- Open Access
Recommendations on generic names competing for use in Leotiomycetes (Ascomycota)
IMA Fungus volume 5, pages91–120(2014)
In advancing to one scientific name for fungi, this paper treats genera competing for use in the phylogenetically defined class Leotiomycetes except for genera of Erysiphales. Two groups traditionally included in the so-called “inoperculate discomycetes” have been excluded from this class and are also not included here, specifically Geoglossomycetes and Orbiliomycetes. A recommendation is made about the generic name to use in cases in which two or more generic names are synonyms or taxonomically congruent along with the rationale for the recommendation. In some cases the recommended generic name does not have priority or is based on an asexual type species, thus needs to be protected and ultimately approved according to Art. 57.2 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN). A table is presented listing all competing generic names and their type species noting the recommended generic name. New combinations are introduced for the oldest epithet in the recommended genus including Ascocalyx berenice, Ascoconidium purpurascens, Ascocoryne albida, A. trichophora, Blumeriella filipendule, B. ceanothi, Botrytis arachidis, B. fritillariae-pallidoflori, Calloria urticae, Calycellina aspera, Dematioscypha delicata, Dermea abietinum, D. boycei, D. stellata, Diplocarpon alpestre, D. fragariae, Godroniopsis peckii, Grovesinia moricola, Heterosphaera sublineolata, Hyphodiscus brachyconium, H. brevicollaris, H. luxurians, Leptotrochila campanulae, Monilinia polystroma, Neofabraea actinidae, N. citricarpa, N. vagabunda, Oculimacula aestiva, O. anguioides, Pezicula brunnea, P. californiae, P. cornina, P. diversispora, P. ericae, P. melanogena, P. querciphila, P. radicicola, P. rhizophila, Phialocephala piceae, Pilidium lythri, Rhabdocline laricis, Streptotinia streptothrix, Symphyosirinia parasitica, S. rosea, Unguiculariopsis caespitosa, and Vibrissea laxa.
As a contribution to the ‘one fungus—one name’ process resulting from changes introduced with the recent International Codes of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN) (McNeill et al. 2012), this paper reviews genera competing for use in class Leotiomycetes. A recommendation is made about the name to use in cases where two or more generic names are synonyms or taxonomically congruent. In some cases the recommended generic name does not have priority or is based on an asexual type species and thus needs approval according to Art. 57.2 of the ICN and further explained by Hawksworth (2014). The background to the changes in the Code and the need for papers such as this one resulting in lists of protected names (McNeill et al. 2012, Art. 14.13) is provided by Rossman et al. (2013).
Many Leotiomycetes have cup-shaped, often stalked, ascomata with a widely exposed hymenium of unitunicate asci and sterile paraphyses arranged in a compact palisade. These fungi are ecologically diverse and include plant pathogens, saprobes of leaves and wood, endophytes, mycorrhizas, and aquatic hyphomycetes (Wang et al. 2006a,b). This breadth of ecology means that different research communities have worked more or less independently on these fungi, for example, some primarily dealing with aquatic fungi while others are concerned with plant pathogens. Researchers in some of these mycological communities have often been concerned with asexual taxa while others have dealt with fungi that primarily produce a sexual morph. In an attempt to determine the correct single name to be applied to genera typified by species with sexual/asexual types, these communities are working together to determine the “best” or most widely accepted name for genera that represent the same group of related species regardless of whether the type species represents the sexual or asexual morph.
Traditionally Leotiomycetes having morphologically similar ascomata and asci were regarded as an informal group termed the “inoperculate discomycetes” differentiated from the “operculate discomycetes” or Pezizales. The phylogenetically defined class Leotiomycetes within the subphylum Pezizomycotina does not include some of the groups previously referred to as the “inoperculate discomycetes”, such as Orbiliomycetes and Geoglossomycetes (Wang 2006 a, b, Husted & Miller 2011); these groups are not considered in this paper. The class Leotiomycetes does include the ecologically specialised Erysiphales, the powdery mildews (Braun & Cook 2011, Braun 2012); however, the genera and species of this order have already been reviewed for one scientific name by Braun (2013).
Within Leotiomycetes, considerable taxonomic confusion exists at all levels, thus the orders and families are not included for the genera mentioned here. The confusion extends to the genus level, making some decisions about connections between genera based on sexual and asexual morphs impossible at this time. For example a confused taxonomy has existed for the genera Mollisia and Cadophora. After de Hoog et al. (1999) showed that the type species of Phialophora is not a member of Leotiomycetes, the name Cadophora was adopted by Gams (2000) for the phialophora-like asexual morphs of some Mollisia species. Subsequently, it was determined that specimens representing the type species of Mollisia, M. cinerea, and Cadophora, C. fastigiata, belong in divergent clades (Day et al. 2012, Baschien et al. 2013) and these two generic names do not represent the same lineage. A maximum likelihood tree places Cadophora s. str. into Rhynchosporium (Baschien et al. 2013) along with Mollisia dextrinospora, whereas Mollisia s. str. belongs in the Vibrissea-Loramyces clade (Wang et al. 2006a, b). Thus, these generic names are not taxonomically congruent, meaning that they do not circumscribe the same set of species and thus do not compete with each other for use as the single name for the genus represented by the type and related species.
