.V. Subramanian. D. J. Webster. E. K. Esser.

In March 1978 IMA Secretary Hawksworth reported to the IMA Executive that the results of balloting on year and location of IMC-3 showed a preference for 1983 in Japan. As Chairman of the arrangements in Japan, N. Hiratsuka confirmed that the Mycological Society of Japan would act as hosts; he announced that the congress would be held in Tokyo 28 August—3 September 1983. An Executive Committee for the congress already had been chosen in 1979, and a first circular of information was planned for 1981. The initial composition of the IMC-3 Executive was reported to be:

  • Chairman: N. Hiratsuka

  • Vice-Chairmen: H. Indoh, Y. Otani, K. Aoshima, H. Kurata, J. Hidaka

  • General Secretary: K. Tubaki

  • Treasurer: S. Sato

  • Assembly Secretary: M. Soneda

  • Program Secretary: S. Udagawa

  • Field Trip Secretary: Y. Hayashi

  • Information Secretary: M. Ichinoe

The physical requirements for holding a relatively large congress in metropolitan Tokyo obliged the IMC-3 organizers to use the convention facilities of a large hotel, the Keio Plaza, as well as the managing support of an International Congress Service and the Japan Travel Bureau. Organizers of the earlier IMC-1 and IMC-2 had trod perilous ground in unpredictable matters related to financial and accident liability, but IMC-3 avoided such concerns by shifting insurable technical responsibilities to commercially protected agents.

The IMC-3 organizational teams in Japan were highly structured, involving large numbers of mycologists. An Organizing Committee, which differed somewhat from the official IMC-3 Executive Committee, comprised:

  • Chairman: N. Hiratsuka

  • Vice-Chairmen: T. Hasegawa, Z. Hidaka, K. Iwata, K. Yora

  • Secretary-General: K. Tubaki

  • Treasurer: W. Iida

  • Chairman Program Subcommittee: K. Aoshima

  • Chairman Congress-Site Subcommittee: H. Kurata

This Organizing Committee issued three circulars: First, invitation and preliminary information; Second, registration, hotel, tour, program, and poster information; and Final, deadlines for participation, with an outline of a Program of Symposia with conveners, chairmen, and speakers.

Other support responsibilities went to a Council Committee of four senior members, with an Advisory Committee of 23 additional members contributing to the work of the Organizing Committee. A roster of 48 names represented support for the Organizing Committee’s work. A final Executive Committee for the congress was composed of 16 individuals, with some name changes from the original list but with duties unspecified.

Program Subcommittee Chairman K. Aoshima headed a support group of 30 in arranging for presentations and events. Congress-Site Subcommittee Chairman H. Kurata managed with three associates. Treasurer W. Iida had four on his staff; and Secretary-General K. Tubaki had six. There was considerable overlap of individuals named in the different working groups. The final result, of course, was that nothing was left to chance. The production of a congress of superlative quality was the result.

Attendance

The IMC-3 was attended by about 900 registered delegates, of which about 400 were from overseas and the remaining about 500 from Japan. It was noteworthy that a total of about 70 delegates from about 10 Asian countries were present, which emphasized the overall impression that this congress was being held for the first time in Asia, with Japan as the host country. It was also significant that the congress was co-organized by representatives of both the Mycological Society of Japan and the Japanese Society for Medical Mycology, with the active support of established international associations.

Scientific Program

The core of the scientific program comprised invited papers arranged in 64 symposia plus the mounting of 358 contributed posters. A comprehensive Programme of 96 pages was distributed with registration material. Symposium titles, names of their conveners and chairpersons, and all individual presentations were listed. The congress also issued a 727-page volume of Abstracts covering all contributions to the program. Symposia and poster presentations were offered during five days. Eight symposia ran concurrently each morning and afternoon of the congress (except for Wednesday and Saturday); poster sessions ran concurrently with symposia.

On Wednesday afternoon two technical visits were offered: Cultivation of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes), at Niiharu-machi in Yokohama, and Beer Brewery at Omori Brewery, Asahi Beer Co., Ltd., in Ohta-ku, Tokyo). There also was a specially mounted scientific exhibition of photos, books, and old literature related to mycology in Japan.

All-inclusive Social Events

There were two major social events of the congress. An evening Welcome Party was held on Monday, with liquid, solid, and entertainment offerings. The Official Banquet of the congress was held on Wednesday evening, with a formal ceremony of “tapping the cask” (Kagami-wari; “taking out the barrelhead”) by N. Hiratsuka and S. J. Hughes. Then followed even more liquid and solid food of extraordinary variety plus a wonderment of small-group musical presentations meant to reveal individual national presence and goodwill.

Proceedings of IMC-3

No official Proceedings of the Tokyo congress were published. However, IMC-3 Secretariat Chairman Tubaki published his observations and memoirs of the entire program, extensively and in Japanese (Tubaki, 1983). His comments were translated for use in this document by IMA’s 1994–1998 Executive Committee member and 1998–2002 Vice-President Prof. Dr. J. Sugiyama, who also was a member of the IMC-3 Program Committee. Extracts from the Tubaki memoir have been mingled freely in this record of related material published and distributed by the IMC-3 Executive Committee.

A Record of Business Meetings and General Assembly Convened During the Third International Mycological Congress, Tokyo, 28 August3 September 1983 was assembled and published by IMA Secretary-General Hawksworth (Hawksworth, 1984). Portions of this record are abstracted below among reports of IMA business meetings as well as in Chapter 5 on the IMA Executive Committee 1977–1983.

Pre- and Post-Congress Forays

  1. 1.

    Pre-congress foray at the Experimental Forest of the University of Tokyo, at Kiyosumi, Boso Peninsula, Chiba Prefecture, 24–27 August. Dr. H. Hongo, Shiga University, coordinated the event for 32 participants.

  2. 2.

    Pre-congress foray in the Nikko National Park, at Nikko, Tochigi Prefecture, and the Mori Mycological Institute, Gumma Prefecture, 24–27 August. Dr. Y. Otani, National Science Museum, organized the foray, which included a workshop and conference on cup-fungi coordinated by Dr. R. P. Korf. There were 30 participants.

  3. 3.

    Post-congress foray in the piedmont natural forest around Mt. Fuji, Yamanashi and Shizuoka Prefectures, 4–7 September. Dr. K. Aoshima, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, coordinated the trip for 80 participants.

The Opening Ceremony of the congress began with a performance by a brass band of the Marine Self-Defense Forces (MSDF), after which official guests, IMA officers and IMC-3 Organizing Committee executives took the platform. General-Secretary K. Tubaki of the IMC3 Organizing Committee called for the start of the Opening Ceremony. Chairman N. Hiratsuka of the IMC-3 Organizing Committee then gave greetings and declared the meeting open. Seated on the platform were Vice-Chairmen T. Hasegawa, Z. Hidaka and K. Yora, Treasurer W. Iida, Chairman K. Aoshima of the Programme Subcommittee, and Chairman H. Kurata of the Congress-Site Subcommittee. In addition to these Organizing Committee Officers, there were President Y. Tsukada of the Science Council of Japan, C. V. Subramanian (IMA President), S. J. Hughes and J. Webster (IMA Vice-Presidents), D. L. Hawksworth (IMA Secretary), N. L. Goodman (Chairman, Mycology Division, IUMS), and E. G. V. Evans (Vice-President, ISHAM). IMA President Subramanian responded for the attendees.

Addresses by a Ministry officer on behalf of the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Japan, and by Chairman Tsukada of the Science Council of Japan were given. Finally various matters relating to the congress operation and the respective officers for the congress preparations were introduced by the IMC-3 General-Secretary.

After the Opening Ceremony, Special Lectures were given by Chairman Hiratsuka of the IMC-3 Organizing Committee: Taxonomy of rust fungi, past, present and future, in which he introduced the history of research on rust fungi from the past to the present and also revealed future perspectives; and by IMA President Subramanian: Development of mycology — a global view, with comments on the current status of mycology operating in the international biological system.

Closing Ceremony

The Closing Ceremony began with a report on the congress by Secretary-General Tubaki. The Resolutions Committee report was read and approved by the General Assembly members. Final greetings and expressions of gratitude were added by IMC-3 Chairman Hiratsuka, Vice-Chairman Iwata, International Mycological Society President Subramanian, International Association for Lichenology President M. E. Hale, and incoming IMA President J. Webster.

IMA Secretary-General Hawksworth presented the roster of new IMA Officers and Executive Committee Members and announced that IMC-4 would be held at the University of Regensburg in Regensburg, Germany, in 1990. Dr. Bresinsky of the University of Regensburg confirmed the invitation from the University and illustrated the setting with a slide show. Vice-Chairman Iwata closed the session and IMC-3 with a final Sayonara and expectations of meeting in Regensburg.

IMA Business Meetings: Actions completed or reported at the IMC-3 General Assembly 3 September 1983, Tokyo

In IMA Secretary-General Hawksworth’s published record of the IMA Business Meetings and General Assembly actions that were taken during the IMC-3 (Hawksworth, 1984), reports covered the Nomenclature Secretariat, Regional Committees, Affiliated Organizations, Revision of IMA Statutes, and election of IMA Officers and Executive Committee members for 1983–1990. (See Chapter 5) on IMA Executive Committee activity 1977–1983 for information in these reports.)

Resolutions passed at the General Assembly closing IMC-3

All participants in IMC-3 were invited to submit Resolutions to a Resolutions Committee convened under the Chairmanship of E. G. Simmons. The Resolutions Committee made three formal proposals to the membership. All three Resolutions were adopted unanimously at the Closing Plenary Session of the congress.

Resolution 1 Introduction: Most proposals submitted informally or formally to the Committee reflected concern for strengthening the discipline throughout the world, particularly in those geographical regions where communication, training, and facilities currently are inadequate for sustained mycological work and service. In general, these proposals re-emphasized concerns reflected in Resolutions adopted at the Second International Mycological Congress, Tampa, 1977. Those resolutions focused (1) on financial and operational support by international scientific organizations, (2) on a system of workshops and seminars addressed to regional needs, (3) on improved facilities for exchange of scientific materials (e.g., cultures, exsiccatae, and publications), (4) on support of international centers of excellence in fungus identification, and (5) on input and involvement of the mycological community in the UNEP/UNESCO Microbiological Resource Centre Program (MIRCEN), with upgrading of professional mycological expertise to high levels in these facilities.

RESOLUTION 1, that these continuing concerns [voiced at IMC-2 and outlined above] form the basis of renewed approaches for programmatic and financial support by the International Mycological Association, the International Association for Lichenology, and other Affiliated Organizations of the IMA, and further, as appropriate, by organizations such as the International Union of Biological Sciences, the International Union of Microbiological Societies, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the United Nations Environment Programme, and the World Health Organization.

Resolution 2 Introduction: The Committee for the Development of Mycology in Asiatic Countries, at its meeting during this Congress, organized itself formally and determined to initiate activities of regional relevance, including establishment of directories of institutions, herbaria, living collection and research mycologists for all countries of the region, as well as compilation of informational materials on national regulations governing the collection and transport of fungus materials across international boundaries.

The activation of this Committee representing countries of Asia draws attention to the existence of other regional committees established at IMC-2 and brings us to RESOLUTION 2, that the IMA continue its responsibility (1) to foster action by the regional mycological groups of Latin America, Tropical Africa, the Middle East and Asia; (2) that it activate the proposed IMA Liaison Office to improve co-operation and co-ordination in the work of regional committees; and (3) that it establish a mechanism to explore the possibility of transfer of funds between countries to support identification services and other international activities.

As RESOLUTION 3, recognizing the advantages of closer liaison between the International Mycological Association (IMA) and the International Union of Microbiological Societies’ Division of Mycology, this Congress agrees to an exchange of observers at Executive Meetings, to their working together whenever appropriate, and in particular invites the IUMS Division of Mycology to participate in the Fourth International Mycological Congress.

Officers Elected for the inter-congress period 1983–1990 were announced. A full roster of Officers and the Executive Committee Members chosen subsequently introduces the discussion of this period in Chapter 7.

President: J. Webster (U.K.)
Honorary Presidents: G. C. Ainsworth (U.K.)
  C. J. Alexopoulos (U.S.A.)
Vice-Presidents: K. Esser (Germany)
  M.V. Gorlenko (U.S.S.R.)
  E. G. Simmons (U.S.A.)
  K. Tubaki (Japan)
Secretary-General: D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
Treasurer: H. A. van der Aa (The Netherlands)
  R. A. Shoemaker (Canada)

Chapter 7

IMA 1983–1990: between IMC-3 Tokyo and IMC-4 Regensburg

The roster of IMA officers for 1983–1990 had been announced at the final General Assembly of IMC-3, Tokyo. An initial communication from Secretary-General Hawksworth on 16 September 1983 listed the names of newly inducted members of the Executive Committee. The 1983–1990 IMA Executive represented 16 regional and national IMA adherents.

President: J. Webster (U.K.)
Honorary Presidents: G. C. Ainsworth (U.K.)
  C. J. Alexopoulos (U.S.A.)
Vice-Presidents: K. Esser (Germany)
  M.V. Gorlenko (U.S.S.R.)
  E. G. Simmons (U.S.A.)
  K. Tubaki (Japan)
Secretary-General: D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
Treasurer: H. A. van der Aa (The Netherlands)
Executive Committee: L. R. Batra (U.S.A.)
  A. Bresinsky (Germany)
  I. A. Dudka (U.S.S.R.)
  M. Galun (Israel)
  G. Guzmán (Mexico)
  L. Holm (Sweden)
  K. Iwata (Japan)
  S.-C. Jong (U.S.A./Taiwan)
  C. Kurtzman (U.S.A.)
  A. Peerally (Mauritius)
  G. F. Pegg (U.K.)
  J. I. Pitt (Australia)
  C. J. Rabie (South Africa)
  M. A. Rifai (Indonesia)
  A. K. Sarbhoy (India)
  R. A. Shoemaker (Canada)

The 1983–1990 Officers and Executive addressed continuing IMA responsibilities and activities during the inter-congress years. Some were internal to IMA; others were related to other international organizations. The long interval between IMC-3 (Tokyo 1983) and IMC-4 (Regensburg 1990) allowed IMA President Webster and Secretary-General Hawksworth, in particular, to focus on IMA relationships with IUBS, the IUMS Division of Mycology, and the IMA regional Committees for Development of Mycology.

Executive Activities between Congresses

IMA Interaction with the Division of Mycology of the IUMS

In May and October 1986, IMA Officers met in London, U.K., with representatives of the Division of Mycology of the IUMS and of the British National Committee for Microbiology to discuss problems of congress scheduling and representation. Discussions on the international representation of mycology go back to at least 1970, with the IUMS (formerly IAMS) periodically organizing congresses around the interests of the medical, veterinary, and industrial mycology adherents of its Division of Mycology.

Medical and industrial mycologists constituted an important component of attendees at IMC-2 Tampa. They had an even greater presence at IMC-3 Tokyo, where the Japanese Society for Medical Mycology was a co-organizer of that congress. At the 1986 London conversations, the IMA continued its invitation for the IUMS Division of Mycology to engage actively and in significant numbers in IMC-4 at Regensburg. Similar invitations for IMA participation in IUMS congresses never had or have been productive, for the simple reason that the IMA Executive never has been able to visualize submerging IMA’s all-inclusive mycological structure under a fractionally representative division of the IUMS.

Historically, the continuing discussions recognized that several national and international organizations belong to both IUMS and IMA and that many individuals play important roles in both organizations. The fact that IMC-4 Regensburg would take place in 1990 and that the IUMS Division of Mycology would hold its own congress in association with the IUMS General Assembly in Japan in the same year is a perfect example of why these IMA and IUMS Division of Mycology conversations had taken place periodically from 1970 to those of 1986 and, indeed, have continued intermittently since that time. Yet another “working party to investigate the interrelationships between [IMA and the IUMS Division of Mycology] in depth was established” with hopes that a report of consequence would be available for consideration at the IMC-4 General Assembly. The results (negative) of this working party are reported below in the context of the IMA Business Meeting held during IMC-4.

Proposed changes for IMC-4

There had been a strong proposal to reconsider the place and time that had been agreed for IMC-4 (Regensburg, Germany 1990). The XIV International Botanical Congress also was scheduled for Germany, but in July 1987 in Berlin. It was recommended that IMC-4 be held in 1987 as a component of this IBC rather than separately in Regensburg in 1990.

However, a change of venue and timing did not prove acceptable to the IMA Executive. As with the IUMS relationship, it was considered essential that IMA maintain its group identity and, therefore, its separate congress. However, an IMA Business Meeting was arranged for 25 July 1987 in Berlin during the Botanical Congress. Eleven members of the IMA Executive Committee attended. A Report of this meeting was published by the IMA Secretary-General (Hawksworth, 1987).

IMA Business Meeting, Berlin, 25 July 1987

Treasurer’s report

A report from Treasurer Van der Aa pointed out the difficulty that some Affiliated Organizations found in contributing the sums stipulated in agreed Statutes of IMA. Plans were made to write more appropriate financial regulations, which, however, could not be established until related changes could be made in IMA Statutes.