Taxonomic confusion also results if a genus as currently conceived is not monophyletic. For example, the type species of the large genus Lophodermium is the grass-inhabiting L. arundinaceum (Johnston 2001). This species is phylogenetically distinct from the important pine-inhabiting species such as Lophodermium pinastri and L. seditiosum (Lantz et al. 2011). In determining which generic names might compete with Lophodermium, only the type species influences this decision, although could be changed by conservation or protection. The pine-inhabiting species must be placed in another genus unless Lophodermium is conserved or protected with a different pine-inhabiting type species. The names of the asexual morphs connected with species of Lophodermium on pine such as L. conigenum are placed in Leptostroma, in this case L. pinorum (Minter 1980). However, the type species of Leptostroma is L. scirpi, again not congeneric with L. pinorum (Lantz et al. 2011). Thus although Lophodermium conigenum is the sexual morph of Leptostroma pinorum, neither genus is appropriate for these species as the generic names are currently typifed. Thus in establishing the correct names for competing genera, the first step is always to review the phylogenetic status of their type species.
Many of the generic names of Leotiomycetes are old, especially those of the asexual morphs. DNA sequences are available for only a few of the type species, and most certainly not from the type specimen but also not from an authentic or as yet designated epitype specimen. Thus resolving the taxonomic issues amongst these fungi is difficult because of a lack of knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the type species of potentially competing genera. Many genera, especially those applied to asexual morphs, are polyphyletic often including several hundred names described in the 1800s and 1900s that have since been placed outside the genus or that remain obscure. This resulted from asexually typified genera having previously been regarded as “form-genera” rather than representing monophyletic genera.
In reviewing the potentially competing generic names for sexual and asexual morphs of aquatic hyphomycetes, it was determined that only one of these appears to be truly taxonomically congruent. The names applied to the sexual and asexual morphs of a species are mostly based on polyphyletically defined genera in which the type species is not congeneric with the names used for the connected specific names. For example, Dimorphospora foliicola, the monotype species of Dimorphospora, has a sexual morph placed in Hymenoscyphus. However, the type species of Hymenoscyphus, H. fructigenus, and D. foliicola are probably not congeneric. A BLAST search of sequences from D. foliicola does not link Dimorphospora with Hymenoscyphus. Also, in Baschien et al. (2013), the ex-type culture of D. foliicola does not appear in a clade together with Hymenoscyphus. As another example Tricladium splendens, type of the genus Tricladium, has a sexual morph named Hymenoscyphus splendens. The latter species appears to be closely related to H. varicosporoides (Seena et al. 2010, Baschien et al. 2013), however, H. varicosporoides is considered the sexual morph of a Tricladium (Sivichai et al. 2003) that is conspecific with an isolate of T. indicum from South Africa for which Webster et al. (1995) named the sexual morph as Cudoniella indica. Given the differences in morphology between the aquatic hyphomycetes and their sexual morphs and the tendency towards morphological convergence in this habitat, determining whether these taxa are congeneric is difficult without molecular phylogenetic data.
Based on the type species, generic names representing sexual and asexual morphs were investigated to determine if these generic names circumscribed the same group of species. If the type species of two genera represent the same species, the respective genera are considered synonyms. If the type species of one genus is judged to be congeneric with the type species of the other genus, i.e. the type species are within the same circumscription as the set of related species, the generic names are termed taxonomically congruent or congeneric. If molecular phylogenetic data are available, these are used to determine if the type species are congeneric. If phylogenetic data are not available but it appears likely that the genera are congeneric, they are included. If later it is determined that these genera are not taxonomically congruent, then both generic names are available for use as explained in Rossman (2014).
After a thorough review of the literature and discussion among members of various user communities, one generic name is recommended for use here. Since July 2011, generic names compete for priority regardless of whether the type material of the type species of the genus represents a sexual or an asexual morph. In most cases the generic name that has priority, i.e. the name that was described first, would be that to be adopted under the ICN and is recommended. However, a number of factors have contributed to recommendations that priority of publication be over-ruled. One factor is the potential number of names changes required. This can be determined to some extent by the number of names listed under each genus in Index FungorumFootnote 1 or MycoBank in which placement of species on other genera is indicated. A second factor is the frequency of use of each generic name as determined by searches of database resources such as Google, Google Scholar, MycoBank, and the SMML Fungal DatabasesFootnote 2. The latter retrieves reports of fungi on plant hosts and retains the original fungus name, thus one can see how commonly used is a particular genus. Consideration is given to which generic name is used most commonly and whether specific names of importance to user communities would be changed. Finally this document was circulated among a number of users for comments and these comments accommodated to the greatest extent possible. Sometimes these opinions were in conflict and thus the authors of this document came to a consensus among themselves. The names of all participants who responded to requests for input about this document are listed in the Acknowledgements.
For each genus the rationale is presented for this recommendation and inclusion on the list of protected genera of Leotiomycetes. Teleomorph or sexually typified genera are indicated by an (S), while anamorph or asexually typified genera are indicated by an (A). If a sexually typified genus that is younger than an asexually typified genus is recommended for use, then the term protect indicates that this genus does not have priority and thus must be included on this list of protected names of genera in Leotiomycetes. If an asexually typified genus has priority, i.e. it is the oldest generic name, and is recommended for use, then the term protect indicates that this genus has priority but has an asexual type species and therefore must be protected as dictated in Article 57.2 of the ICN if both names are widely used. These are the two situations in which action is needed such that these genera must be approved by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF) appointed by the Melbourne Congress. For competing genera in which the genus representing the sexual morph has priority and is recommended for use, no action is needed even though the name is included on this list. Finally, if the generic synonymy is relatively conclusive, specific names have been evaluated for priority. New combinations are made if an older epithet exists for the type and other species that must be placed in the genus recommended for use.