Regional Committees for the Development of Mycology

Current activity was reported for Committees for Asia, Africa, and Europe. See Chapter 19 for details.

Revision of IMA Statutes

Statutes that had developed through the first three IMA congress periods had proved inadequate to assure IMA financial support from the constituent individual members and affiliated organizations. The Statutes also were conceived as being weak in opportunities for Affiliated Organization input to congress programming and IMA activities. A revised set of Statutes, sorted out through three draft versions with the input of members of the Executive Committee, was discussed and accepted at the General Assembly of IMC-4. (See Chapter 21, Statutes.)

Other business completed or reported at the IMA Business Meetings and at the General Assembly August/September 1990 IMC-4

It is noted that interim business discussions were held 25 July 1987 during the International Botanical Congress, Berlin. These are discussed above. They were reported in detail in a notice published by the Secretary-General (Hawksworth 1987). A record of the previous Business Meeting and General Assembly convened during IMC-3 in Tokyo 28 August–3 September 1983 also had been published (Hawksworth 1984). Additional matters were addressed during IMC-4.

Publications

IMA Newsletters had been assembled and distributed by 1971–1977 IMA Secretary Colin Booth shortly before 23 August 1973 (10 pp.) and in April 1981 (3 pp.). The effort was not continued by subsequent executive groups until 1987, when Secretary-General Hawksworth restored publication in the form of IMA News, with Issue no. 1 in July 1987 and no. 2 in the spring of 1990. Issue no. 1 carried a Preliminary Announcement of IMC-4, Regensburg, plus short articles noted above among interim business. Issue no. 2 announced the Final Circular (of three) concerning structure of the IMC-4 congress, also with items of interim note, some ofwhich are included above.

A second edition of the International Mycological Directory was completed and published at the CABI International Mycological Institute (Hall, G. S., and D. L. Hawksworth, 1990). Copies were distributed to all registrants at IMC-4.

IMA and the Division of Mycology of IUMS

Joint meetings of executive representatives in 1986 had lead to the establishment of a working party to investigate the interrelationship between IMA and the IUMS Division of Mycology. Dialogues had taken place in various venues since Exeter 1971, with hope that progress toward collaboration might develop. Positive proposals for the IMA to act in IUMS at the same status level as it held in IUBS in 1982 had been rejected, and offers by the IMA for the IUMS Division of Mycology to have joint congresses in 1990 and 1994 had been rebuffed. IMA President Webster reported to his Executive Committee that he now regarded the IMA-IUMS collaboration concept to be a dead issue, with the two groups going on parallel tracks that would not meet. In view of the strength and breadth of coverage of the IMA, and the outstanding successes of IMA congresses, there seemed to be no rationale for diluting IMA identity outside its own parameters.

Regional Committees

A principal IMA commitment always had been to promote and support regional groups of mycologists in organizing themselves as committees devoted to improving mycological education and professional activity in their countries or regions. Previously established groups had called themselves some variation of “Committee for the Development of Mycology in …” The Executive Committee approved a simplified format that would not appear to limit the scope of the regional groups, “IMA Committee for …” Information about six existing or potential regional committees was presented. (See Chapter 19 for details.)

International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF)

This Commission had been established in 1982 as a component of IUMS. During a meeting at IMC-4 (1 September 1990), the ICTF concluded that its nomenclatural function came clearly within IUBS activity and that it was more convenient for the Commission to meet during IMCs than otherwise. Given that it wished to function within both the IMA (as a unit of IUBS) and the Division of Mycology of IUMS, the IMA Executive Committee agreed to recognize the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi as a unit within the IMA structure. This Commission is organized with Subcommissions, each concerned with the taxonomy and nomenclature of one or more fungus genera. Its dual membership in scientific Unions parallels that of the World Federation for Culture Collections, which is incorporated in both IUBS and IUMS.

IMA Affiliated Organizations

Affiliated and other invited Organizations that were represented at meetings of the Executive Committee and at the final General Assembly included:

  • Botanical Society of Edinburgh

  • British Lichen Society

  • British Mycological Society

  • Czechoslovak Scientific Society for Mycology

  • (Československá Vědecká Společnost pro Mykologii)

  • Indian Mycological Society

  • International Association for Lichenology

  • Italian Mycological Union (Unione Micologica Italiana)

  • Mycological Society of Korea

  • Mycological Society of America

  • Mycological Society of Finland (Societas Mycologica Fennica)

  • Mycological Society of France (Société Mycologique de France)

  • Mycological Society of Japan

  • Mycological Society of the Republic of China

  • Netherlands Mycological Society (Nederlandse Mycologische Vereniging)

  • Nordic Lichen Society (Nordisk Lichenologisk Förening)

  • Norwegian Mycological Association (Norsk Soppforening)

  • South African Society for Plant Pathology

International Mycological Congress IMC-5

The IMA Executive had accepted the invitation of American mycologists to hold IMC-5 on the campus of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, on 14–21 August 1994. The official invitation originated in the Mycological Society of America. Dr. D. A. Griffiths was named as Secretary-designate for IMC-5.

Chapter 8

IMC-4: 28 August – 3 September 1990 — Regensburg, Germany. Fig. 5

Fig. 5
figure5

A. H.A. van der Aa, J.A. von Arx & Prof. Kerling, CBS function, the Netherlands. B, C. IMC4 — Regensburg (1990). B. D.L. Hawksworth. C. A. Bresinsky.

At the final Plenary Session of IMC-3 (Tokyo), IMA Secretary-General Hawksworth read the decision of the Executive Committee to accept the proposal of German mycological and botanical societies to host IMC-4 in August 1990 in Regensburg, Germany. Dates were set for 28 August–3 September on the campus of the University of Regensburg. The Officers and Organizing Committee of IMC-4 were announced (all from Germany except as noted):

President: J. Poelt
Vice-Presidents: H. Kreisel
  M. Moser
  E. Müller (Switzerland)
Secretary-General: A. Bresinsky
Treasurer: P. Blanz
Organizing Committee:  
the Officers and  
  F. Oberwinkler
  H. P. Molitoris
  W. Gams (Netherlands)
  J. Webster (U.K.)
  H. O. Schwantes
  O. Mergenthaler

Three Circulars and two issues of the IMA News carried invitations and preliminary information; registration, hotel, tour, program and poster information; and finally an outline of the Scientific Program, listing symposium topics, conveners, and speakers. Oberwinkler was Program Chairman; Molitoris chaired the Local Organizing Committee; Gams served as a Special Adviser; Webster voiced input from the IMA; Schwantes represented the Mycology Section of the Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft; and Mergenthaler represented the Regensburgische Botanische Gesellschaft.

Attendance

IMC-4 proved to be the largest such congress to date. There were 1664 registrants (including 171 accompanying persons). Sixty countries were represented, with the largest contingents from Germany (D.D.R. and F.R.G.), U.S.A., U.K., and the countries of Eastern Europe.

Scientific Program

An Opening Lecture highlighted the Opening Ceremony on the first day of the congress (A. Bresinsky: Science in Regensburg 1790–1990: Jacob Christian Schaeffer and the Botanical Society). This was followed by an Honorary Lecture (K. Esser: Molecular aspects in aging — facts and perspectives.) Thirteen General Lectures were programmed among the afternoon sessions of the seven-day schedule. These invitational lectures covered topics dealing with aspects of aerobiology, medical issues, mycorrhizas, growth and development, secondary metabolites, teaching, conservation, biotechnological applications, lichens, neoteny, and evolution.

The core of the Program was designed to exploit the expertise of invited speakers. It consisted of seven days of 62 symposia and 27 workshops grouped into seven subject sections, with poster sessions organized on five days. Films, workshops, and poster sessions were scheduled for evenings of six of the congress days. Subject sections were:

  • Systematics and Evolution

  • Morphology and Ultrastructure Ecology

  • Genetics and Physiology

  • Biotechnology and Applied Mycology Pathology

  • Special Topics; for example, chemotaxonomy, information systems, culture collections, nomenclature

Exhibitions

Five special exhibitions of material with unique mycological interest were organized in locations easily accessible to registrants. They were:

  • The History of Botany in Regensburg and the Botanical Society (1790–1990). (Regensburg Museum)

  • The History of Mycology in Bavaria. (Zentralbibliothek, near Congress Center)

  • Paintings of Higher Fungi. (Zentralbibliothek, near Congress Center)

  • Fungi on Stamps. (Zentralbibliothek, near Congress Center)

  • Scientific Books on Mycology. (Congress Center)

All-inclusive Social Events

An informal reception initiated social interaction on the evening of the first day of registration. On Wednesday evening of the congress, an All-Congress Reception was sponsored by the City of Regensburg. The Congress Dinner was held on Friday evening. And a Farewell Party on the University Campus served as an informal finale after the IMC-4 Closing Ceremony on 3 September.

Publications of IMC-4

A comprehensive Program booklet was accompanied by a volume of Abstracts representing all lectures, oral presentations, and posters contributed to the congress. An extra-congress volume containing the texts of honorary and general lectures was published by C.A.B. International on behalf of the IMA and the International Mycological Institute (Hawksworth, ed. 1991).

Pre- and Post-Congress Forays and Workshops

  • Foray. Alpine and Subalpine Mycology with Special Emphasis on Agaricales in Obergurgl, Austria (organizers M. Moser, E. Horak, R. Pöder)

  • Foray. Aphyllophorales and other Wood-inhabiting Fungi in the Regensburg Area (organizers M. Fischer, N. Luschka) Workshop. Ophiostomatales (organizers M. J. Wakefield and K. Seifert)

  • Foray. Parasitic Fungi including Lower Fungi, Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes, parasiticBasidiomycetes (RustFungi, Smut Fungi, Exobasidium) in Davos, Switzerland (organizer E. Müller) Foray. Agaricales and other Fleshy Fungi in the Regensburg Area (organizers H. Besl and A. Bresinsky)

  • Foray. Aphyllophorales in the Bavarian Woods near Mittelsteighhütte and Ludwigsthal (organizers I. Nuss and H. Grosse-Brauckmann)

  • Workshop.Characterisation and Identification of Mycorrhizae (organizer R. Agerer)

Closing Ceremony

The final General Session of IMC-4 addressed the activities of the IMA Officers and Executive Committee during the 1983–1990 period between IMC-3 and IMC-4. Most of this activity is summarized in Chapter 7, which covers IMA official business begun at Tokyo and ending at Regensburg, 3 September 1990.

The fundamental commitment of IMA to promote and support regional mycological groups was observed through special attention to reports of the several Regional Committees for the Development of Mycology, currently for Africa, Asia, and Latin America, and potentially for Europe.

Revision of IMA Statutes

A revised set of Statutes, sorted out through three draft versions with the input of members of the Executive Committee, was discussed and accepted at the General Assembly of IMC-4. (See Chapter 21, Statutes.)

It was announced that the IMA Executive had accepted the invitation of North American mycologists to hold the International Mycological Congress IMC-5 on the campus of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, 14–21 August 1994. The official invitation originated in the Mycological Society of America. IMA Officers and Members of the Executive Committee for 1990–1994 were announced. See Chapter 9, IMA 1990–1994, for complete roster.

President: D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
Honorary Presidents: G. C. Ainsworth (U.K.)
  K. Esser (Germany)
  J. Poelt (Austria)
  J. Webster (U.K.)
Secretary-General: C. Kurtzman (U.S.A.)
Treasurer: H. A. van der Aa (Netherlands)
Vice-Presidents: A. Bresinsky (Germany)
  E. Moore-Landecker (U.S.A.)
  J. I. Pitt (Australia)
  A. K. Sarbhoy (India)

Chapter 9

IMA 1990–1994: between IMC-4 Regensburg and IMC-5 Vancouver

The roster of IMA officers for 1990–1994, along with the names of newly elected members of the.Executive.Committee, had.been.announced. at. the. inal. General. Assembly. of. IMC-4. Regensburg. The 1990–1994 IMA Executive represented. 15. regional. and. national. IMA. adherents.

President: D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
Honorary Presidents: G. C. Ainsworth (U.K.)
  K. Esser (Germany)
  J. Poelt (Austria)
  J. Webster (U.K.)
Vice-Presidents: A. Bresinsky (Germany)
  E. Moore-Landecker (U.S.A.)
  J. I. Pitt (Australia)
  A. K. Sarbhoy (India)
Secretary-General: C. P. Kurtzman (U.S.A.)
Treasurer: H. A. van der Aa (Netherlands)
Executive Committee: M. Blackwell (U.S.A.)
  G. C. Carroll (U.S.A.)
  F. A. Chanakire-Nyahwa (Zimbabwe)
  H. S. Chung (Korea)
  O. Eriksson (Sweden)
  M. Lawrynowicz (Poland)
  B. C. Lodha (India)
  E. MacKenzie (New Zealand)
  J. Mouchacca (France)
  A. A. Razak (Egypt)
  I. K. Ross (U.S.A.)
  S. P. Wasser (U.S.S.R.)

The 1990–1994 inter-congress years were a period of relative stability in operations of the IMA officers and Executive Committee. Statutes, congress organization, and regional committee activity required IMA official but non-controversial attention.

A revised version of Statutes had been approved by the General Assembly of the IMA during IMC-4, Regensburg, 3 September 1990. This revision stressed the financial relationships of Sustaining Organization Members, ordinary Organization Members, and Individual Members, with the view that financial support from members, though not burdensome, was essential for successful operation of the increasingly large and complex IMA operation.

Offers by the IMA for the IUMS Division of Mycology to have joint congresses in 1990 and 1994 had been rebuffed. IMA Executive had concluded that collaboration between IMA and the Division of Mycology of IUMS had become a dead issue, as far as joint congresses or programs were concerned. This allowed IMA officers to focus on IMA congresses without dilution of their identity.

IMA Statutes in effect for 1990–1994 stipulated that the IMA Executive Committee would appoint a minimum of one and a maximum of three representatives to the Organizing Committee established for each congress. Insertion of IMA officers into the organizational procedures and problems of individual congresses did not occur for IMC-2 (Tampa) or for IMC-3 (Tokyo) for sufficient reasons. However, in arrangements for IMC-4 (Regensburg 1990) Past-President Webster had served as an official member of the Organizing Committee; and for IMC-5 (Vancouver 1994), two IMA officers served on the Organizing Committee: IMA President D. L. Hawksworth and Secretary-General C. P. Kurtzman.

Four issues of IMA News were distributed in the period 1987 to 1994. The first two issues dealt primarily with announcements and news leading into IMC-4 Regensburg but also contained notes on activity of IMA regional committees for development of mycology. The latter two issues focused on preparations for IMC-5 Vancouver but also reported increasing activity of regional groups that are of professional interest and IMA statutory concern.

Chapter 10

IMC-5: 14–21 August 1994 — Vancouver, Canada. Fig. 6

Fig. 6
figure6

IMC5 — Vancouver (1994). A, B. F. Oberwinkler. C. T. Griffiths (photo by Elaine Simons Lang). D. M. Blackwell. E. Anasat workshop participants. F. African Mycological Association inaugural meeting, A. Peerally (middle), D.L. Hawksworth (right).

At the final Plenary Session of IMC-4 (Regensburg) it was announced that the IMA Executive had accepted the invitation of North American mycologists to hold the International Mycological Congress IMC-5 on the campus of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, 14–21 August 1994. The official invitation originated in the Mycological Society of America.

The Officers and Organizing Committee of IMC-5 planned and formalized not only the main Scientific Program but also numerous social functions and satellite meetings of adherent organizations. IMC-5 Secretary-General Anthony Griffiths is regularly credited as the person responsible for getting IMC-5 to Vancouver in the first place and, in general, putting the project together, including the selection of team members. The official roster oforganizers included:

President:  
  R. J. Bandoni (Canada)
Honorary Vice-President:  
  M. E. Barr Bigelow (Canada)
Honorary Vice-President:  
  Etta Käfer (Canada)
Honorary Vice-President:  
  M. Shaw (Canada)
IMA Representative:  
  D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
IMA Representative:  
  C. P. Kurtzman (U.S.A.)
Secretary-General:  
  A. J. F. Griffiths (Canada)
Program Chairman:  
  I. B. Heath (Canada)
Finance:  
  L. Lasure (U.S.A.)
Publications:  
  M. Berbee (Canada)
Field Trips and MSA Representative:  
  J. Ammirati (U.S.A.)
Local Arrangements:  
  B. Pepin (Canada)
Exhibits:  
  B. Chalmers (Canada)
International Arrangements:  
  Z. Punja (Canada)

Attendance

The IMC-5 attendance total was 1600, which was only slightly below that of the 1664 registrants at IMC-4 (Regensburg) but decidedly up from the 950 of IMC-1 (Exeter), the 1207 of IMC-2 (Tampa), and the 900 of IMC-3 (Tokyo).

Scientific Program and Publications

Program Chairman Brent Heath and his committee developed the program with a “state-of-the-art” viewpoint. Committee members G. Cole, L. Glass, D. Gwynne, D. Malloch, R. Nicholson, and J. Taylor chose to organize daily Congress Symposia in each of what were perceived to be the major areas of mycology: Cell biology, Ecology, Genetics, Industrial mycology, Medical mycology, Symbioses (including plant pathology), and Taxonomy.