Because of their importance to plant pathologists seven specific names from the genera treated here will be formally proposed for conservation in a separate publication. Conservation is required for these names because the oldest competing epithet is not in the correct genus. These include: Blumeriella jaapii (cause of shot-hole disease of Prunus), Gremmeniella abietina (cause of Scleroderris canker of conifers), Leptotrochila medicaginis (cause of yellow leaf blotch of alfalfa), Neofabraea malicorticis (cause of bull’s eye rot on apple and pear), Oculimacula yallundae (cause of eyespot of wheat), Pezicula cinnamomea (pezicula canker of red oak), and Pyrenopeziza brassicae, (cause of light leaf spot on winter oilseeed rape).
Generic names considered here are presented in Table 1 with the recommended generic name listed first and in bold. For each generic name, the place of publication and the type species with its place of publication and the currently accepted specific name are listed. Additional synonyms of the recommended generic name are listed in the third column. If action is needed, this is noted in the last column.
Rationale for Recommendations
Protect Ascocalyx 1926 (S) over Bothrodiscus 1907 (A) and Pycnocalyx 1916 (A)
The generic name Ascocalyx, with the sexual type species A. abietis, and the asexually typified generic name Bothrodiscus, with the type species B. berenice now referred to as B. pinicola, were shown to be morphs of the same fungus by Groves (1936) by isolation of identical colonies from ascospores and conidia. In addition, the monotypic genus Pycnocalyx, with the type species P. abietis, is also considered a taxonomic synonym of Ascocalyx and A. abietis (Groves 1936); despite the identical species epithets, the names are heterotypic. Thus these three generic names are considered synonyms. Seven specific names have been placed in Ascocalyx, with only four remaining in that genus, while two of the three names in Bothrodiscus are considered synonyms of A. abietis. All species of this genus occur on the Pinaceae on which they cause minor cankers (Groves 1968, Smerlis 1973). Ascocalyx is the most frequently used generic name. Therefore, we recommend that Ascocalyx be protected over the two older asexually typified genera. Based on this recommendation, the binomial of the type and most commonly encountered species, a fungus causing a canker on pine (Kondo & Kobayashi 1984), must be changed as follows:
Ascocalyx berenice (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Baschien, comb. nov.
Basionym: Fusisporium berenice Berk. & M.A. Curtis, Grevillea 3: 147 (1875).
Synonyms: Bothrodiscus pinicola Shear, Bull. Torrey bot. Club 34: 313 (1907).
Ascocalyx abietis Naumov, Bolezni Rast. 14: 138 (1925) .
Pycnocalyx abietis Naumov, Zap. Ural’sk. Obšč. Ljubit. Estestv. 35: 11 (1916).
Ascocalyx obscurus (Peck) Baschien, comb. nov.
Basionym: Excipulina obscura Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22:209 (1895).
Synonyms: Bothrodiscus obscurus (Peck) Nag Raj, Canad. J. Bot. 57: 2489 (1979). Ascocalyx tenuisporus J.W. Groves, Canad. J. Bot. 46: 1275 (1968).
Note: Although the differentiation of Ascocalyx abietis from Gremmeniella abietina has sometimes been a matter of discussion (Petrini et al. 1989), the two are now generally considered distinct. The epithets for A. berenice as A. abietis and G. abietina should not be confused; these are two different fungi. The latter is the cause of a serious canker disease of conifers and has sometimes been classified in Ascocalyx, thus the use of this generic name as A. abietina in the literature refers to Gremmeniella abietina.
Protect Ascoconidium 1942 (A) over Sageria 1975 (S)
The type species of Ascoconidium, A. castaneae, was described as the asexual morph of the earlier Dermatea purpurascens (Seaver 1942), while the type species of Sageria, S. tsugae, is the sexual morph of A. tsugae (Funk 1975). Although one might question whether these two species are congeneric, Nag Raj & Kendrick (1975) present a convincing case for the generic synonymy, showing that both asexual morphs have large phialides with conidiogenous loci at the base and apices that rupture to release large, cylindrical, multiseptate conidia. The sexual morphs are likewise similar. Thus these generic names are regarded as taxonomically congruent, although there is presently no molecular data to confirm this. The two genera, each with two named species, are well characterised. Although the species are considered minor pathogens, neither species is economically significant. Neither generic name is widely used. One argument in favour of Sageria is that ‘ascoconidium’ is also used as a technical term (Kirk et al. 2008) for conidia that arise from ascospores within asci; in fact, Seaver (1942) derived the generic name from this term. We propose following priority and recommend the older asexual generic name for use. The most commonly reported species is Ascoconidium purpurascens often as Sageria purpurascens or Dermatea purpurascens on Castanea in eastern North America (Verkley 1999). Adopting Ascoconidium combined with considering S. purpurascens to be synonymous with the type species, A. castaneae, means that the basionym Dermatea purpurascens must be transferred to Ascoconidium.
Ascoconidium purpurascens (Ellis & Everh.) Rossman, comb nov.
Basionym: Dermatea purpurascens Ellis & Everh., J. Mycol. 4: 100 (1888).