The committee selected an opening Plenary Lecture to highlight the interconnections among diverse areas of mycology. A. P. J. Trinci used Pure and Applied Mycology as the title of his paper that opened the congress program.

Sixteen General Symposia were distributed throughout the mornings of six congress days; there were 207 presentations in these invitational General Symposia. Another 547 individual papers were organized into Contributed Symposia, which occupied mid- to late-afternoon slots of five days. Viewing and scheduled times for discussion of 892 poster contributions were arranged for the early afternoon of five days.

The Program Committee, along with the editor and publisher of the Canadian Journal of Botany, cooperated in publication of the congress symposium papers. About 80% of these invited papers eventually appeared in peer-reviewed, formal publication in a two-volume special issue of the CJB (I. B. Heath, ed. 1995).

In addition to the CJB publication of symposium papers, the congress issued a General Program of 158 pages and a 272-page book of abstracts. A special contribution, A History of Mycology in Canada (R. H. Estey 1993), had been commissioned by the Organizing Committee of the congress and was distributed at the congress as a reprint from the Canadian Journal of Botany.

Opening Ceremony

IMC-5 President Bandoni welcomed congress participants. IMA President Hawksworth followed with comments on Challenges in Mycology. The keynote address of the congress then was delivered by A. P. J. Trinci. The platform dignitaries and audience then were led into the first social reception of the congress in the train of a bagpiper in full regalia.

Social Events

Congress organizers arranged one evening for participants to experience a “West Coast Salmon Barbeque” at the Museum of Anthropology. The meal was as sumptuous as the setting: the museum’s outside panoramic view of ocean and mountains and inside unparalleled collection of Northwest Coast Indian art and totem poles.

On another evening the Mycological Society of America and the British Mycological Society hosted an all-congress reception. And on the final available evening for social events, the Mycological Society of America, with an open invitation to all congress attendees, held its annual auction of mycological treasures and trivia.

Pre and Post-congress events: Forays

Several forays in British Columbia and Oregon were offered in pre-congress announcements. Some were cancelled, but others are well documented.

Pre-Congress Field Trip: Alpine and Subalpine Areas around Whistler, BC. Aug. 12–14, 1994. Organizer: Paul Kroeger. About 65 people stayed at Tantalus Lodge (Whistler Village) and spent three days collecting near Whistler, which included a gondola ride to alpine meadows and an excursion to subalpine Callaghan Lake.

Post-Congress Field Trip: The Lichens of Southwestern British Columbia. Aug. 22–28, 1994. Organizers: Irwin M. Brodo and Trevor Goward. About 50 lichenologists spent the first day collecting in the coastal hemlock zone and then continued by ski-gondola to the Whistler Mountain site visited by the pre-congress foray. The group then split into three groups, which spent three days in a variety of ecological zones of Wells Gray Provincial Park. The mainland portion of the foray ended on the fifth day, when a few members of the group left for a field trip to Vancouver Island. (DeBolt 1994; Highlights from the Post-IMC5 British Columbia Field Trip. Intl. Lichenological Newsletter 27(3): 49–52. Oct. 1994.)

Post-Congress Foray and Workshop: Fungi and Forests. Aug. 22–25, 1994. Organizers: George Carroll, Dan Luoma, Art McKee. H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest near Blue River, Oregon.

Related Meetings During Congress

IMC-5 was notable for the large number of meetings scheduled for committees, organizations, and other working groups with mycological agenda. The International Association of Lichenologists held dinner and business meetings. Several IMA Regional Committees convened, specifically the committees for Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America. The Special Committee on Fungi of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy met, as did the newly adherent International Commission on Taxonomy of Fungi. Sessions were held for editors of publications focused on experimental mycology/mycological research.

Financial Status of IMC-5

IMC-5 (Vancouver) was very successful in terms of participation, level of scientific contributions, and documentation. However, the decision to publish most of the Congress Symposium papers in a special Supplement of the Canadian Journal of Botany (2 vols., ca. 1450 pages) proved costly and, with other unforeseen financial problems, budget-breaking. This deficit had absorbed significant amounts of the statutory membership fees collected on behalf of IMA. As a result, it became necessary for IMA to cover loans made to IMC-5 by supporting agencies.

Closing Ceremony

The following resolution was unanimously passed by the General Assembly of IMC 5:

The Fifth International Mycological Congress, meeting in Vancouver on 14–21 August 1994, recognizing the crucial importance of fungi to global food security, human health, wealth creation, and the conservation of ecosystems, and being concerned at the limited attention given to fungal resources in international, regional and national programs in both developed and less-developed countries, resolves as follows:

The Congress urges the International Mycological Association, regional and national societies, and each mycologist to take action to ensure that the importance of fungi (including lichen-forming fungi and yeasts) is more widely appreciated in schools and universities, amongst other scientists, and at the political level.

The Congress notes with pleasure the activities of the IMA Regional Committees for Africa, Asia, and Latin America since the last Congress, and the emerging programs of BioNET-INTERNATIONAL, and encourages funding agencies to support these activities as they strengthen mycology in those countries with greatest need.

The Congress was particularly concerned over the current provisions and prospects for mycology (including lichenology) in the national and provincial institutions in Canada, and urges the government of Canada to establish a new review to determine in consultation with user groups, the appropriate level of mycological support required to meet the national need.

The final General Assembly of IMC-5 also allowed the IMA Executive to summarize activities of adherent organizations and to confirm the site of IMC-6 as Jerusalem, Israel, 23–28 August 1998. Newly elected IMA Officers and Members of the Executive Committee for 1994–1998 were announced. See Chapter 11, IMA 1994–1998, for a complete roster of Officers and Executive Committee.

President:  
  F. Oberwinkler (Germany)
Honorary Presidents:  
  G. C. Ainsworth (U.K.)
  K. Esser (Germany)
  D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
  J. Webster (U.K.)
Secretary-General:  
  M. Blackwell (U.S.A.)
Treasurer:  
  M. Noordeloos (Netherlands)
Vice-Presidents:  
  A. J. F. Griffiths (Canada)
  C. P. Kurtzman (U.S.A.)
  A. Peerally (Mauritius)
  A. A. Razak (Egypt)

Chapter 11

IMA 1994–1998: between IMC-5 Vancouver and IMC-6 Jerusalem

The roster of IMA officers for 1994–1998, including the names of newly elected members of the Executive Committee, was announced at the final General Assembly of IMC-5, Vancouver. The 1994–1998 IMA Executive, representing 15 regional and national IMA adherents, became:

President: F. Oberwinkler (Germany)
Honorary Presidents: G. C. Ainsworth (U.K.)
  K. Esser (Germany)
  D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
  J. Webster (U.K.)
Vice-Presidents: A. J. F. Griffiths (Canada)
  C. P. Kurtzman (U.S.A.)
  A. Peerally (Mauritius)
  A. A. Razak (Egypt)
Secretary-General: M. Blackwell (U.S.A.)
Treasurer: M. Noordeloos (Netherlands)
Executive Committee: J. C. Dianese (Brazil)
  M. Galun (Israel)
  I. Kärnefelt (Sweden)
  M. A. Lachance (Canada)
  A. J. Masuka (Zimbabwe)
  V. Mel’nik (Russia)
  T. Natarajan (India)
  R. H. Peterson (U.S.A.)
  A. Rambelli (Italy)
  M. Rodriguez-Hernandez (Cuba)
  J. Sugiyama (Japan)
  A. J. S. Whalley (U.K.)

The 1994–1998 inter-congress years were a period of relative stability in actions of the IMA Officers and Executive Committee. Governing Statutes were in a revised version that had been approved in 1990 by the General Assembly of the IMA during IMC-4, Regensburg. These Statutes were notable in provisions related to the financial stability of IMA in its international operations.

A report by IMA Secretary-General Blackwell dated 26 August 1998, Jerusalem, summarized IMA Executive activity and related functions since August 1994 (IMC-5 Vancouver). First among these was a notice that the IMA had established an InterNet site, http://lsb380.plbio.lsu.edu/ima/index.html , which replaced the occasional IMA News. This website became obsolete but remained accessibly archived when major IMA activity was transferred to the subsequent organizing committee for IMC-7 (Oslo). IMC-7 was confirmed for 11–17 August 2002, on the campus of the University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Leif Ryvarden (Chairman) and Trond Schumacher (Vice-chairman) were named to head the Organizing Committee. An informational IMC-7 website took over the function of the obsolete IMC-6 homepage.

After more than 25 years of growing pains, the IMA had established a four-year cycle of international congresses. Up until at least 1994 the IMA Executive had offered a variety of collaborative meetings with the IUMS Division of Mycology and had entertained similar proposals from that Division of the microbiology group. No pattern of program cooperation satisfactory to both entities ever had developed. In 1998 the 1994–1998 IMA Executive was approached by the Secretary of the IUMS Division of Mycology and by the Chairman of the U. S. National Committee of IUMS with requests that IMA reschedule their planned 2006 congress and meet jointly under the sponsorship of IUMS in 2005. The invitations suggested a continuing lack of understanding of the history of the two fundamentally dissimilar mycological organizations. The IMA Executive Committee did not accept the IUMS invitation to reschedule its 2006 congress but reconfirmed its own four-year cycle of operation.

In 1994 the IMA Executive Committee had authorized creation of IMA awards. Two awards were established in 1996 on the occasion of the Silver Anniversary of the IMA: the Ainsworth Medal, in recognition of extraordinary service to world mycology; and the De Bary Medal, in recognition of lifetime research contributions to mycology. The initial awards were presented during the Centennial Meeting of the British Mycological Society, Sheffield, U.K., 9–12 April 1996. John Websterwas awarded the Ainsworth Medal; De Bary Medals were awarded to E. J. H. Corner and C. T. Ingold.

The IMA Executive remained active in fostering and supporting financially the Regional Mycology Committees that are IMA adherents. Regional congresses held during the 1994–1998 period were organized as the Third African Mycology Congress (Harare, Zimbabwe, 7–10 March 1995); the Asian Regional Committee Meeting (Taipei, Taiwan, 13–16 March 1995); the Asian Regional Committee Meeting (Goa, India, 20–22 January 1998); the Twelfth European Mycological Congress (Wageningen, The Netherlands, 3–7 September 1995); and the Second Latin America Mycological Congress (Havana, Cuba, 23–27 October 1996).

Financial factors that endangered the ability of IMA to support its mandated role in fostering international congresses and regional meetings became evident at this 1998 IMA Executive meeting. The previous IMC-5 (Vancouver) had been very successful in terms of participation and level of scientific contributions, but unforeseen financial problems of that congress had absorbed significant amounts of the statutory membership fees collected on behalf of IMA. As a result, it became necessary for IMA to cover loans made to IMC-5 by supporting agencies. A similar, equally serious financial loss occurred when organizers of IMC-6 (Jerusalem) declined to include the statutory individual membership fee in their congress registration structure. This local decision, despite IMA Executive remonstrance, deprived IMA of several thousands of operational dollars routinely destined as support for future international and regional mycology congresses (statutory fee of $20 uncollected for nearly 900 IMC-6 registrants).

IMA Officers and Executive Committee for 1998–2002

The final General Assembly of IMC-6 allowed the IMA Executive to summarize activities of adherent organizations and to confirm the site of IMC-7 as Oslo, Norway, 11–17 August 2002. Newly elected IMA Officers and Members of the Executive Committee for 1998–2002 were announced. See Chapter 13, IMA 1998–2002, for complete roster of Officers and Executive Committee.

President: Meredith Blackwell (U.S.A.)
Honorary Presidents: G. C. Ainsworth (U.K.)
  K. Esser (Germany)
  D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
  J. Webster (U.K.)
Secretary-General: J. B. Anderson (Canada)
Treasurer: N. Hallenberg (Sweden)
Vice-Presidents: C. P. Kurtzman (U.S.A.)
  A. J. Masuka (Zimbabwe)
  L. Ryvarden (Norway)
  J. Sugiyama (Japan)

Chapter 12

IMC-6: 23 – 28 August 1998 — Jerusalem, Israel. Fig. 7

Fig. 7
figure7

IMC6 — Jerusalem (1998). A. M. Galun. B. N. Hallenberg. C. L. Ryvarden.

At the final Plenary Session of IMC-5 (Vancouver) it was announced that the IMA Executive had accepted the invitation of mycologists in Israel to hold the International Mycological Congress IMC-6 in Jerusalem. The official invitation originated with Prof. Margalith Galun on behalf of supporting universities and research institutions in Israel.

The management structure of IMC-6 was based on an Organizing Committee and a Scientific Committee. The official rosters included (all Israeli except IMA representatives):

President: M. Galun
Vice-President: I. Barash
General Secretary: D. Prusky
Scientific Committee: Y. Koltin (Chairman)
Treasurer: A. Sztejnberg
IMA Representative: F. Oberwinkler (Germany)
IMA Representative: M. Blackwell (U.S.A.)
IMA Representative: M. E. Noordeloos (Netherlands)

Attendance

The IMC-6 attendance total was almost 900, with registrants from 55 countries. This attendance number was about the same as for IMC-1 (Exeter) and for IMC-3 (Tokyo) but considerably below that for IMC-2 (Tampa, 1207), IMC-4 (Regensburg, 1664), and IMC-5 (Vancouver, 1600).

Opening Ceremony

The congress was opened with greetings from the Chairman of the Organizing Committee, M. Galun, followed by comments by IMA President Oberwinkler and by Y. Koltin, Chairman of the Program Committee. The Keynote Lecture of the congress was delivered by S. G. Oliver, Yeasts and Fungi as Lead Organisms in Functional Genomics.

Scientific Program

The IMC-6 Scientific Program followed a relatively traditional format, with several concurrent symposia of invited papers scheduled for morning and afternoon sessions.

Each day’s program began with a plenary session, with D. L. Hawksworth, N. R. Morris, D. H. S. Richardson, and J. W. Taylor featured as lecturers on successive days. Poster sessions were arranged for the lunch-break period of each day, and a few workshops were substituted for symposium sessions. The program listed 43 symposia, 55 poster subject groupings with 335 presentations, and eight special-interest workshops.

Publications

A comprehensive program book of 144 pages included an index of about 1480 names of symposium speakers, co-authors, poster organizers, and workshop participants. The congress distributed a book of Abstracts of authors’ contributions (192 pages) prepared by photo-reproduction.

Finances

It had become standard practice for the IMA to make a seed-money loan to organizers early in the groundwork period of each congress. This was done as usual for the IMC-6 managers in the amount of US$10,000. Concurrently IMA officers pointed out that the IMA Statutes required that each congress incorporate a membership dues amount of $20 per registrant in its registration fee structure. The IMC-6 organizers, however, maintained that congress registration did not automatically confer IMA membership, in spite of IMA Statutes, and did not include the fee in their registration structure. This unilateral decision, despite IMA Executive remonstrance, deprived IMA of several thousands of operational dollars sorely needed in commitments to other international and regional mycology committee congresses. The statutory fee of $20 went uncollected for nearly 900 registrants. The seed-money loan of $10,000 was repaid.

Social Events

An initial informal Reception was held on Sunday evening preceding opening of the congress. A more formal Reception was held on Wednesday evening at the Israel Museum. Touristic and folklore presentations were offered on all evenings.

Chapter 13

IMA 1998–2002: between IMC-6 Jerusalem and IMC-7 Oslo

The roster of IMA officers for 1998–2002, along with the names of newly elected members of the Executive Committee, had been finalized by the close of IMC-6 (Jerusalem). The 1998–2002 IMA Executive represented 17 regional and national IMA adherents.

President: M. Blackwell (U.S.A.)
Honorary Presidents: G. C. Ainsworth (U.K.)
  K. Esser (Germany)
  J. Webster (U.K.)
  D. L Hawksworth (U.K.)
Vice-Presidents: C. P. Kurtzman (U.S.A.)
  A. J. Masuka (Zimbabwe)
  L. Ryvarden (Norway)
  J. Sugiyama (Japan)
Secretary-General: J. B. Anderson (Canada)
Treasurer: N. Hallenberg (Sweden)
Executive Committee: R. Courtecuisse (France)
  P. R. Johnston (New Zealand)
  P. Lizon (Slovak Republic)
  A. Nakagiri (Japan)
  P. L. Nimis (Italy)
  M. Rajchenberg (Argentina)
  S. Rosendahl (Denmark)
  G. San Blas (Venezuela)
  B. Spooner (U.K.)
  B. A. Summerell (Australia)
  J. W. Taylor (U.S.A.)
  W.-Y. Zhuang (China)

The 1998–2002 inter-congress years were a period of relative stability in actions of the IMA officers and Executive Committee. This permitted the IMA Executive to concentrate on support of current and emerging regional mycological groups and to focus its involvement in preparations for IMC-7 (Oslo) in 2002.

Interim reports by President Blackwell emphasized the ongoing status of the International Mycological Association as the Section for General Mycology of the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) and thus as a primary component of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). This prefaced a reiterative agenda item that has defied solution, namely, agreement to avoid conflicting congress schedules for IMA and the Mycology Section of the International Union of Microbiological Sciences. As usual, no agreement was reached, and IMA reaffirmed its established four-year cycle for international mycological congresses.

Both the IMA Website organized in the office of President Blackwell (http://lsb380.plbio.lsu.edu/ima/index.html) and the newly activated site for organizers of IMC-7 (Oslo) (http://www.uio.no/conferences/imc7) were fully operational and in use.

The IMA Executive maintained its strong constitutional commitment to foster and support financially the Regional Mycology Committees that are IMA adherents. Regional congresses held during the 1998–2002 period had been organized as the Third Latin America Mycological Congress (Caracas, Venezuela, 30 August-3 September 1999); the Thirteenth European Mycological Congress (Madrid, Spain, 21–25 September 1999); and the IMA Committee for Asia’s Mycological Conference on Biodiversity and Biotechnology (Hong Kong, 9–14 July 2000).

It is standard practice that the IMA Executive lends seed money to the official organizing body of each international mycological congress. For various reasons IMC-5 (Vancouver) and IMC-6 (Jerusalem) were unable to repay their loans entirely or to augment IMA Treasury funds by way of membership dues when they closed their congress accounts. At IMC-7 (Oslo) the physical campus facilities of the University of Oslo were donated for the use of this congress. This factor and other direct support allowed IMC-7 to show a surplus of NOK 99,321 (ca. US$13,000 at 2002 exchange rates). Financial management of the Oslo congress allowed repayment of its $10,000 loan from the IMA and the transfer to IMA of ca. $20,700 of IMA membership dues collected as a part of the congress registration fee.

Sustaining and Affiliated Societies active in 1998–2002

  • Associacione Micologica G. Bresadola

  • British Lichen Society

  • British Mycological Society

  • Czech Scientific Society of Mycology

  • Danish Mycological Society

  • German Mycological Society

  • International Societyfor Mushroom Science

  • Korean Society of Mycology

  • Mycological Society of America

  • Mycological Society of Finland

  • Mycological Society of Japan

  • Mycological Society of the Republic of China

  • Netherlands Mycological Society

  • Norwegian Mycological Society

  • Societa Veneziana de Micologia

  • South African Society for Plant Pathology

  • Unione Micologico Italiana

Chapter 14

IMC-7: 11–17 August 2002 — Oslo, Norway. Figs 8, 9

Fig. 8
figure8

IMC7 — Oslo (2002). A. C. Pfister, A.Y. Rossman, T. Iturriaga, D. Pfister. B. G. Arnold, E.B.G. Jones. C. D. Geiser, A. Kretzer, T. Horton, D. Hibbett, J. Spatafora. D. K. Korf, R.P. Korf. E. M. Blackwell, N.L. Hywel-Jones. F. J. Sugiyama, M.L. Berbee, W. Meyer. G. L. Petrini, P.M. Kirk, M. Reblova. H. J. Coleman, R. Watling. I. R. Zare. J. J.E. Taylor, B.D. Wingfield, B.A. Summerell. K. M. Blackwell, J. Sugiyama. L. G.L. Hennebert. M. E.G. Simmons. N. M.J. Wingfield.

Fig. 9
figure9

IMC7 — Oslo (2002). A. T. Iturriaga, D. Minter. B. P.W. Crous. C. P. Johnston. D. L. Ryvarden. E. E. McKenzie. F. R.K. Salal, J. Mouchacca. G. T. James, M.C. Aime, T. Henkel. H. C.P. Kurtzman, E.G. Simmons. I. W. Gams, D.L. Hawksworth, C.P. Kurtzman. J. W. Meyer. K. Y. Degawa. L. T. Vrålstad. M. T. Schumacher.

At the final Plenary Session of IMC-6 (Jerusalem) it was announced that the IMA Executive had accepted the invitation of Norway mycologists and institutions to hold the International Mycological Congress IMC-7 on the campus of the University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. The official invitation originated in the Mycological Group of the Biological Institute, University of Oslo. Meeting dates later were announced as 11–17 August 2002.

The Officers and Organizing Committee of IMC-7 planned and formalized not only the main Scientific Program but also numerous social functions, workshops, field trips, and satellite meetings of adherent organizations. The roster of organizers named 18 individuals, headed by:

Organizing Committee: Leif Ryvarden (Chair)
Organizing Committee: Trond Schumacher (Vice-chair)
Scientific Program: Trond Schumacher (Chair)
Exhibition Committee: Anna-Elise Torkelsen (Chair)
Social Program: Trude Vrålstad (Chair)
Media Committee: Gro Gulden (Chair)
Congress Forays: Klaus Høiland
Website: Jonathan Colman
IMC-7 Secretariat: Jonathan Colman
IMA Executive Committee: Nils Hallenberg

Attendance and Finances

The IMC-7 attendance total was 1389, which was only slightly below that of the 1664 registrants at IMC-4 (Regensburg) but decidedly up from the 950 of IMC-1 (Exeter), the 1207 of IMC-2 (Tampa), the 900 of IMC-3 (Tokyo), and the 900 of IMC-6 (Jerusalem). Participants were from 83 countries; they included 212 student registrants and 103 grant recipients.

The entire IMC-7 was run at a direct cost of ca. US$821,600. Sponsor contributions and free use of the University infrastructure, plus registrant fees, allowed IMC-7 to show a surplus of ca. US$13,000. Financial management of the Oslo congress allowed it to repay its $10,000 seed-money loan from the IMA and to transfer to IMA ca. $20,700 of IMA membership dues collected as a part of the congress registration fee.

Scientific Program and Publications

Program Chairman Schumacher and his committee developed the program around five major themes: Biodiversity and conservation; Systematics, phylogeny, and evolution; Pathogens and nuisances, food, and medicine; Population dynamics and ecology; and Cell biology and physiology. Congress Symposia of invited papers were held in parallel morning sessions on five days of the congress. Symposia of contributed papers were scheduled in parallel sessions on the afternoons and early evenings of four of the congress days. The poster exhibition hall was open daily; poster discussion sessions representing the five major congress themes were scheduled without program conflicts on three of the afternoons. The program comprised 447 invited and contributed lectures; 762 posters were displayed.

The congress issued a General Program of 97 pages and a 387-page book of Abstracts. The abstracts are archived on the website of the IMA. They include not only an Index to Authors but also separate indexes of fungus genus and family names that occur in the abstracts.

Social Events and Organized Exhibitions

The IMC-7 Opening Ceremony at the Oslo Concert Hall on Sunday evening was followed on Monday evening by a more formal reception which was hosted by the Mayor of Oslo at the historical, art-filled Oslo City Hall.

Opening of the congress featured a talk by IMA President Meredith Blackwell, in which she summarized the development of IMA component Regional Committees and Sustaining and Affiliated Societies and emphasized the enormous contributions of mycologists to GenBank and other data banks useful to scientific interests in many fields. A surprising highlight of opening night was a cameo appearance by mycological forefather Elias M. Fries, duplicated in period costume and vocabulary by R. P. Korf.

A full evening on Thursday was devoted to an extended Congress Dinner of Norwegian specialties and wine, continuing with entertainment of music and dancing. A beer tent in the center of the campus esplanade activity was open each afternoon and evening for informal gatherings. And topping one late evening was a Wines of the World affair for which participants brought, shared, and judged yeast-transformed potions from home countries.

An Art Gallery display entitled Art and Stamps formed one special exhibit of original paintings, ethno-mycological artifacts, and an expansive myco-philatelic collection. A public Fungus Exhibition of living specimens was organized for the general-interest visitor. Commercial Exhibitor displays represented 45 equipment, publishing, and educational facilities.

Pre- and Post-congress events: Forays

Six pre-congress and eight post-congress field trips were offered in preliminary announcements of IMC-7. Firm registrations permitted successful forays to alpine Finse (15 participants), Mustiala “Recollecting P. A. Karsten” (14), fjord/boreal/alpine Sogndal (13), arctic Svalbard (13), lichen-emphasis Finsås (10), and boreal and bogs Tømte (10).

Related meetings during the congress

IMC-7 allowed several committees, organizations, and other working groups with mycological agenda to schedule meetings during the congress. Most of these were “invited only” in order to allow for discussion and transaction of ongoing business. Groups included executives of the British Mycological Society and of the Mycological Society of America; subcommissions on Trichoderma and on Fusarium of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi; and editorial representatives of Mycoscience and of The Lichenologist.

Closing Ceremony

The General Assembly on the final day of IMC-7 allowed IMA President Blackwell to summarize activities of adherent organizations and to announce a Congress Award to each of five young mycologists for jury-selected best paper in each of the five major congress themes. (See “Scientific Program and Publications” above).

The site of IMC-8 was confirmed as Cairns, Queensland, Australia, for 21–25 August 2006. Newly elected IMA Officers and Members of the Executive Committee for 2002–2006 were announced. See Chapter 15, IMA 2002–2006, for a complete roster of Officers and Executive Committee.

President: T. Schumacher (Norway)
Honorary Presidents: K. Esser (Germany)
  D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
  E. G. Simmons (U.S.A.)
  J. Webster(U.K.)
Vice-Presidents: T. Bruns (U.S.A.)
  J. Cifuentes (Mexico)
  E. McKenzie (New Zealand)
  B. Summerell (Australia)
Secretary-General: G. San Blas (Venezuela)
Treasurer: N. Hallenberg (Sweden)

Chapter 15

IMA 2002–2006: between IMC-7 Oslo and IMC-8 Cairns

The roster of IMA officers for 2002–2006, along with the names of newly elected members of the Executive Committee, had been finalized by the close of IMC-7 (Oslo). The 2002–2006 IMA Executive represented 18 regional and national IMA adherents.

President: T. Schumacher (Norway)
Honorary Presidents: K. Esser (Germany)
  D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
  E. G. Simmons (U.S.A.)
  J. Webster (U.K.)
Vice-Presidents: T. Bruns (U.S.A.)
  J. Cifuentes (Mexico)
  E. McKenzie (New Zealand)
  B. Summerell (Australia)
Secretary-General: G. San Blas (Venezuela)
Treasurer: N. Hallenberg (Sweden)
Executive Committee: T. V. Andrianova (Ukraine)
  M. Berbee (Canada)
  C. Brasier (U.K.)
  S.-W. Chiu (China)
  P. W. Crous (South Africa)
  H. Jung (Korea)
  M. Kakishima (Japan)
  E. Mwenje (Zimbabwe)
  M. Piepenbring (Germany)
  G. Ridley (New Zealand)
  G. Venturella (Italy)
  R. Zare (Iran)

The 2002–2006 inter-congress years were a period of relative stability in actions of the IMA officers and Executive Committee. The IMA Executive focused on support of current and emerging regional mycological groups as well as on its involvement in preparations for IMC-8 (Cairns) in 2006. The IMA membership dues structure was modified and the guidelines for bids on future congresses were revised.

President Schumacher announced the establishment and content of an IMA Website: www.mycology.org (later revised to www.IMA-mycology.org). He reported that the IMA had provided funding for congresses of the African Mycological Association and the Latin American Mycological Association as well as seed money for early organization needs of the IMC-8 (Cairns). An application to join the IMA as a regional associate had been received from the European Mycological Association.

The Executive Committee once again was asked to consider changing the established four-year cycle of IMA congresses in order to meet with the Mycology Section of the International Union of Microbiological Sciences. The Executive discussion of the relationship showed that IMA invitations for the IUMS Mycology Section to participate in IMA congresses never have been accepted and that the reasons for IMA to meet as a secondary component of an IUMS congress never have been persuasive. The IMA Executive continued to maintain its view that the IMA discipline-wide representation of international mycologists inhibits efforts to submerge IMA interests within the comparatively restricted mycological range of the IUMS.

IMA Treasurer Hallenberg’s report in mid-2006 showed a healthy balance of US$45,000, representing significant recovery in the account following receipt of IMA membership dues collected at IMC-7 (Oslo) and surplus funds from that meeting. The IMC-8 (Cairns) economic picture suffered because of relatively low attendance. The congress broke even financially but was unable to repay the US$10,000 seed money advanced by the IMA. However, it had collected statutory IMA membership dues from registrants and duly transferred a balance of US$12,717 to the IMA Treasurer.

The IMA Executive realized that its statutory membership dues of US$20 never would provide funds sufficient to the needs of IMA objectives, which included support of Regional Committees and expansion into website, publication, information sharing, workshops, and similar activities. Agreement was reached to raise individual dues to €30, collectible through the congress registration fee and from Sustaining Organizations.

New activities were considered at length. The MycoBank concept of an on-line database of mycological nomenclatural novelties and associated data was proposed as an activity appropriate for IMA sponsorship. This data base (already active in 2006 at the Centraal bureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, Netherlands) was viewed by the IMA Executive as a vital step toward establishing a virtual laboratory promoting mycology.

(MycoBank was initiated by CBS but has operated since 2007 under the auspices of the International Mycological Association (www.IMA-mycology.org).) Another novel concept, an Electronic Dictionary of the Fungi, was proposed as a goal, to be hosted freely on the IMA website and to be linked to emerging pertinent literature.

Chapter 16

IMC-8: 21–25 August 2006 — Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Figs 10, 11

Fig. 10
figure10

IMC8 — Cairns (2006). A. Participants to the ANASAT workshop, “From spore to culture”. B. M. Kolařík, P.W. Crous, M. Arzanlou, M. Aveskamp, W. Gams. C. K.A. Seifert, P.W. Crous & B.A. Summereil. D. V. Robert, U. Himmelreich, H.-M. Daniel. E. E.S.E. Baker, B. Robbertse, C.L. Schoch. F. R. Zare, W. Gams. G. R.C. Summereil, U. Simon, M. Arzanlou. H. M. Stadler, J. Pitt. I. J. Stalpers, W. Sjamsuridzal. J. K. Ando, G. Bills. K. R.A. Samson, J. Spatafora, P.W. Crous. L. D.L. Hawksworth, L. Norvell. M.A.Y. Rossman, U. Simon, B. Oertel, C. Guiedan. N. J. Spatafora, C.L. Schoch. O. E. McKenzie, E.B.G. Jones. P. D. Begerow, W. de Beer. Q. I. Okane, M. Aveskamp. R. J. Stenlid, B. Slippers.

Fig. 11
figure11

IMC8 — Cairns (2006). A. I. Okane, K.D. Hyde, A. Nakagiri. B. J. Taylor, P.W. Crous, with famous “one fungus one name wine”. C. A.Y. Rossman, K.A. Seifert, L. Lange. D. M. Arzanlou, M. Sudhadham, M. van den Hoeven-Verweij. E. D. Geiser, B. Oertel, W. Meyer. F. W. Gams. G. S. Rosendahl. H. K.A. Seifert. I. J. Taylor, J. Pitt. J. J.K. Stone. K. M.A. Lachance. L. C.P. Kurtzman. M. N. Hallenberg, U. Köljalg. N. G.J.M. Verkley, P.W. Crous, S. Goodwin. O. L. Villareal. P. B.A. Summerell, P.W. Crous. Q. G.C. Carrol, A.Y. Rossman. R. K.A. Seifert, S. Hambleton.

At the final Plenary Session of IMC-7 (Oslo) it was announced that the IMA Executive had accepted the invitation of Australia and New Zealand mycologists and institutions to hold the International Mycological Congress IMC-8 in Australia. The place and dates were to be Cairns, Queensland, 21–26 August 2006. The official invitation originated in the Australasian Mycological Society, which was named as host.

The Organizing Committee of IMC-8 arranged the mechanics of the event with the help of a professional convention secretariat. However, the Organizing Committee, with input from the Local Scientific Committee and from an International Scientific Advisory Committee, took full responsibility for the structure and quality of the program of scientific presentations, workshops, tours, forays, and social functions.

The Organizing Committee:

(*Local Scientific Committee)

  • Wieland Meyer* (Australia; Chair)

  • Ceri Pearce (Australia; Vice-Chair)

  • David Ellis (Australia)

  • Paul Godek (Australia)

  • Cheryl Grgurinovic* (Australia)

  • Kevin Hyde (Hong Kong)

  • Eric McKenzie (New Zealand)

  • John Pitt*(Australia)

  • Geoff Ridley (New Zealand)

  • Roger Shivas (Australia)

  • Brett Summerell* (Australia)

  • Jack Simpson* (Australia)

The International Scientific Advisory Committee:

  • Teun Boekhout (Netherlands)

  • Peter K. Buchanan (New Zealand)

  • Alvano Fonseca (Australia)

  • Jens Frisvad (Denmark)

  • Barbara Howlett (Australia)

  • M. Kakishima (Japan)

  • Cletus Kurtzman (U.S.A.)

  • Lene Lange (Denmark)

  • Francois Lutzoni (U.S.A.)

  • Rosely Zancope-Oliveira (Brazil)

  • Gioconda San Blas (Venezuela)

  • Richard Summerbell (Netherlands)

  • Akira Suzuki (Japan)

  • John Taylor (U.S.A.)

  • Brenda Wingfield (South Africa)

  • Mike Wingfield (South Africa)

Attendance and Finances

The IMC-8 attendance total was 701, which was an historical low number for the eight IMCs. Participants were from 53 countries; they included 143 student registrants, of which 60 received scholarship grants supplied by the British Mycological Society (48), the Mycological Society of America (7), and the Mycological Society of Japan (5).