Synonyms: Sageria purpurascens (Ellis & Everh.) Verkley, Stud. Mycol. 44: 150 (1999).
Ascoconidium castaneae Seaver, Mycologia 34: 414 (1942).
Protect Ascocoryne 1967 (S) over Coryne 1816 (A), Pirobasidium 1902 (A), Pleurocolla 1924 (a) and Endostilbum 1964 (A)
The type species of the genus Coryne, C. dubia, is considered the asexual morph of the type species of Ascocoryne, A. sarcoides. This genetic connection between the morphs has been proven by culturing of ascospores and conidia, hence the two genera are synonyms. This species protects wood from decay by basidiomycetes and has been explored as a biological control of Heterobasidion annosum in Scandinavia, mostly under the confused moniker Coryne sarcoides (Singh 1989). The complexities of the nomenclature and typification of these two genera were described by Groves & Wilson (1967) using the code of nomenclature then in force. They argued that the epithet sarcoides should be applied to a sexual morph. Pirobasidium was based on the same epithet that was ascribed to Jacquin (1781). Groves & Wilson (1967) suggested that the rules of nomenclature needed to be changed and based on this philosophical position attributed the description of a new asexual “species” to Höhnel (1902) alone. This interpretation is no longer recognized. Additionally they sought to “neotypify” both the sexual and asexual names, Lichen sarcoides and Acrospermum dubium by the same specimen from North America, but their neotypification is not supportable because original illustrations exist. Endostilbum, typified by E. cerasi, is now considered the asexual morph of Ascocoryne solitaria (Korf & Candoussau 1974). Both generic names predate Ascocoryne. Seifert et al. (2011) added Pleurocolla, typified by P. tiliae, to the list of asexual state names that precede Ascocoryne. Coryne includes 69 names, few of them considered in the last fifty years. Unpublished type and field studies by Seifert (pers. comm.) suggest that the number of species attributable to this genus may be large. Seven names are included in Ascocoryne of which two or three have known asexual morphs. At first glance, protection of Ascocoryne could require numerous name changes but the comparative obscurity of most of the names in Coryne suggests that this is unlikely. The generic concept of Ascocoryne has always been well-circumscribed and is presumably monophyletic whereas the classical concept of Coryne is heterogeneous. Also, Coryne is used for a genus of hydrozoans, and the ICN now recommends avoidance of such names (Rec. 54A). Two of the other generic synonyms based on asexual morphs, Pirobasidium and Endostilbum, are monotypic and obscure; the third generic synonym, Pleurocolla, is also obscure but has been used mostly for a non-type species, P. compressa, which is a basidiomycete now classified in Leucogloea (2004). Ascocoryne sarcoides is used in the conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid biofuels (Gianoulos 2012). For these reasons, we suggest protection of Ascocoryne over Coryne and the other names based on asexual morphs.
Ascocoryne albida (Berk.) Seifert, comb. nov.
Basionym: Tubercularia albida Berk., Smith’s English Flora 5: 354 (1836).
Synonyms: Coryne albida (Berk.) Korf & Candoussau, Bull. Soc. Mycol. France 90: 214 (1974).
Coryne solitaria Rehm, Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl., 2nd edn 1 (3): 448 (1891) .
Didymocoryne solitaria (Rehm) Sacc. & Trotter, Syll. Fung. 22: 730 (1913).
Ascocoryne solitaria (Rehm) Dennis, Kew Bull. 25: 343 (1971).
Ascocoryne trichophora (A.L. Sm.) Seifert, comb. nov.
Basionym: Heydenia trichophora A.L. Sm., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 35: 13 (1901).
Synonym: Coryne trichophora (A.L. Sm.) Seifert, Stud. Mycol. 31: 159 (1989).
Protect Ascodichaena 1977 (S) over Polymorphum 1822 (A), Psilospora 1856 (A) and Dichaenopsis 1905 (A)
Butin (1977) established Ascodichaena based on the type species A. rugosa as a name for the sexual morph of the Polymorphum rugosum. The nomenclature of the type species of Polymorphum is complex; Hawksworth & Punithalingham (1973) selected P. quercinum, which they synonymized with P. rugosum. Following the abolition of later starting points and the introduction of sanctioning, the correct name remained P. rugosum but with a different author citation (Hawksworth 1983). The genus Dichaenopsis, based on D. notarisii, has been the subject of considerable discussion without resolution about its affinities (DiCosmo 1984), however, there is a suggestion that this type is a synonym of A. rugosa, thus we propose to reject this generic name in favor of Ascodichaena. Finally, Psilospora, based on Opegrapha faginea Pers., is known to be a synonym of these genera (Hawksworth 1983). A second species of Ascodichaena, A. mexicana, was described by Butin (1990). Ascodichaena is used more frequently than Polymorphum, and Dichaena faginea was the most commonly used name for the asexual morph prior to the resurrection of Polymorphum in 1973. The fungus may contribute to the declines of Fagus and Quercus in Europe (Minter & Cannon 2002) and A. rugosa is the name generally used by forest pathologists. Therefore, Ascodichaena is proposed for protection but the author citation of the type species is changed to “(L.) Butin” following the suggestions of Hawksworth et al. (2013) as “rugosum” is a sanctioned epithet.