Total income of IMC-8 was AUS $615,678 (ca. US $467,226 in 2006), of which AUS $77,381 came from sponsors. Financial management of the Cairns congress allowed it to transfer US $12,717 of IMA membership dues collected as part of the congress registration fee. Total IMC-8 income and final expenses balanced after fiscal compromise with the IMA Executive, which agreed to write off the US $10,000 seed-money loan it had made to the congress.

Scientific Program and Publications

Organizing Committee Chair Meyer and his colleagues took a novel approach to the basic symposium foundation of the program, in that each of the Congress Symposia had three invited speakers plus two oral presentations selected from offered abstracts of participants. Symposium chairs were responsible for planning and for inviting key speakers; they then previewed offered abstracts in order to select additional speakers for their symposium topics.

A total of 1020 abstracts representing invitational and proffered papers were received for IMC-8. Oral presentations of 310 of these were arranged in 56 invitational symposia plus four sessions of proffered papers. All other abstract offers were invited to present within the poster sessions, which permitted 523 exhibits in scheduled sessions throughout the five days of the congress. The formal program also included five plenary lectures and one honorary lecture:

  • James Galagan: Comparative Fungal Genomics

  • David Hawksworth: Mycologyand Mycologists (Honorary Lecture)

  • Regine Kahmann: Mating in Fungi

  • Franz Oberwinkler: Fungal Tree of Life

  • John Taylor: Species Concepts in Fungi

  • Mike Wingfield: Forest Fungi in a Changing World

The congress issued a two-volume, highly informative guide to all aspects of IMC-8 (1−246 + 247−418 + i−li pages). Titled Congress Handbook & Abstracts Book 1 and Book 2, the main body of the volumes detailed each day’s lineup of oral, poster, plenary, workshop, and social events. Each scientific listing was accompanied by its official abstract. Both volumes of the Congress Handbook, fully indexed, are archived at the IMA Website homepage.

All IMC-8 presenters were offered the opportunity to publish their contributions in the context of a volume Proceedings of the 8th International Mycological Congress, Cairns, Australia, 20–25.8.2006 (W. Meyer and C. Pearce 2006). These Proceedings were produced commercially in hardcover book and CD formats.

Social Events

Congress activity opened with an informal Welcome Reception held on Sunday evening preceding Monday’s formal program. The Queensland State Minister for the Environment welcomed delegates on behalf of the Premier, and Organizing Chair Meyer welcomed participants on behalf of the Australasian Mycological Society. A brief Opening Ceremony initiated the five-day congress program on Monday morning.

A joint reception hosted by the British Mycological Society and the Mycological Society of America occupied delegates on Monday evening. A Wines of the World event on one evening imitated a similar affair held at IMC-7 (Oslo) and was equally instructive. The Congress Dinner was held on Thursday evening in a historic wartime storage tank on the grounds of the Flecker Botanical Gardens, Cairns.

Workshops

IMC-8 was notable in its organization of pre-congress workshops. All of the nine group sessions were accommodated, except where noted, in facilities of James Cook University at Townsville, Qld., 275 km south of Cairns on the Coral Sea coast.

  1. 1.

    Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma. Chairs: Mike Wingfield and Keith Seifert. At Moreton Bay Research Station, Brisbane.

  2. 2.

    Filamentous Fungi in the Clinical Laboratory. Chair: Richard Summerbell.

  3. 3.

    Insect Pathogens in the Tropics. Chair: Nigel Hywel-Jones.

  4. 4.

    Food Mycology and Mycotoxins. Chairs: John Pitt, Alisa Hocking, and Brett Summerell. At Cairns Convention Centre.

  5. 5.

    Rust Taxonomy. Chair: Yoshitaka Ono.

  6. 6.

    Smut Taxonomy. Chairs: Kálmán Vánky and Roger Shivas.

  7. 7.

    AnaSat 2: From Spore to Culture. Chairs: Pedro Crous and Keith Seifert.

  8. 8.

    Compendium of Rust Fungi. Chairs: Reinhard Berndt and Yoshitaka Ono.

  9. 9.

    Hypogeous Fungi. Chairs: Teresa Lebel and Sandra Abell.

Forays and Tours

Several commercial tours of wildlife and reef areas were available. Mycological and lichenological field trips of considerable depth were well attended. These included:

  • The Daintree Rainforest Foray activity, partly by boat, took place in rainforest and estuarine mangrove country.

  • The Cairns Hinterland Lichen Foray offered three days of field work in wet forest, rainforest, woodlands, and urban settings. This field trip was a major event for members of the International Association of Lichenologists.

  • The Post Cyclone Larry Foray allowed a unique opportunity to collect in a rainforest ecosystem that had been heavily damaged by high winds five months earlier.

Related meetings during the Congress

IMC-8 permitted a few Special Interest Groups to schedule meetings during the congress. These included journal publication business of Czech Mycology, Mycological Research, and Fungal Genetics and Biology; a closed meeting of the IMA Executive Committee; a general meeting of the International Commission for the Taxonomy of Fungi; a general meeting of the International Association of Lichenologists; the annual general meeting of the Australasian Mycological Society; a discussion group on the Lichen-Fungal Genome Sequencing Project; and two roundtables: “Is It Time for a Mycological Code of Nomenclature?”; and “Access and Benefit Sharing in Relation to the Biodiversity Convention.

Closing Ceremony

The final IMC-8 session included the IMA General Assembly, which allowed the IMA Executive to summarize activities of adherent organizations and to confirm the site of IMC-9 as Edinburgh, Scotland, U.K., for 1–6 August 2010. Newly elected IMA Officers and Members of the Executive Committee for 2006–2010 were announced. See Chapter 17, IMA 2002–2006, for a complete roster of Officers and Executive Committee.

President: Pedro Crous (Netherlands)
Honorary Presidents: K. Esser (Germany)
  D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
  E. G. Simmons (U.S.A.)
  J. Webster (U.K.)
Vice-Presidents: Wieland Meyer (Australia)
  Susumu Takamatsu (Japan)
  John Taylor (U.S.A.)
  Mike Wingfield (South Africa)
Secretary-General: Geoff Robson (U.K.)
Treasurer: Karen Hansen (Sweden)

Chapter 17

IMA 2006–2010: between IMC-8 Cairns and IMC-9 Edinburgh

The roster of IMA Officers for 2006–2010 and the names of newly elected members of the Executive Committee were announced at the closing General Assembly of IMC-8 (Cairns). The 2006–2010 IMA Executive represented 16 regional and national IMA adherents.

President: P. W. Crous (Netherlands)
Honorary Presidents:  
  K. Esser (Germany)
  D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.)
  E. G. Simmons (U.S.A.)
  J. Webster (U.K.)
Secretary-General:  
  G. Robson (U.K.)
Treasurer:  
  K. Hansen (Sweden)
Vice-Presidents:  
  W. Meyer (Australia)
  S. Takamatsu (Japan))
  J. Taylor (U.S.A.)
  M. J. Wingfield (South Africa)
Executive Committee:  
  D. Begerow (Germany)
  P. Bonfante (Italy)
  J. Dianese (Brazil)
  L. Guzman-Davalos (Mexico)
  L. Lange (Denmark)
  L. Manoch (Thailand)
  L. Norvell (U.S.A.)
  G. Okada (Japan)
  B. Paulus (New Zealand)
  N. Read (U.K.)
  K. A. Seifert (Canada)
  W.-Y. Zhuang (China)

The 2006–2010 inter-congress years were a period of sharply increased activity among the IMA Officers and Executive Committee. Former Treasurer Hallenberg (2002–2006) had advised strongly that new IMA Executive groups find a means to meet at least once between congresses, in order to play a more continuous and much more active role in support of international mycological developments.

In line with this counsel, the new IMA Executive realized that its mandate to support and expand mycological activities at an international level was becoming increasingly complex. Essential discussion of Executive business by electronic mail had proved only partially satisfactory, so IMA President Crous took advantage of periodic meetings of other organisations in order to assemble available Executive Committee members for face-to-face discussions. The technique was considered successful and productive in drawing attention to problems and potential solutions; it promised to remain in use in the future. The main drawback of the procedure was its lack of in-person participation by the majority of Committee members who could not attend miscellaneous conferences. This is a factor that must balance against timely attention to actions that, in any case, are subject to full IMA Executive scrutiny before the IMC-9 General Assembly. A partial solution to the lack of full participation from all members of the Executive Committee has proven to be conference calls via a free service, such as Skype. This aspect will certainly prove crucial for future meetings of the Committee.

The 2006–2010 IMA Executive held inter-congress meetings at Utrecht, Netherlands (28 April 2007); Baton Rouge, Louisiana, U.S.A. (7 August 2007); Edinburgh, U.K. (6 April 2008); Amsterdam, Netherlands (5 June 2008); Utrecht, Netherlands (25 April 2009); and Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands (31 March 2010).

Subjects of discussion ranged widely, with major focus on statutes, regional committees, congresses, IMA honors and awards at congresses, finances, IMA image and professional representation, and executive structure and responsibilities.

IMA statutes

The original IMA Statutes were written for IMC-1 Exeter and were formally accepted at IMC-3 Tokyo in 1983. The version of IMA Statutes in effect during 2006–2010 dated from 1990, when a revision of the original Statutes was approved by the General Assembly at IMC-4 Regensburg. Additional rewording was considered necessary by the 2006–2010 Executive in order to clarify membership categories, dues, and voting privileges; Executive Committee privileges and responsibilities between congresses (job descriptions); election of Executive Committee members and continuity in executive leadership between congresses; relationship between IMA Executive and the organizers/management of congresses; the IMA mission and image; and other administrative and representational matters. See Chapter 21 on IMA Statute Development for a copy of the revision to be presented for approval by the General Assembly at IMC-9, Edinburgh, August 2010.

Regional mycological associations

Regionally organised mycological groups were undertaken as a constitutional concern of the IMA at its beginning in 1971. Planned meetings of the groups have been supported financially and organisationally by the IMA throughout its history. Current review of this activity centered on the number of regional congresses or major meetings that could be supported each year and on the level of funds available for each meeting.

The IMA currently includes six Regional Mycological Associations as IMA members: the African Mycological Association, the Asian Mycological Association, the Australasian Mycological Association, the European Mycological Association, the Latin American Mycological Association, and the North American Mycological Association. See Chapter 19 for additional discussion of these affiliates.

Congresses

Although holding periodic international congresses is a primary objective of the IMA, there has not always been a policy statement governing the presence and influence of IMA executive officials in the organizing phases of a congress. Current review of this relationship influenced Statute revisions on the relationship; on the financial aspects of loans, membership fees, and sponsorship funding; and especially on agreed guidelines for formal pre-proposals, including deadlines, commercial viability, and target country characteristics.

IMA website and logo

A new IMA website was launched following acquisition of the domain, www.IMA-mycology.org. In the process the first official IMA logo was also designed, along with letterheads to be used by officers of the IMA. Increasing use of the website for informational and administrative

purposes has emphasized a need to develop connections worldwide to all mycological societies, whether IMA members or not, and to expand the IMA calendar of events to include all known national and international initiatives. A vision statement for IMA on the website is to highlight the contract assumed between the IMA and all aspects of the mycological discipline worldwide. Enlarging the scope of IMA website functions inevitably called attention to the need for increased funding.

MycoBank

The MycoBank concept (www.MycoBank.org) of depositing and accessioning data on new taxon names prior to and subsequent to their publication was initiated in 2004 at the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, Netherlands, where it was and still is hosted and maintained (Crous et al. 2004). It is considered to be a highly successful initiative, with increasing utility and influence. Ownership of MycoBank was transferred to the IMA in 2007, and in 2008 it acquired a Scientific Advisory Board. Details of MycoBank information are a component of the IMA Website. From 2010/2011 onwards, MycoBank will be hosted in a data center in Belgium, which will enable remote curatorship by a core group of mycologists using Citrix software. This will enable them to improve the taxonomic opinion and species lists available via this open-access database.

Nomenclature Committee for Fungi

A permanent Nomenclature Committee for Fungi was installed by the International Botanical Congress under the auspices of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy. Its task is to discuss and vote on proposals concerning conservation/rejection of fungal names, as well as consider proposals to modify the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature with respect to fungal names. This important function confers a degree of stability upon fungal names. Correspondence pertaining to this committee and its decisions are to be found on the IMA website, www.IMA-mycology.org.

IMA archive and photo album

During 2008 a decision was taken to place all official IMA documents in a secure area on the IMA website for the exclusive use by the Executive Committee, which would then also act as a digital archive. Furthermore, it was decided to obtain as many digital photos of previous IMCs as possible, and also place them in an open-access digital IMA photo archive.

Honors and awards

The MSA has had an Honorary President category of award since 1983, when G.C. Ainsworth and C.J. Alexopoulos were elected to this lifetime class of Officer for their international efforts and influence in the service of mycology. In 1994 the IMA Executive Committee authorized creation of additional IMA awards; two awards were established in 1996 on the occasion of the Silver Anniversary of the IMA: the Ainsworth Medal, in recognition of extraordinary service to world mycology; and the De Bary Medal, in recognition of outstanding career research in mycology.

The current 2006–2010 Executive has implemented a new category of awards designed to recognize the work of individuals early in their professional careers in mycology. The awards will identify an early-career mycologist from each region represented in IMA by a Regional Mycological Association. The awards are designated as the Keisuke Tubaki Medal (Asia); the Elias Magnus Fries Medal (Europe); the Carlos Luis Spegazzini Medal (Latin America); the Ethel Mary Doidge Medal (Africa); the Daniel McAlpine Medal (Australasia); and the Arthur Henry Reginald Buller Medal (North America (Canada and U.S.A.)).

During 2010 it was also decided to launch a new journal for the IMA, namely IMA Fungus. The scope of the journal would be to cover all aspects of pure and applied mycological research and news, appearing twice a year (June and December). To initiate the journal, D. L. Hawksworth (news, views and reviews) and P. W. Crous (research articles) would serve as editors-in-chief, while the Executive Committee would act as associate editors from one congress to the next. The journal will be open-access, and thus be freely available to all mycologists worldwide via the IMA website, www.IMA-mycology.org.

Chapter 18

IMC-9: 1–6 August 2010 — Edinburgh, Scotland, U.K.

Edinburgh, Scotland, had been confirmed as venue for IMC-9 at the IMA General Assembly at IMC-8 (Cairns), with the British Mycological Society as thesponsoring organization in the U.K. A Webpage for the congress was established and has remained active and abundantly informative at www.imc9.info throughout the 2006–2010 congress interim. As with the Cairns congress, the Edinburgh executive team, representing the British Mycological Society, opted to use the services of a professional convention secretariat for general organization but retained complete responsibility for structure and professional participation in the program of scientific presentations, forays, and social functions. The overall Steering Committee was named in preliminary brochures as Nick Reed (Chairman), S. Avery, N. Clipson, G. Gadd, N. Gow, and G. Robson. The Scientific Theme Committees, which arranged the invitational symposium core of the congress, were chaired by individuals named below in the list of major themes.

The basic plan of scientific programming was announced to be concurrent symposium sessions exploring five themes: Cell Biology, biochemistry, and physiology (G. Steinberg); Environment, ecology, and interactions (L. Boddy); Evolution, biodiversity, and systematics (P. W. Crous); Fungal pathogenesis and disease control (A. Brown); Genomics, genetics, and molecular biology (P. Dyer). Each theme area was to contain both research and applied topics. The preliminary program listed titles of 45 symposia distributed among the five themes.

Invited speakers for congress plenary sessions included a Keynote Presentation by John Taylor, U.S.A., to open the meetings, and daily addresses within the symposium schedule by G. Steinberg, U.K.; J. Heitman, U.S.A.; D. Hibbett, U.S.A.; N. Talbot, U.K.; A. Fitter, U.K.; and N. Keller, U.S.A

In addition to the core structure of symposia, the six-day schedule allotted time for parallel meetings of at least twenty-two Special Interest Groups. These were to be in concurrent sessions on the first day before formal opening of the congress.

A four-day schedule of poster sessions was planned to be non-conflicting with the symposium schedule. The Nomenclature Committee that represents mycological interests in other international organizations was scheduled for discussion sessions on three days. The International Commission for the Taxonomy of Fungi indicated that it would hold one business session.

Major social events were announced as a Welcome Reception on the evening of the first day following the formal opening of the congress and a Conference Party following the close of the congress on the final day. Four pre- and post-congress field trips of one to seven days were offered to a variety of regions in Scotland.

Since the entire congress was being organized using electronic means, it is assumed that detailed programs, proceedings, records of participation, and other data will be archived on the MSA Webpage.

Chapter 19

IMA Regional Committees for Mycology

Organized mycological groups of all categories were viewed as a constitutional concern of the IMA at its beginning in 1971. The regional mycological group concept was not addressed specifically in early versions of the IMA Statutes. Nevertheless, various relationships developed positively and continuously without statutory definition. The IMA has routinely supported regional efforts, to some extent financially and often by participation of IMA officers in programming. By the time of the current 2006–2010 inter-congress period, regional group congresses, conferences, and symposia have become numerous and increasingly complex in organization. With this in mind, the 2006–2010 Executive Committee has embedded appropriate financial and collaboration wording in the revised statutes that are proposed for consideration at IMC-9 Edinburgh.