Protect Blumeriella 1961 (S) over Microgloeum 1922 (A) and Phloeosporella 1924 (A)
Blumeriella jaapii, the type species of Blumeriella, causes shot-hole of Prunus, a common disease in temperate regions. The disease is also commonly called Coccomyces leaf spot and sometimes attributed to the name Coccomyces hiemalis, now widely accepted as a taxonomic synonym of B. jaapii. The asexual morphs of B. jaapii have been referred to as Phloeosporella padi for the macroconidial morph and Microgloeum pruni for the microconidial morph. Because M. pruni is the type species of Microgloeum, the generic names Blumeriella and Microgloeum have types that represent the same species and are thus synonyms. The name P. padi, based on Ascochyta padi Lib. 1832, also commonly used for the cause of shot-hole of Prunus, is not the type species of Phloeosporella. At present it is unclear whether Phloeosporella is congeneric with Blumeriella and Microgloeum because no DNA sequence data exist for the type species of Phloeosporella, P. ceanothi, causing leaf spot and dieback of Ceanothus. The only available data for B. jaapii is for α-deamylase CYP51, a gene that is not used in fungal phylogenetics. Because of the common use of the name Blumeriella jaapii for the widespread shot-hole disease of Prunus and its frequent appearance on lists of regulated pests in countries with a stone fruit agricultural sector, it is essential to protect the generic name Blumeriella over Microgloeum and Phloeosporella. In addition to protecting the generic name Blumeriella, the specific name Pseudopeziza jaapii needs to be formally conserved over the older names Ascochyta padi 1832 and Hainesii feurichii 1906. Given the prevalent use of Blumeriella jaapii for this disease in regulatory documents internationally and the lack of certainty about its relationship to the type species of Phloeosporella, it seems prudent to protect the generic name Blumeriella for which the name B. jaapii will be formally proposed for conservation in a separate publication. If the type species of Phloeosporella is found not to be congeneric with Blumeriella, it remains available for use.
A number of species in Blumeriella have asexual morphs in the large genus Cylindrosporium. The type species of Cylindrosporium, C. concentricum, is considered the asexual morph of Pyrenopeziza brassicae, thus the generic name Cylindrosporium is not a synonym of Blumeriella (see under Pyrenopeziza). However, two new combinations are required for species of Blumeriella for which names in Cylindrosporium provide the oldest epithet. Many additional new names may be required for species of Cylindrosporium that are determined to be congeneric with Blumeriella.
Blumeriella filipendulae (Thüm.) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Cylindrosporium filipendulae Thüm., Symb. mycol. austr. 2: 146 (1878).
Synonyms: Phloeosporella filipendulae (Thüm.) M.A. Will. & E.C. Bernard, Can. J. Bot. 66: 2052 (1988).
Blumeriella haddenii M.A. Will. & E.C. Bernard, Can. J. Bot. 66: 2051 (1988).
Blumeriella ceanothi (Ellis & Everh.) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Cylindrosporium ceanothi Ellis & Everh., Proc. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad. 43: 84 (1891).
Synonym: Phloeosporella ceanothi (Ellis & Everh.) Höhn., Annls mycol. 22: 201 (1924).
Protect Botrytis 1794 (A) over Botryotinia 1945 (S)
Botrytis cinerea, the type species of Botrytis, is an important and ubiquitous plant pathogen and also the agent of ‘noble rot’ exploited for the production of Tokaj, Sauternes, Beerenauslese, and Trockenbeerenauslese wines. When the sexual morph of Botrytis cinerea was discovered, it was placed in the genus Botryotinia as B. fuckeliana (Whetzel 1945). The type species of Botryotinia, B. convoluta, basionym Sclerotinia convoluta, and Botrytis cinerea are congeneric as indicated using ITS sequences (Holst-Jensen et al. 2004). Although their types are not the same species, Botrytis and Botryotinia are taxonomically congruent. More than 400 species were described in the classical concept of Botrytis, many of them excluded by Hughes (1958) and Hennebert (1963), and the status of many names remains poorly known. Only 20 names are included in Botryotinia, most also named in Botrytis. The name Botryotinia fuckeliana is mentioned only in connection with Botrytis cinerea. Other important plant diseases usually referred to by their Botrytis names include B. aclada and B. allii, major pathogens of onions worldwide, B. convoluta on Iris rhizomes, B. fabae causing chocolate spot on beans, B. narcissicola on bulbs and leaves of daffodils, B. paeoniae causing wilt on peonies, and B. tulipae causing ‘fire’ disease of tulips. Changing these names would severely disrupt the plant pathological literature. Despite its originally heterogeneous classical concept, Botrytis has been used in a taxonomically and phylogenetically consistent way for at least 50 years and no confusion or imprecision would follow from the use of this name for the genus. A round table discussion on Botrytis and Botryotinia and the consequences of ‘one name’ was held by users of these names during the XVIth International Botrytis Symposium, Locorotondo, Italy, June 23–28, 2013. There was unanimous support for retaining use of the older name Botrytis. Given the frequency with which Botrytis cinerea is observed, recognition of this name, and the number of described species in Botrytis, it seems expedient to propose the generic name Botrytis for protection over Botryotinia. Two new combinations are needed for species of Botryotinia.
Botrytis arachidis (Hanzawa) Seifert & Kohn, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sclerotinia arachidis Hanzawa, Collect. Bot. Pap. [Miyabe Festschrift]: 215 (1911).