Historically, the earliest steps toward formal recognition of regional mycological developments by IMA were taken at IMC-2 Tampa (1977). During the course of IMC-2, representatives of Asian and Latin American groups of mycologists presented documents announcing their intention to organize in the interests of mycology in their constituent regions. Prof. K. S. Thind (India) submitted a letter (2 September 1977) that reported the decision of his group to form a Committee for the Development of Asiatic Mycology. Group members at IMC-2 who initiated the report for Asia were from India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Dr. Gastón Guzmán also submitted a letter (3 September 1977) announcing that mycologists of Latin America had made a similar decision. They planned to organize under an initial title of Association of Latin American Mycology. Their representatives at IMC-2 were K. P. Dumont, Oswaldo Fidalgo, and Gastón Guzmán.

IMA Secretary Hawksworth (1977–1983) announced the formal recognition of these two groups devoted to improving mycological education and professional activity in their regions. The original “Committee for the Development of Mycology in Asian Countries” currently is known as the Asian Mycology Committee (AMC), sometimes as the International Mycological Association Committee for Asia (IMACA). The earlier “Association of Latin American Mycology” usually operates under the name La Asociación Latinoamericana de Micologia (ALM) or as the IMA Committee for Latin America. For IMA purposes the group name format will change again in the 2010 Statutes.

As regional groups came together they tended to call themselves some variation of “Committee for the Development of Mycology in …” The IMA Executive Committee at IMC-4 (Regensburg 1990) approved a simplified naming format that would not appear to limit the scope of the regional groups: “IMA Committee for [region name].” Still later the IMA Executive usage in the revised IMA Statutes revision for IMC-9 (Edinburgh) has become “[Region name] Mycological Association.” The IMA currently includes six regional Mycological Associations as IMA members: the African Mycological Association, the Asian Mycological Association, the Australasian Mycological Association, the European Mycological Association, the Latin American Mycological Association, and the North American Mycological Association.

African Mycological Association

The organization for Africa traces its origin to discussions and informal proposals made at IMC-2 (Tampa 1977). The movement eventually established itself in 1987 as CODMA, the Committee for the Development of Mycology in Africa, with interested mycologists in several countries uniting under the chairmanship of P. Peerally (Mauritius). An inaugural meeting followed by a congress was held in Mauritius 12–15 June 1990. Mycologists from 10 countries attended, and 35 scientific or country-centered papers were presented. Later in 1990, at IMC-4 (Regensburg), nineteen representatives of African regions attended a meeting of the Committee for Africa to discuss action plans for training courses, attacks on mutual mycological problems, compilation of a directory of mycologists in Africa with notes on specialties and facilities, and related organizational activities.

The AMA organization in Africa has held six congresses, conferences, and symposia to date:

1990 Reduit, Mauritius 13–15June
1992 Cairo, Egypt 7–10 October
1995 Harare, Zimbabwe 7–10March
1998 Nairobi, Kenya 18–20 August
2005 Hartenbos, South Africa 24 January
2009 Gordons Bay, South Africa 25–28 January

The African league operates under an elaborate Constitution with an Executive Committee of Officers and Regional Representatives. It publishes a newsletter, MycoAfrica, which had reached volume 3, issue 4, in December 2009. Its very active webpage is www.africanmycology.org.

IMA Committee for Arabic Countries.

Before IMC-4 (Regensburg 1990) the IMA Executive Committee had favored a suggestion for establishment of a committee representing the Arabic bloc of countries. However at Regensburg, following discussion with the Committee for Africa, which included Egypt, it was agreed that it was preferable that these countries remain within a larger, already established Committee for Africa for the present time.

Asian Mycological Association

Mycological representatives for Asia, like those for Africa and Latin America, consider their IMA Committee for Asia to have been founded during IMC-2 (Tampa), when they announced their decision to unite as the Committee for the Development of Mycology in Asian Countries. K. S. Thind (India) was elected as the first Chairman of the Committee for Asia during its IMC-2 organizational meeting 2 September 1977.

When IMC-3 convened in Tokyo in August, 1983, K. Tubaki was elected Chairman of the Committee. It was at this meeting that the Committee for Asia developed a governing set of Statutes and defined their objectives in terms of promoting “the development of mycology, with activities for mycological education, training, research, and service in countries and regions in Asia.”

From its organization in 1977 to the present, the AMA regional group for Asia has held an extensive series of congresses, symposia, and workshops, with successive changes in Chairmen and Officers. Beginning in 1998, and continuing, congresses of the Asian Mycological Association have been organized jointly with an International Marine and Freshwater Mycology Symposium.

1977 Tampa, Florida, U.S.A. September(K. S. Thind, Chmn.; organizational meeting)
1983 Tokyo, Japan August (K. Tubaki, Chmn.; statutes adopted)
1986 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia March
1988 Osaka, Japan
1990 Regensburg, Germany August
1991 Bangkok, Thailand 29–30 October, “Application of Fungi in Biotechnology” (The First Symposium of Mycology in Asia (MIA1))
1992 Seoul, Korea 1–4 October (The IMA Regional Asian Mycological Symposium was held at Seoul National University, Republic of Korea
1994 Vancouver, Canada August (with IMC-5)
1995 Taipei, Taiwan 13–16 March (Asian Regional Committee Meeting; Symposium “The Fungal Biodiversity in Asia”)
1996 Chiba, Japan 2–6 July (In conjunction with the Asian International Mycological Congress ‘96 (AIMC ‘96).
1998 Goa, India 20–22 January (Asian Regional Committee Meeting)
1998 HuaHin, Thailand 6–9 July (1st Asia-Pacific International Mycological Conference on Biodiversity and Biotechnology)
2000 Hong Kong 9–13 July (2nd Asia-Pacific International Mycological Conference on Biodiversity and Biotechnology)
2001 Karaj, Iran 17–20 September (Asian International Mycological Congress)
2002 Kunming, China 4–8 November (3rd Asia-Pacific International Mycological Congress on Biodiversity and Biotechnology)
2004 Chiang Mai, Thailand 14–19 November (4th Asia-Pacific International Mycological Congress on Biodiversity and Biotechnology)
2007 Penang, Malaysia 2–6 December (Asian Mycological Congress)
2009 Taichung, Taiwan 15–19 November (Asian Mycological Congress)
2011 Korea (Asian Mycological Congress; in planning phase)

Australasian Mycological Association

At IMC-4 (Regensburg 1990) delegates E. Mackenzie (New Zealand) and J. Pitt (Australia) entertained questions about the possibility of forming an IMA Committee for Australasia and the Pacific. The idea subsequently was mentioned in several issues of the Australian Mycological Newsletter and, in the Newsletter for December 1992, a formal proposal and a questionnaire on the subject were circulated. The response was positive. The Australian Mycological Society was established in 1993; its inaugural meeting was 2 October 1996 at Melbourne University. The group’s name was altered to Australasian Mycological Society at that time. It incorporated under that more broadly inclusive name and voted to affiliate with the IMA in 1996.

European Mycological Association

A European Congress of Mycologists had been held every 3–4 years since 1956. During an IMA Executive meeting in Berlin in 1987 discussion revealed that a Committee for Mycology in Europe was likely to be established on the same model as other regional groups affiliated with the IMA. At the 10th congress of the European group in August 1989 they agreed unanimously to request recognition by the IMA in order to regularize their standing and continuation within the mycological community.

Members of the group for Europe met during IMC-4 (Regensburg 1990) to discuss revision of its Committee Statutes. Eventually a formal European Mycological Association took over the functions of the Congress of European Mycologists, and its new Constitution became effective. The Governing Committee of the EMA serves as the Committee for Fungi in Europe within the International Mycological Association.

The first congress of European mycologists organized under the auspices of the European Mycological Association was held in St. Petersburg, Russia, 16–21 September, 2007. Previously, beginning in 1956, the European organization had held fourteen congresses. Information on this long series of earlier congresses is archived in the home webpage of the European Mycological Association: www.euromould.org.

Latin American Mycological Association

Plans to establish an Association of Latin American Mycology in association with the IMA were addressed initially by Dr. Gastón Guzmán when he submitted a letter of intent to the Executive of IMC-2 (Tampa 1977). Representaives of Latin American interests at IMC-2 who announced these organizational plans were K. P. Dumont, Oswaldo Fidalgo, and Gastón Guzmán. Although the IMA recognized the initial regional plan, theg roup did not establish itself formally until later when it organized itself as La Asociación Latinoamericana de Micologia (ALM) during the V Latin American Botanical Congress, Havana, Cuba, 24–29 June 1990.

During the years of development and activity the ALM has devised its governing By-Laws and has published directories of its members and a series of ALM Bulletins. It maintains a Webpage as http://almic.org/alm, serving its widely distributed membership in Spanish, Portuguese, and English. Its periodic regional meetings have been organized as congresses of several days in extent.

1993 Havana, Cuba (1st Latin American Mycological Congress)
1996 Havana, Cuba (2nd Latin American Mycological Congress)
1999 Caracas, Venezuela (3rd Latin American Mycological Congress)
2002 Xalapa, Mexico (4th Latin American Congress)
2005 Brasilia, Brazil (5th Latin American Mycological Congress)
2008 Mar del Plata, Argentina (6th Latin American Mycological Congress)
2011 San José, Costa Rica (7th Latin American Mycological Congress; planned)

North American Mycological Association

An IMA-adherent mycological association for North America was agreed in principle in the 1998–1999 era. However, no such entity ever was organized or is known to have been functional in any way, although it is expected to become active in selecting recipients of the newly proposed IMA regional award of the Arthur Henry Reginald Buller Medal (North America (Canada and U.S.A.)).

Chapter 20

The IMA Nomenclature Committee, the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi of the IAPT, and the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi

From its inception the IMA has considered nomenclature of fungi to be a field of concern that requires support. One of the General Resolutions adopted as early as IMC-1 (1971 Exeter) was that “This Congress resolves that the International Mycological Association be advised of the earnest desire of mycologists interested in nomenclature for the formation of a Standing Nomenclature Committee of the IMA.” Since 1990 the IMA also has recognized its role in specialized taxonomic efforts by welcoming the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi as a component of the IMA statutory concept. The Committee and the Commission are discussed in more detail in the following.

The IMA Nomenclature Committee

By early 1973, following IMC-1 (Exeter), an IMA Nomenclature Committee Secretariat had been established with R. P. Korf as Chairman and with members D. L. Hawksworth, G. L. Hennebert, D. P. Rogers, L. K. Weresub, and Z. Pouzar.

The Nomenclature Secretariat defined its duty in terms of liaison between IMA Subcommittees and the Special Committees of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT), which are conduits to the Nomenclature Section of International Botanical Congresses and the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). Discussions at Exeter had identified at least five areas in the governing ICBN that were of special mycological concern.

By January 1974, in preparation for IMC-2 (Tampa), six IMA subcommittees had been established within the Nomenclature Secretariat and theirtopics had been defined:

  • Names of fungi with a pleomorphic life cycle [ICBN Article 59]

  • Living Type Material [ICBN Article 8.4]

  • Registry and ICBN Article 39 [Illustration requirement]

  • Starting-point Dates [ICBN Article 13]

  • Infraspecific Taxa Not Now Covered in ICBN

  • Generic Names with Misapplied Type-species Names

Subcommittee meetings and plenary sessions of the Nomenclature Committee were held daily at IMC-2 (Tampa 1977). Discussions focused on the perceived mycological problems and on proposals, which were formulated in terms suitable for revision of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature:

At the final General Assembly of IMC-2 (Tampa), Chairman Korf of the IMA Nomenclature Committee Secretariat reported recommendations from the subcommittees of the Nomenclature Committee, with the note that they would be forwarded to the IAPT Special Committee for Fungi and Lichens for further study and for potential action at a Botanical Congress. Reports from the individual subcommittees were edited into formal proposals by the incoming new chairman of the Nomenclature Committee, K. T. van Warmelo, and were published as Proposals for modification of the Code of Botanical Nomenclature: IMC2 proposals (van Warmelo 1979).

K. T. van Warmelo (South Africa) was appointed Chairman of the succeeding IMA Nomenclature Secretariat for the inter-congress period leading to IMC-3 (1977–1983). Other members added to the Secretariat were K. W. Gams (Netherlands), D. L. Hawksworth (U.K.), P. W. James (U.K.), Y. Otani (Japan), R. H. Petersen (U.S.A.), and Z. Pouzar (Czechoslovakia).

The IMA Nomenclature Secretariat met next at an IMA business meeting during IMC-3 (Tokyo 1983). R. H. Petersen chaired in the absence of K. T. van Warmelo.

All nomenclature proposals on which action had been taken at IMC-2 (Tampa) had been summarized and published in Taxon (van Warmelo 1979), effectively fulfilling the mandate to the IMA Nomenclature Secretariat. Many of the proposals had been adopted by the XIII International Botanical Congress (Sydney, Australia, 1981) and incorporated into the ICBN rules of nomenclature. The subcommittees which had produced the proposals were then disbanded.

In the absence of a specific agenda of problems for the attention of the IMA Nomenclature Secretariat after IMC-3 (except for one remaining subcommittee on the nomenclature of fossil fungi), R. K. Petersen informed the IMA Secretariat that the Special Committee for Fungi of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT), which he represented, was prepared to take on responsibility for any remaining IMA Secretariat duties. Accordingly, the IMA Secretariat requested that it be disbanded, with its role to pass to the IAPT Special Committee. This was agreed. The IMA Nomenclature Committee and its Secretariat ceased activity 3 September 1983.

The Nomenclature Committee for Fungi of the IAPT

The Nomenclature Committee for Fungi is a subsidiary of the International Botanical Congress structure. It is installed under the auspices of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy as the professional mechanism for discussing and voting on mycology proposals related to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). Senior mycologists who compose the committee are charged with considering all proposals that involve the status and usage of the names of fungi under the rules of the ICBN. Their decisions and recommendations may reach formal publication and subsequent action at botanical congresses. Current officers are Vincent Demoulin, Chairman, and Lorelei Norvell, Secretary.

There is no organizational or statutory link between the IAPT Nomenclature Committee for Fungi and the IMA. However, all committee members are active in international mycological affairs and represent constituents with fungus nomenclature problems. This has led to an arrangement by which the IAPT Nomenclature Committee for Fungi maintains a link on the IMA website, where it posts its discussions and reports.

Using this channel, the IMA Executive has fostered a proposal to emend the name of the Botanical Code to include Fungi. It also has advocated that all proposals concerning fungi henceforth be published in both Taxon and Mycotaxon. Recent IMA Executive discussions have introduced a proposal that decisions on nomenclature of fungi in the ICBN be made at an International Mycological Congress rather than at an International Botanical Congress.

The International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF)

The International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS, formerly IAMS) excluded the subdiscipline of taxonomy when it planned its Mycology Section (later Mycology Division) in 1971–1972. Subsequent pressure from the international culture collection community and from participants in revisions of codes of microbial nomenclature made it expedient for the IUMS Executive to attempt to enlarge their mycological model. By 1981 the IUMS Executive had decided that an International Committee on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF) would be a desirable component of an expanded IUMS Mycology Division.

In October 1981 Simmons received a request from Prof. K. Iwata (Chairman, IUMS Mycology Division) that he “organize and chair a proposed International Committee on Taxonomy of Fungi” within the IUMS. A follow-up letter in July 1982 from Prof. J. C. Senez, Secretary-General of the IUMS, presumed that he would, at a meeting later that year, report his progress on the constitution and program of the new ICTF to the Mycology Division Council and to the Executive Board of IUMS.

The history of Simmons support of an all-inclusive IMA, as opposed to the earlier IUMS dismissal of fungus taxonomy as a subdiscipline inappropriate to their interests, was well known to IUMS Executive members. Thus, a prompt and negative response to this request to fill an IUMS vacancy should have been expected; and perhaps itwas. In any case, Simmons suggested that the IUMS find a way to collaborate with the many IMA taxonomists who had spent their entire careers devoted to this special field.

The IUMS Executive found another mycologist to activate their new-found interest in taxonomy. In 1982 the ICTF was established within the IUMS hierarchy with a slight name change: International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi.

The ICTF had been established as a unique component of IUMS. However, by the time of IMC-4 (Regensburg 1990) the ICTF had concluded that its taxonomic and nomenclatural functions were clearly International Union of Biological Societies activities and that it was more convenient for the Commission to meet during IMCs than otherwise. Given that the ICTF wished to function within both the IMA (as a unit of IUBS) and the Division of Mycology of IUMS, the IMA Executive Committee agreed to recognize the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi as a unit within the IMA structure (1 September 1990).

The ICTF formal statement of identity reads: A joint Commission of the Mycology Division of the International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS) and of the International Mycological Association (IMA; Section for General Mycology of the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS)), where the IUMS and IUBS are the primary biological components of the International Council for Sciences (ICSU). (http://www.fungaltaxonomy.org)

This Commission is organized with Subcommissions, each concerned with the taxonomy of one or more fungus genera. Both the Commission and its Subcommissions have their own management structures, consistent with but not necessarily identical with those of the IMA and the IUMS.