Synonym: Botryotinia arachidis (Hanzawa) W. Yamam., Trans. Mycol. Soc. Japan 2(2): 4 (1959).
Botrytis fritillarii-pallidoflori (Q.T. Chen & J.L. Li) Seifert & Kohn, comb. nov.
Basionym: Botryotinia fritillarii-pallidiflori Q.T. Chen & J.L. Li, Acta Mycol. Sin. 6: 15 (1987).
Use Calloria 1836 (S) rather than Cylindrocolla 1851 (A), Creothyrium 1925 (A) or Callorina 1971 (S)
The type species of Calloria, C. fusarioides, recently regarded as C. neglecta, is considered the sexual morph of the type species of Cylindrocolla, C. urticae, thus these types represent the same species and the two genera are synonyms (Hein 1976, Seifert 2011). Callorina was also described for the same species, thus this is another synonymous generic name. The monotypic genus Creothyrium, based on C. pulchellum, is obscure but Sutton (1977) considered it a synonym of Cylindrocolla. Calloria includes 122 names, only a few of which have been included in recent monographs such as Hein (1976), while Cylindrocolla has never been monographed and includes 33 names, most of which are not considered in recent literature. No DNA sequence data exist for any species of this genus. Calloria has priority and because neither generic name is widely used, we choose to follow priority. However, the oldest epithet for the type species of both Calloria and Cylindrocolla must be transferred to Calloria.
Calloria urticae (Pers.: Fr.) Seifert, comb. nov.
Basionym: Tremella urticae Pers., Syn. meth. fung. 2: 628 (1801): Fr., Syst, Mycol. 2: 231 (1823) [as Dacrymyces urticae].
Synonyms: Dacrymyces urticae (Pers. : Fr.) Mart., Fl. crypt. Erlang.: 368 (1817).
Peziza neglecta Lib., Plantes Crypt. Ard. 2:no. 29 (1832) .
Calloria neglecta (Lib.) B. Hein, Beih. Willdenowia 9: 54 (1976).
Peziza fusarioides Berk., Mag. Zool. Bot. 1: 46 (1837).
Calloria fusarioides (Berk.) Fr., Summa veg. Scand. 2: 359 (1849).
Mollisia fusarioides (Berk.) Gillet, Champ. Fr. Discom.: 120 (1879).
Callorina fusarioides (Berk.) Korf, Phytologia 21: 203 (1971).
Use Calycellina 1918 (S) rather than Chaetochalara 1965 (A)
The genus Calycellina based on C. punctiformis, and now regarded as C. punctata (Lowen & Dumont 1984), includes 61 species. Although no asexual morph is known for this species, another species, C. carolinensis, included in this genus by Lowen & Dumont (1984), was considered to have an asexual morph named Chaetochalara aspera. The genus Chaetochalara, based on C. bulbosa and including C. aspera plus six other species, was monographed by Nag Raj & Kendrick (1975). Based on this literature Calycellina and Chaetochalara are considered taxonomically congruent. Given that Calycellina is the oldest name and has the most species, that generic name should be used. Most of the other names in Chaetochalara are now recognized in Chalara (Kirk 1984).
One new combination is made here:
Calycellina aspera (Piroz. & Hodges) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Chaetochalara aspera Piroz. & Hodges, Can. J. Bot. 51: 157 (1973).
Synonym: Calycellina carolinensis Nag Raj & W.B. Kendr., Monogr. Chalara Allied Genera: 183 (1975).
Protect Chaetomella 1870 (A) over Zoellneria 1934 (S), Volutellospora 1965 (A) and Harikrishnaella 1972 (A)
Recent research has demonstrated that Chaetomella, based on the type species C. oblonga, is congeneric with Zoellneria based on Z. rosarum (Johnston & Baral, pers. comm.). In addition, Index Fungorum lists Amerisporium patellarioides as a synonym of Zoellneria rosarum; the former is also considered a synonym of C. oblonga (Rossman et al. 2004). Thus these three genera appear to be taxonomically congruent. The genus Chaetomella with about 40 names has been well-defined with species widely reported from plant hosts (Rossman et al. 2004) and some species are a source of the potential anticancer drugs based on inhibitors of Ras farnesyl-protein transferase (Bills et al. 1995). Zoellneria, with only six species, is relatively obscure. Volutellospora and Harikrishnaella were shown to be taxonomic synonyms of Chaetomella (Rossman et al. 2004). Given the frequent citation of Chaetomella and the number of species included in that genus, we recommend following priority and protecting Chaetomella as the name for this genus. Species in Chaetomella remain unchanged while not enough is known about the other two species in Zoellneria to make any name changes.
Protect Chlorociboria 1958 (S) over Dothiorina 1911 (A)
The type species of Chlorociboria is the commonly encountered C. aeruginosa; the genus consists of 34 names including a number of species known primarily from New Zealand (Johnston & Park 2005). Dixon (1975) suggested that the asexual morph of C. aeruginascens might be the coelomycete Dothiorina, based on D. tulasnei, but a convincing connection between the two has not been made. Dothiorina tulasnei was little known until Sanchez & Bianchinotti (2007) provided a detailed description including an analysis of conidiogenesis. They concluded that D. tulasnei was not the asexual morph of C. aeruginascens based on significant deviations in phialide morphology and conidial shape compared to what is known about C. aeruginosa in vitro. They questioned the classification of the two other species in Dothiorina, excluding D. discoidea and D. subcarnea. Although Chlorociboria is well-represented in GenBank, no DNA sequences of Dothiorina are available for comparison. The prevalence of the well-known name Chlorociboria, the number of species in that genus, and the lack of clarity about whether Dothiorina is actually a synonym argue that Chlorociboria should be proposed for protection. No name changes are required.