Current executive officers are Keith A. Seifert (Chair) and Gen Okada (Secretary). Current subcommissions emphasize research on Fusarium, Trichoderma, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Ceratocystis/Ophiostoma, and Mycosphaerella, with potential additions in rust fungi, Stachybotrys, Colletotrichum, and Phytophthora.

Chapter 21

Statutes of the International Mycological Association

Within its nearly 40 years of functioning to date, 1971–2010, the IMA has adopted three versions of its governing Statutes in sequence. A fourth currently is ready for consideration by the General Assembly of IMC-9 Edinburgh. The revisions always have attempted to solidify the principles on which IMA pursues its objectives and to clarify the system of management practiced by its Executive in realizing these objectives. The four versions of IMA Statutes are presented below for archival purposes. They date from 1971 (IMC-1 Exeter), 1983 (IMC-3 Tokyo), 1990 (IMC-4 Regensburg), and 2010 (proposed; IMC-9 Edinburgh).

1971–1977 Draft statutes adopted by Resolution at the Final Plenary Session of the First International Mycological Congress, Exeter, U.K., 15 September 1971, were in effect until the Assembly of the Second International Mycological Congress, Tampa, Florida, U.S.A., 3 September 1977.

International Mycological Association-Statutes 1971

Name

International Mycological Association (IMA)

Object

The object of the IMA, a non-profit-making organization, is the encouragement of mycology in all its branches, particularly international aspects, by promoting International Mycological Congresses and by liaison with other international bodies having mycological interests.

Organization

The affairs of the IMA are managed by:

  1. 1.

    The General Assembly composed of delegates from national and international mycological societies and groups affiliated to IMA, individual affiliated members, and the Executive Committee. The General Assembly is convened by the President on the occasion of an International Mycological Congress and has no continuing responsibility.

  2. 2.

    The Executive Committee composed of:

    1. (a)

      one representative nominated by each affiliated national or international society or group;

    2. (b)

      co-opted members (not more than six in number) who are elected by the Executive Committee for four years and are not immediately eligible for re-election;

    3. (c)

      the Officers.

  3. 3.

    The Officers who comprise a President, two to four Vice Presidents, a Secretary-General and a Treasurer. The Officers are elected by the General Assembly on the nomination of the Executive Committee. When necessary in an interval between two Assemblies the Executive Committee may itself elect any of these Officers. The term of office of an Officer terminates at the close of an International Mycological Congress. A Vice President is not immediately eligible for re-election. The President may be re-elected once. The Secretary-General and the Treasurer may be re-elected several times.

  4. 4.

    Committees for special purposes which may be appointed by the Executive Committee for limited periods.

Administration

The Executive Committee, which is normally convened by the President at least once every two years, ensures that the affairs of the IMA are conducted in accordance with the decisions of the General Assembly.

Membership

  1. 1.

    Affiliation to the IMA is open to:

    1. (a)

      national or international mycological societies or groups (including Commissions, Federations, Associations, etc., having mycological interests) and the IMA recognizes as members the membership of such affiliated societies or groups, but no society or group may appoint more than 10 delegates to a General Assembly.

    2. (b)

      mycologists in countries without a mycological society or group who may affiliate as individual members.

    New affiliations are granted by the Executive Committee provided a majority of its members vote in favour within six months following the application.

  2. 2.

    Honorary Members may be elected by the General Assembly on the proposal of the Executive Committee. Honorary Members are elected for life, pay no dues, and may attend Executive Committee meetings but without a vote.

Finances

The income of the IMA consists of:

  1. 1.

    Annual subscriptions from affiliated societies and groups and from individual affiliated members;

  2. 2.

    Contributions from International Mycological congresses;

  3. 3.

    Donations and subscriptions form other sources.

The expenses of IMA comprise:

  1. 1.

    The administrative expenses of the Officers;

  2. 2.

    All expenses of IMA approved by the Executive Committee.

The annual subscription for a society or group shall be a minimum of 10 units. That of an individual affiliated member 1 unit. The value of the unit is fixed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Executive Committee.

An affiliated society, group, or individual member who has not paid an annual subscription for three consecutive years shall, on notice having been given by the Treasurer, be disaffiliated.

Administration of the ordinary funds of the IMA is the responsibility of the Treasurer, who shall present accounts to the General Assembly at each International Mycological Congress. The accounts shall be audited by two auditors nominated by the General Assembly.

1977–1983 IMA Statutes

Statute changes were not made at IMC-2 Tampa (1977). At an interim meeting of the IMA Officers in Sydney, Australia, August 1981 (Subramanian, Booth, Webster, and Hawksworth), a decision was made to revise the Draft Statutes that had been in effect since IMC-1, Exeter, 1971. The emended version of the Statutes was circulated to all Affiliated Organizations on 3 June 1983.

The revised Statutes provided for a greater involvement of individual mycologists and also were designed to place the organization on a firmer financial base. They were debated at the IMA Business Meeting during IMC-3, Tokyo, and, with minor changes, were adopted unanimously by the General Assembly on 3 September 1983.

International Mycological Association Statutes 1983

Preamble

  1. 1.

    The Association shall be called the International Mycological Association (IMA).

  2. 2.

    The object of the IMA, a non-profit making organisation, is the encouragement of mycology in all its branches, particularly international aspects such as the promoting of International Mycological Congresses, representing mycological interests at an international level, and encouraging liaison with all national and international bodies which have mycological interests.

Management

  1. 3.

    The affairs of the IMA are managed by:

    1. 3.1

      The General Assembly, convened by the President on the occasion of an International Mycological Congress. All Congress registrants can participate and vote at the General Assembly, which has no continuing responsibility. Votes taken at a General Assembly are subject to ratification by two-thirds of the Affiliated Associations, each of which should nominate one representative to act in this capacity.

    2. 3.2

      The Executive Committee, composed of (a) a minimum of twelve but not more than sixteen members elected by the General Assembly from nominations received from Affiliated Associations, Individual Members, or the Executive Committee; and (b) the Officers.

    3. 3.3

      The Officers, comprising a President, two to four Vice-Presidents, a Secretary-General and a Treasurer.

      The Officers are elected by the General Assembly on the nomination of the Executive Committee. When necessary in the period between two General Assemblies the Executive Committee may itself appoint any of these Officers.

      The term of office of each Officer terminates at the close of an International Mycological Congress, with the exception of the Secretary-General and Treasurer who may be re-elected without restriction.

    4. 3.4

      Committees for special purposes may be appointed by the General Assembly or the Executive Committee.

  2. 4.

    The Executive Committee ensures that the affairs of the IMA are conducted in accordance with the decisions of General Assemblies.

Membership

  1. 5.1

    Membership of the IMA is open to (a) national or international societies, associations or other groups having mycological interests, and (b) individuals having mycological interests. Such memberships shall be recognized as Affiliated Associations and Individual Members respectively.

  2. 5.2

    New Affiliated Associations are recognized by the Executive Committee by a majority vote.

  3. 5.3

    Honorary Presidents may be elected by the General Assembly on the proposal of the Executive Committee, provided that the number at any given time does not exceed five. Honorary Presidents are elected for life and are not required to pay dues.

Finance

  1. 6.1

    The income of the IMA consists of (a) subscriptions from Affiliated Associations and Individual Members, (b) contributions from International Mycological Congresses, (c) donations, and (d) interest on funds held.

  2. 6.2

    The expenses of the IMA consist of (a) administrative expenses of the Officers, and (b) all other expenses approved by the Executive Committee.

  3. 6.3

    The subscriptions of an Individual Member shall be 1 unit and that of an Affiliated Association shall be 0.02 units multiplied by the total number of members in the Affiliated Association. The value of the unit is fixed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Executive Committee, subject to ratification as in 3.1.

  4. 6.4

    The subscriptions of Affiliated Associations are due annually. Those of Individual Members become due at each International Mycological Congress and cover the period to the next Congress.

  5. 6.5

    An Affiliated Association two years in arrears, or an Individual Member who has not paid the subscription due within two years of an International Mycological Congress, shall, on notice having been given by the Treasurer, be disaffiliated.

  6. 6.6

    Administration of the funds of the IMA is the responsibility of the Treasurer, who shall present accounts annually to the Executive Committee and also to the Genera Assembly at each International Mycological Congress. The accounts shall be audited by two auditors nominated by the Executive Committee but who are not members of that Committee or Officers of the Association.

Statutes

  1. 7.

    The Statutes of the IMA can be modified only by a majority of two-thirds of those present at a General Assembly. Any proposals to modify the Statutes must be received by the Secretary-General at least six months before the Assembly and shall be circulated to Affiliated Associations and Individual Members at least three months before the Assembly. In cases of extreme urgency, the Executive Committee shall have the right to modify the Statutes until the following General Assembly, which shall have the right to approve or reject the changes.

  2. 8.

    Amotion to dissolve the IMA must be approved by a two-thirds majority of those present at General Assembly and at which nominated representatives of at least half of the Affiliated Associations must be present. If the IMA is dissolved the balance of any funds is to be used for scientific purposes in the field of mycology as agreed by the dissolving General Assembly.

1983–1990 Revision of IMA Statutes

Statutes that had developed through the first three IMA congress periods (1971–1983) had proved inadequate to assure IMA financial support from the constituent individual members and affiliated organizations. The Statutes also were considered to be weak in opportunities for Affiliated Organizations to participate in congress programming and IMA activities. A revised set of Statutes, sorted out through three draft versions with the input of members of the 1983–1990 Executive Committee, was discussed and approved 3 September 1990 at the General Assembly of IMC-4 (Regensburg).

International Mycological Association — Statutes 1990

Preamble

  1. 1.

    The Association shall be called the International Mycological Association (IMA).

Objective

  1. 2.

    The objective of the IMA, a non-profit making organization, is the encouragement of mycology in all its branches, particularly through the sponsoring of International Mycological Congresses, the representation of mycological interests at an international level, and encouraging liaison with, and development of national, regional and international bodies which have mycological interests.

Management

  1. 3.

    The affairs of the IMA are managed by:

    1. 3.1

      The General Assembly, convened by the President on the occasion of an International Mycological congress. All full Congress registrants may participate and vote at the General Assembly, which has no continuing responsibility. Votes taken at a General Assembly are subject to ratification by two-thirds of the Sustaining Organizations and Affiliated Organizations, each Organization having a single vote (except in the case of Statute changes; see 9.1). Such ratification can be effected by either mail ballot, pro- or retroactive, or by a vote of representatives, one per Organization, or nominated to act in this capacity at the General Assembly. In the event that a motion passed at a General Assembly is not ratified, that motion lapses.

    2. 3.2

      The Executive Committee, composed of: (a) a maximum of twelve non-office holding members elected by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Executive Committee from nominations received not later than a date notified to Congress participants from Sustaining and Affiliated Organizations, Individuals Members, or the Executive Committee; and (b) a representative of each Sustaining Organization; (c) the Officers.

    3. 3.3

      The Officers, comprising a President, two to four Vice-Presidents, a Secretary-General and a Treasurer. The Officers are elected by the General Assembly from nominations made by the Executive Committee. When necessary in the period between two General Assemblies, the Executive Committee may appoint any of these Officers. The term of office of each Officer terminates at the close of an International Mycological Congress, with the exception of the Secretary-General and Treasurer who may be re-elected without restriction.

    4. 3.4

      Committees for special purposes may be appointed either by the General Assembly or the Executive Committee.

  2. 4.

    The Executive Committee shall ensure that the affairs of the IMA are conducted in accordance with the decisions of General Assemblies.

Membership

  1. 5.1

    Membership of the IMA is open to: (a) national or international societies, associations or other groups having mycological interests, and (b) individuals having mycological interests. Such memberships shall be recognized as Sustaining or Affiliated Organizations, and Individual Members respectively.

  2. 5.2

    Sustaining Organizations shall pay dues as defined in para. 6.3 and may appoint a single voting member to the Executive Committee. Affiliated Organizations shall pay dues as defined in para. 6.3, and do not have the power to appoint a voting member to the Executive Committee.

  3. 5.3

    New Sustaining and Affiliated Organizations shall be recognized by a major vote of the Executive Committee.

  4. 5.4

    Honorary Presidents may be elected by the General Assembly on the proposal of the Executive Committee, provided that the number at any given time does not exceed five. Honorary Presidents are elected for life, receive all Committee papers, and are not required to pay dues; they are non-voting members of the Executive Committee.

Finance

  1. 6.1

    The income of the IMA may come from any source, but principally consists of: (a) subscriptions from Sustaining and Affiliated Organizations and Individual Members; (b) a levy included in the registration fee of and any surpluses from International Mycological Congresses; (c) donations; and (d) interest on funds held.

  2. 6.2

    The expenses of the IMA consist of (a) administrative expenses of the Officers, and (b) all other expenses approved by the Executive Committee.

  3. 6.3

    The subscriptions of an Individual Member shall be one unit, that of Sustaining Organizations twenty units, and that of Affiliated Organizations three units. The value of the unit is fixed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Executive Committee, subject to ratification as in para. 3.1.

  4. 6.4

    The subscriptions of Sustaining and Affiliated Organizations are due annually. Those of Individual Members become due at each International Mycological congress and cover the period to the next Congress. Full Congress members paying a levy as in para. 6.1(b) are automatically Individual Members until the subsequent Congress.

  5. 6.5

    A Sustaining or Affiliated Organization two years in arrears, or an Individual Member who has not paid the subscription due within two years of an International Mycological Congress, shall, on notice having been given by the Treasurer, be deleted from membership.

  6. 6.6

    Administration of the funds of the IMA is the responsibility of the Treasurer who shall present accounts annually and forward estimates for at least one year ahead to the Executive Committee and all Sustaining and Affiliated Organizations. A summary of the accounts for the period between Congresses is to be presented to the General Assembly at each International Mycological Congress. The accounts shall be audited by an auditor nominated by the Executive Committee but who is not a member of that Committee, or of any other Committee established by the IMA, or an Officer of the Association.

International Mycological Congresses

  1. 7.1

    The IMA will encourage national and regional mycological groups to offer to host International Mycological Congresses (IMCs) at intervals to be determined by the Executive Committee.

  2. 7.2

    Proposals to host future congresses must be received by the Secretary-General not less than five months before each IMC.

  3. 7.3

    The venues and dates of future IMCs will be selected by the Executive Committee from the proposals received by the due date, and their decision will be announced to the General Assembly of the IMA.

  4. 7.4

    The Organizing Committee will (a) invite suggestions for symposia and workshops from all its Sustaining and Affiliated Organizations; (b) submit an outline programme to the Secretary-General for circulation and comment not less than 18 months prior to the IMC being planned; (c) include an IMA levy in the Registration Fee as advised by Executive Committee; and (d) be responsible for all aspects of the organization and conduct of the Congress.

Regional Committees

  1. 8.1

    Regional Committees are appointed as in para. 3.4.

  2. 8.2

    Such Committees comprise a national representative for each country in the region; a Chairman and Secretary are to be elected by the national representatives from amongst their number.

  3. 8.3

    Procedures for the establishment and methods of operation of Regional Committees are subject to ratification by the Executive Committee.

  4. 8.4

    Regional Committees will be encouraged to hold at least one meeting between each IMC.

Statutes

  1. 9.1

    The Statutes of the IMA can be modified only by a two-thirds majority of those eligible to vote at a General Assembly and are subject to ratification by Sustaining and Affiliated Organizations within twelve months of the meeting of the General Assembly. In ratifying modifications to the Statutes, each Sustaining and Affiliated Organization will have a number of votes equivalent to the square root of their membership, and ratification shall require a two-thirds majority of votes.

  2. 9.2

    Any proposals to modify the Statutes must be received by the Secretary-General at least five months before the General Assembly and shall be circulated to the Executive Committee and Sustaining and Affiliated Organizations at least three months before the Assembly. In cases of extreme urgency, the Executive Committee shall have the right to suspend a particular paragraph of the Statutes until the following General Assembly which shall have the right to approve or reject the changes.

General

  1. 10.

    A motion to dissolve the IMA must be approved by a two-thirds majority of those present and eligible to vote at a General Assembly, including nominated representatives of at least half of the Sustaining and Affiliated Organizations. If the IMA is dissolved any funds remaining after all outstanding liabilities are discharged shall be used for scientific purposes in the field of mycology as agreed by the dissolving General Assembly.

1990–2010 Revision of IMA Statutes

Executive management experience during the five inter-congress periods after the revision of Statutes at Regensburg (1990) convinced the 2006–2010 Officers and Executive Committee that even stricter attention was required to details of the Statutes in order for them to provide appropriate support for IMA functions. The procedures associated with organization of IMA congresses received particular consideration.

International Mycological Association — Statutes 2010 [proposed]

[Statute revision for presentation at IMC-9, Edinburgh, U.K., August 2010]

Preamble

  1. 1.

    The Association shall be called the International Mycological Association (IMA). The IMA is the Section for General Mycology of the International Union of Biological Societies.

Objectives

  1. 2.