Protect Claussenomyces 1923 (S) over Dendrostilbella 1905 (A)
The type species of Claussenomyces, C. jahnianus, was included in the monograph of Korf & Abawi (1971), with a key to four species including C. prasinulus (syn. Peziza prasinula). Seifert (1985) presented a morphological revision of the type species of Dendrostilbella, D. prasinula, considering it the asexual morph of C. prasinulus based on the observations of Dennis (1956), but he noted that the morphological species, D. prasinula, was associated with both C. atrovirens and C. prasinulus. Based on these publications, Claussenomyces and Dendrostilbella are considered taxonomic synonyms, although it remains to be shown with DNA sequence analysis that C. jahnianus and C. prasinulus are actually congeneric. Although 23 species were named in Dendrostilbella, many are now placed in other genera (Seifert 1985). Nineteen species are currently accepted in Claussenomyces based on Korf & Abawi (1971), Ouellette & Korf (1979), Gamundí & Gialotti (1995), and Medardi (2007), although some of these species may not be congeneric with C. jahnianus. Considering the amount of recent taxonomic work on Claussenomyces and the number of accepted species, it seems advisable to protect Claussenomyces for this genus defined by its type species. At present not enough is known about the relationships of species of Dendrostilbella to make new combinations.
Protect Coma 1972 (A) over Ascocoma 1987 (S)
The type species of Coma, C. circularis, is the presumed asexual morph of the type species of Ascocoma, A. eucalypti (Swart 1987, Beilharz & Pascoe 2005). Although based on coincidental occurrence, it appears that these genera represent the same species and are synonyms. Clearly, Ascocoma was named in full awareness that it was the same fungus as Coma. If Coma is used, no name changes are required because the one variety, A. eucalypti var. didymospora is considered a synonym of C. circularis (Beilharz & Pascoe 2005), thus we recommend following priority for the choice of the generic name.
Protect Cristulariella 1916 (A) over Nervostroma 2006 (S)
The genus Nervostroma, based on N. depraedans, was established for the sexual morph of Cristulariella depraedans, type of Cristulariella, thus these generic names are taxonomic synonyms (Narumi-Saito et al. 2006). In the same article, three species previously described in Cristulariella were removed to Hinomyces (Narumi-Saito et al. 2006), having a sexual morph in Grovesinia. Thus Cristulariella now includes three species, whereas Nervostroma includes only N. depraedans and N. cercidiphylli, both of which already have an older name in Cristulariella. Neither generic name is widely used, although leaf spots attributed to Cristulariella are often reported in published plant disease surveys. The asexual generic name Cristulariella has been used in the plant pathology literature, however, in these cases the name may refer to ‘C.’ moricola and ‘C.’ pyramidalis, now classified in Grovesinia. Given that Cristulariella has priority and its use would not result in any name changes, we suggest that this asexual name be protected.
Protect Crumenulopsis 1969 (S) over Digitosporium 1953 (A)
The generic name Crumenulopsis with the type species C. pinicola based on Peziza pinicola, was established to replace the name Crumenula Rehm 1888 (non De Not. 1864). Van Vloten & Gremmen (1953) described Digitosporium piniphilum for the asexual morph of Crumenula sororia, now referred to as Crumenulopsis sororia. Although no molecular data exist to determine whether C. pinicola and C. sororia are synonyms, this appears likely. Thus the generic names Crumenulopsis and Digitosporium are most likely synonyms or at least taxonomically congruent. At present six taxa are named in Crumenulopsis, including C. pinicola and C. sororia, both causing dieback diseases of pine in Europe, and C. atropurpurea, causing a disease of Japanese red pine in Georgia (Hanlin et al. 1992). Because the older, monotypic genus Digitosporium has not been widely used and many names changes would be required, it seems advisable to protect the name Crumenulopsis.
Protect Dematioscypha 1977 (S) over Schizocephalum 1852 (A) and Haplographium 1859 (A)
The genus Dematioscypha based on D. dematiicola is circumscribed to include five related taxa (Svrček 1977, Huhtinen 1987, Hosoya & Otani 1997). The older generic name Schizocephalum, based on S. atrofuscum, includes four species none of which have been considered since before 1900. The relationship of S. atrofuscum to D. dematiicola is difficult to determine. Schizocephalum atrofuscum was placed in Haplographium by Saccardo (1886) but Seifert et al. (2011), based on the protologue, considered the identity to be unknown in modern terms. The type species of Haplographium, H. delicatum, is recognized as the asexual morph of Dematioscypha dematiicola (Huhtinen 1987), thus Dematioscypha and Haplographium are synonyms. Although 39 names are listed in Haplographium, some are now recognized in Lauriomyces including H. catenatum (Castañeda Ruiz & Kendrick 1990), a species previously regarded as a synonym of H. delicatum (Hughes 1953, 1958). Many species of Haplographium have been placed in other genera such that Seifert et al. (2012) suggests that only three species belong in Haplographium. Based on the obscurity of Schizocephalum and the widespread use of the well-defined genus Dematioscypha, we suggest that Dematioscypha be protected over Schizocephalum and Haplographium.