    The mission of the IMA, as a non-profit organization, is the promotion and encouragement of mycology throughout the world. The IMA supports International Mycological Congresses (IMCs) and provides support for regional mycological meetings. The IMA serves to facilitate access to Member Mycological Organizations (MMOs) and their resources, as well as other mycological resources.

Management

  1. 3.

    The affairs of the IMA are managed by:

    1. 3.1

      The General Assembly, convened by the President on the occasion of an International Mycological Congress. All full congress registrants may participate and vote at the General Assembly, which has no continuing responsibility.

    2. 3.2

      The Executive Committee, composed of (a) a maximum of twelve non-office holding members elected by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Executive Committee from nominations (received not later than the date notified to Congress participants) from the Sustaining Member Mycological Organizations (SMMOs), MMOs, the Executive Committee, or individual members; (b) one representative of each SMMO; (c) one representative of each established Regional MMO; (d) Honorary Presidents; (e) the Officers; (f) the current past-president as an ex-officio member.

    3. 3.3

      The Officers, comprising a President, two Vice-Presidents (one Vice-President being the Chair of the current International Mycological Congress and the other being the Chair of the next International Mycological Congress), a Secretary-General and a Treasurer.

      Officers are elected by the General Assembly from nominations made by the Executive Committee. The president normally will be nominated from the current Executive Committee. When necessary in the period between two General Assemblies, the Executive Committee may appoint any of these officers.

      The term of office of each Officer terminates at the close of an International Mycological Congress, with the exception of the Secretary-General and Treasurer, who may be re-elected without restriction. The President, upon the expiration of his or her term, becomes the Past President to serve as an ex officio member of the Executive Committee until the close of the following IMC.

    4. 3.4

      The IMA may create and bestow awards, including the deBary and Ainsworth awards.

    5. 3.5

      Committees for special purposes may be appointed by the General Assembly or the Executive Council.

Admonishment

  1. 4.

    The Executive Committee shall ensure that the affairs of the IMA are conducted in accordance with the decisions of General Assemblies.

Membership

  1. 5.1

    Membership in the IMA is open to all full congress registrants of the most recent International Mycological Congress until the following congress, and to MMOs, that is, national, regional or international organizations, associations or other groups having mycological interests. The individual members of MMOs of the IMA are also members of the IMA. Established Regional MMOs include the European Mycological Association, the African Mycological Association, the Asian Mycological Association, the Australasian Mycological Association, the Latin American Mycological Association and a North American Mycological Association. Proposals for additional Executive Regional MMOs may be proposed to the Executive Committee for nomination by the Executive Committee for ratification by the GA.

  2. 5.2

    MMOs may become SMMOs by paying dues as defined in paragraph 6.3 and may appoint a single, voting member to the Executive Committee.

  3. 5.3

    New MMOs are subject to approval by the Executive Committee.

  4. 5.4

    Regional MMOs may appoint a single, voting member to the Executive Committee.

  5. 5.5

    Honorary Presidents that have been elected for life will receive all Committee papers and are not required to pay dues; they are non-voting members of the Executive Committee.

Finance

  1. 6.1

    The income of the IMA principally consists of: (a) subscriptions from SMMOs; (b) a levy included in the registration fees of IMCs; (c) donations; (d) interest on funds held; (e) surpluses from IMCs.

  2. 6.2

    The expenses of the IMA must be approved by the Executive Committee.

  3. 6.3

    The cost of a SMMO membership and the cost of the levy included in the registration fees of an International Mycological Congress shall be proposed by the Executive Committee and ratified by the General Assembly as in paragraph 3.1.

  4. 6.4

    The subscription of SMMOs are due annually on January 1st. The levy on registration fees for the International Mycological Congress shall be collected as part of the registration fee for the congress.

  5. 6.5

    A SMMO in arrears shall, on 60 days notice having been given by the Treasurer, be deleted from Sustaining Membership.

  6. 6.6

    Administration of the funds of the IMA is the responsibility of the Treasurer, who shall present accounts and a forward budget annually to the Executive Committee. A summary of the accounts for the period between IMCs is to be presented to the General Assembly at each International Mycological Congress. The accounts shall be audited by a person nominated by the Executive Committee but who is not a member of that Committee, or of any other Committee established by the IMA or an Officer of the Association.

International Mycological Congresses

  1. 7.1

    The IMA will encourage national, sustaining and regional MMOs to offer to host IMCs at intervals to be determined by the Executive Committee; currently, this interval is four years. The Executive Committee shall solicit pre-proposals for the next, future IMC from MMOs not later than 18 months before the date of the current IMC with a deadline for receipt of the pre-proposals of not later than 12 months before the date of the current IMC. The Executive Committee shall review the pre-proposals and vote to solicit full proposals from not fewer than two MMOs submitting pre-proposals, not laterthan 10 months before the date of the current IMC.

  2. 7.2

    Full proposals to host the next, future IMC must be received by the Secretary-General for distribution to the Executive Committee not later than six months before the current IMC.

  3. 7.3

    The venues and dates for the next, future IMC will be proposed by vote of the Executive Committee not later than three months before the current IMC. The President and Secretary-General will visit the proposed venue selected by the Executive Committee before final ratification by the Executive Committee. The decision will be announced to the General Assembly of the IMA, to be held at the upcoming IMC.

  4. 7.4

    The IMA Executive Committee will appoint a minimum of one and a maximum of three representatives to the Organizing Committee established for each IMC by the proposing MMOs.

  5. 7.5

    The Organizing Committee will:

    1. (a)

      invite suggestions for symposia and workshops from all MMOs;

    2. (b)

      submit an outline programme to the Secretary-General for circulation and comment not fewer than 15 months prior to the IMC being planned;

    3. (c)

      include an IMA levy in the Registration Fee as advised by the Executive Committee;

    4. (d)

      be responsible for all aspects of the organization and conduct of the IMC; and

    5. (e)

      be eligible for “seed money” to be used to initiate the IMC, which must be refunded to the IMA at the conclusion of the IMC.

    6. (f)

      submit to the IMA Treasurer, no later than 90 days following the conclusion of the IMC, a full accounting of the income and expenditures of the meeting and transfer to the IMA Treasurer any funds remaining after expenses have been deducted from income. The IMA depends upon return of the “seed money” described in 7.5 (e) and receipt of the IMC registration levy described in 6.3.

Regional Committees

  1. 8.

    Regional Committees of the IMA now in existence shall be elevated to Regional MMOs. These consist of: the European Mycological Association, the African Mycological Association, the Asian Mycological Association, the Australasian Mycological Association, the Latin American Mycological Association and the North American Mycological Association.

Statutes

  1. 9.1

    The Statutes of the IMA can be modified by proposal of the Executive Committee and ratification only by a two-thirds majority of those eligible to vote at a General Assembly of the IMA.

  2. 9.2

    Any proposal to modify the Statutes must be received by the Secretary-General at least five months before the General Assembly and shall be circulated to the Executive Committee and SMMOs, Regional MMOs and MMOs at least three months before the Assembly. In cases of extreme urgency, the Executive Committee shall have the right to suspend or create a particular paragraph of the Statutes until the following General Assembly, which shall have the right to approve or reject the changes.

General

  1. 10.

    Any motion to dissolve the IMA must be approved by a two-thirds majority of those present and eligible to vote at a General Assembly. If the IMA is dissolved, any funds remaining after all outstanding liabilities are discharged shall be used for scientific purposes in the field of mycology as agreed by the dissolving General Assembly.

Sources Cited or Otherwise Relevant to This History

IMA publications and distributed material (not Congress items)

1972

The first communication from officers of IMA appeared in an IMA Newsletter that was undated but, from internal evidence, was in 1972. An introductory page, unsigned but almost certainly written by Alexopoulos, re-emphasized the IMA mission statement: “The International Mycological Association has a duty to enhance the international co-operation in all branches of mycology. One important aspect of this co-operation is to welcome individuals or groups from small or isolated countries where no mycological society exists into the IMA…”

This Newsletter introduction continued with an expectation that the major mycological societies in the world would support the ambitions of IMA and would engage in mycological activities across international boundaries. A key hope was that societies and individuals on an international scale would co-operate in the organization of a Second International Mycological Congress.

1983–1990

Publications. IMA Newsletters had been assembled and distributed by 1971–1977 IMA Secretary Colin Booth shortly before 23 August 1973 (10 pp.) and in April 1981 (3 pp.). The effort was not continued by subsequent executive groups until 1987, when Secretary-General Hawksworth restored publication in the form of IMA News, with Issue no. 1 in July 1987 and no. 2 in Spring 1990. Issue no. 1 carried a Preliminary Announcement of IMC-4, Regensburg, plus short articles noted above among interim business. Issue no. 2 announced the Final Circular (of three) concerning structure of the IMC-4 congress, also with items of interim note, some of which are included above.

IMC publications and distributions; authorship often anonymous

IMC-1 Exeter 1971: Publications and archived material

  • Program

  • Address list of registrants

  • Abstracts

  • International Mycological Directory (see G. C. Ainsworth in References)

  • Proceedings (see G. C. Ainsworth above)

  • Photographs. A volume of photographs taken at IMC-1 are held in the Archives of the British Mycological Society, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K.

IMC-2 Tampa 1977: Publications and archived material

  • Program

  • Abstracts. Second International Mycological Congress Abstracts Volume A–L (pp. i–xvi + 1–404) and Volume M–Z (pp. 405–786). IMC-2, Inc., Tampa, Florida. (h. E. Bigelow & E. G. Simmons, eds.)

  • Directory of Registrants

  • Additions and Corrections to the Directory

  • A Brief History of Mycology in North America (see D. P. Rogers in References)

  • Mycological Art and Artifacts; exhibit guide (M. S. Fuller)

  • Books, Manuscripts and Original Illustrations from the W. G. Farlow Collection; historical exhibit, souvenir folder (D. H. Pfister)

  • IMC-2 Gazette (issued daily; news and notices; H. E. Bigelow, ed.)

  • Proceedings of the Second International Mycological Congress (see E. G. Simmons in References)

IMC-3 Tokyo 1983: publications and archived material

  • Program. Third International Mycological Congress, Tokyo, Japan. 1983. 96 pp.

  • Abstracts. Third International Mycological Congress, Tokyo, Japan. 1983. 727 pp.

IMC-4 Regensburg 1990: publications and archived material

  • Abstracts. Fourth International Mycological Congress, Regensburg, Germany. 1990. 361 pp.

  • Program. A comprehensive Program booklet

  • Congress lectures. See Hawksworth, D. L. (ed.) 1991. Frontiers in Mycology.

IMC-5 Vancouver 1994: publications and archived material

  • Congress symposium papers. See Heath, I. B. (ed.) 1995.

  • General program. 158 pp.

  • Abstracts. 254 pp. + Author Index

  • A History of Mycology in Canada. See Estey, R. H. 1993.

  • Lichenological foray. See DeBolt, A. 1994.

IMC-6 Jerusalem 1998: publications and archived material

  • Program 144 pp.

  • Abstracts 192 pp.

IMC-7 Oslo 2002: publications and archived material

  • Program 97 pp.

  • Abstracts 387 pp.

    • The Abstracts are archived on the Website of the IMA. They include not only an Index to Authors but also separate indexes of fungus genus and family names that occur in the abstracts.

  • IMC-7 Participant List 15 pp.

IMC-8 Cairns 2006: publications and archived material

  1. Congress Handbook & Abstracts Book 1 (1–246 pp.) and Book 2 (+ 247–418 + i–li pp.) The main body of the volumes detailed each day’s line-up of oral, poster, plenary, workshop, and social events. Each scientific listing was accompanied by its official abstract. Both volumes of the Congress Handbook, fully indexed, are archived at the IMA Website homepage.

  2. Proceedings of the 8th International Mycological Congress, Cairns, Australia, 2025.8.2006 (see Meyer & Pearce 2006)

  3. Newsletters. The Cairns congress organizers produced a series of seven newsletters covering all aspects of participation, from visa application and travel to registration and paper presentation. No.1 in July 2004; no. 7 in August 2006.

Abbreviations

IAMS:

International Association of Microbiological Societies

ICBN:

International Code of Botanical Nomenclature

ICSU:

International Council for Science (earlier International Council of Scientific Unions)

ICTF:

International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi

ICYYLM:

International Commission on Yeast and Yeast-Like Microorganisms

IMA:

International Mycological Association

ISPP:

International Society for Plant Pathology

IUBS:

International Union of Biological Sciences

IUMS:

International Union of Microbiological Societies

ISHAM:

International Society for Human and Animal Mycology

WFCC:

World Federation for Culture Collections

References

  1. Ainsworth GC (1971) International mycological directory. CMI, Kew. 23 pp.

  2. Ainsworth GC (1972) Proceedings of the First International Mycological Congress. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 58(2) Suppl: 1–40.

  3. Crous PW, Gams W, Stalpers JA, Robert V, Stegehuis G (2004) MycoBank: an online initiative to launch mycology into the 21st century. Studies in Mycology 50: 19–22.

  4. DeBolt A (1994) Highlights from the Post-IMC5 British Columbia Field Trip. International Lichenological Newsletter 27(3): 49–52. (Oct. 1994.)

  5. Estey RH (1993) A history of mycology in Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 72: 751–766.

  6. Gibbons NE (1974) History of the International Association of Microbiological Societies. ASM News 40(6): 419–438.

  7. Hall GS, Hawksworth DL (1990) International Mycological Directory. 2nd ed. CAB International. 163 pp.

  8. Hall GS, Minter DW (1994) International mycological directory. 3rd ed. CAB International. 163 pp.

  9. Hawksworth DL (1984) International Mycological Association; Record of Business Meetings and General Assembly Convened During the Third International Mycological Congress. Tokyo, 28 August — 3 September 1983. Mycotaxon 20: 153–162.

  10. Hawksworth DL (1987) International Mycological Association; Report of Business Meeting Held During the XIV International Botanical Congress; Berlin 25 July 1987. Mycotaxon 30: 509–512.

  11. Hawksworth DL (ed.) (1991) Frontiers in Mycology: Honorary and General Lectures from the Fourth International Mycological Congress. Regensburg, Germany. CAB International. 290 pp.

  12. Heath IB (ed.) (1995) [Proceedings of the] Fifth International Mycological Congress, Vancouver, B.C., Sections A-D. Canadian Journal of Botany 73(Suppl. 1): xii, 1–648; Sections E-H., ibid. 73(Suppl. 1): ix, 649–1433.

  13. Ingold CT (1972) The advance of mycology. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 58(2) Suppl.: 5–14. PI. 1–2.

  14. Meyer W, Pearce C (ed.) (2006) Proceedings of the 8th International Mycological Congress. Cairns, Australia, 20–25.8.2006. Sapmea Conventions, Australia. 299 pp.

  15. Rogers DP (1977) A Brief History of Mycology in North America. Second International Mycological Congress. 65 pp.

  16. Rogers DP (1981) A Brief History of Mycology in North America. [Augmented ed.] Mycological Society of America. 86 pp.

  17. Simmons EG (1978) Proceedings of the Second International Mycological Congress. University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, U.S.A., 27 August—3 September 1977. Mycologia 70: 253–265.

  18. Tubaki K (1983) On the Third International Mycological Congress. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan 24: 361–366. [in Japanese]

  19. Warmelo KT van (1979) Proposals for modification of the Code of Botanical Nomenclature: IMC2 proposals. Taxon 28: 424–431.

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Acknowledgements

Numerous individuals have contributed correspondence, publications, photographs, and reminiscences essential to the construction of this IMA history.

Of special note is Meredith Blackwell, who not only emptied her library shelves of pertinent material and supporting photos for our use but also examined the draft manuscript in detail for errors, omissions, and inconsistencies. Colleague Cletus Kurtzman likewise cleared out some of his library shelves for this project. In addition to gifts of documents, Junta Sugiyama had the courage to translate some published IMC-3 reminiscences of Keisuke Tubaki from colloquial Japanese into colloquial English.

Pedro Crous not only instigated and ensured production of this historical record, but also gathered in and configured the photographic treasures inserted throughout the text.

Others who responded on request and who have proved to be sources of abundant and essential archival material include:

Mary Berbee

Gill Butterfill

Dee Carter

Leland Crane

José Carmine Dianese

Karl Esser

Martin Grube

Marieka Gryzenhout

David Hawksworth

Brent Heath

Hannes Hertel

Kevin Hyde

Joyce Jefwa

Makoto Kakishima

Eric McKenzie

Wieland Meyer

Lorelei Norvell

Franz Oberwinkler

Scott Redhead

Ramesamy Rengasamy

Leif Ryvarden

Christian Scheuer

Trond Schumacher

Junta Sugiyama

Susuma Takamatsu

Trude Vrålstad

Diane Wagner-Merner Te Strake

John Webster

Author information

Correspondence to Emory G. Simmons.

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Simmons, E.G. The International Mycological Association: its history in brief with summaries of its International Mycological Congresses and diverse international relationships. IMA Fungus 1, 18–100 (2010). https://doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2010.01.01.01

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Key words

  • Congresses
  • fungus taxonomy
  • international mycology
  • regional mycology associations
  • international microbiology