One new combination is needed:
Dematioscypha delicata (Berk. & Broome) Hosoya, comb. nov.
Basionym: Haplographium delicatum Berk. & Broome, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., ser. 3 3: 360 (1859).
Synonyms: Peziza dematiicola Berk. & Broome, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., ser. 3 15: 446 (1865).
Dematioscypha dematiicola (Berk. & Broome) Svrček, Česká Mykol. 31: 193 (1977).
Protect Dermea 1825 (S) over Sphaeronaema 1815 (A) and Foveostroma 1978 (A)
Dermea, based on D. cerasi, is a well defined genus that includes a number of plant pathogenic species (Abeln et al. 2000). Although over 200 names have been placed in Sphaeronaema, almost nothing is known about the type species, S. cylindricum. Most of the names in Sphaeronaema that have been considered in the modern literature are now placed in other genera. Whether Dermea and Sphaeronaema are taxonomically congruent is not known. The genus Foveostroma was based on F. drupacearum, a name for the asexual morph of D. cerasi (DiCosmo 1978), thus Foveostroma and Dermea are synonyms. Dermea includes 31 names, while eight names have been described in Foveostroma. Among these three genera, Dermea is the best known and some species of Dermea have been sequenced (Abeln et al. 2000). Because of the unknown placement of the type species of Sphaeronaema, the less frequent use of Foveostroma, and the well-circumscribed concept of Dermea, it seems advisable to protect the name Dermea over Sphaeronaema and not use the name Foveostroma.
Three new combinations are required:
Dermea abietinum (Peck) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Gelatinosporium abietinum Peck, Ann. Rep. Reg. Univ. St. N.Y. 25: 84 (1873) .
Synonyms: Foveostroma abietinum (Peck) Di Cosmo, Can. J. Bot. 56: 1682 (1978).
Cenangium balsamea Peck, Ann. Rep. N.Y. St. Mus. nat. Hist. 38: 101 (1885).
Derma balsamea (Peck) Seaver, Mycologia 24: 427 (1932).
Dermea boycei (Dearn.) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Cryptosporium boycei Dearn., Mycologia 20: 245 (1928).
Synonyms: Foveostroma boycei (Dearn.) A. Funk, Can. J. Bot. 57: 767 (1979).
Dermea pseudotsugae A. Funk, Can. J. Bot. 45: 1803 (1967).
Dermea stellata (Ellis) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaeronaema stellatum Ellis, Bull. Torrey bot. Club 6: 107 (1876).
Synonyms: Micropera stellata (Ellis) Jacz., Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. nat. Moscou 15: 366 (1898).
Cenangium peckiana Rehm, Annls mycol. 13: 3 (1915).
Dermea peckiana (Rehm) Seaver, N. Am. Cup-fungi (Inoperculates): 356 (1951).
Protect Diplocarpon 1906 (S) over Entomosporium 1856 (A), Bostrichonema 1867 (A), Marssonina 1906 (A) and Entomopeziza 1914 (S)
The type species of Diplocarpon, D. rosae, has been linked to an asexual morph in Marssonina, M. rosae, for the serious disease of roses called black spot (Sivanesan & Gibson 1975a). The type species of Entomosporium, E. mespili, is used for the asexual morph of a cosmopolitan leaf and fruit spot disease of rose and other rosaceous plants to which the sexual morph name, Diplocarpon mespili (syn. Diplocarpon maculatum), has been applied (Sivanesan & Gibson 1975b). A third genus Bostrichonema, based on B. alpestre, and now regarded as B. polygoni, includes seven names. Bostrichonema polygoni is considered the asexual morph of Diplocarpon polygoni (Müller 1977). Assuming that D. rosae is congeneric with D. mespili and D. polygoni, then Entomosporium and Bostrichonema are taxonomically congruent with Diplocarpon. A fourth genus, Marssonina based on M. potentillae as M. fragariae, has a sexual morph referred to as D. earlianum (Sivanesan & Gibson 1975c) and thus Marssonina also competes for synonymy with Diplocarpon. Although the conidia of these species appear superficially different because of the long appendages on those of E. mespili, developmental similarities to the conidia of M. rosae and M. fragariae have been noted (Farr 1993, Sutton 1980) as well as the morphologically similar sexual morphs. In addition, ITS sequences indicate that the type species of Diplocarpon, Entomosporium, and Marssonina may be congeneric. Thus Bostrichonema, Diplocarpon, Entomosporium, and Marssonina are considered taxonomically congruent. An obscure fifth genus, Entomopeziza, based on E. soraueri (syn. Entomosporium mespili), is considered a synonym of Diplocarpon. The number of names in Diplocarpon and Entomosporium are about equal while Diplocarpon is more frequently used. Over 100 names have been placed in Marssonina, but this genus has not been well defined and many of these names represent unrelated species. Although Entomosporium is highly descriptive of the conidia and has been frequently used, Diplocarpon is more widely known for the serious, widespread diseases of rosaceous plants and is widely known in plant pathology literature. We recommend the protection of Diplocarpon.
Two new combinations are needed:
Diplocarpon alpestre (Ces.) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Bostrichonema alpestre Ces., Erb. critt. Ital., ser. 1, 2: no. 149 (1867).
Synonyms: Cylindrosporium polygoni Unger, Exanth. Pflanzen: 169 (1833).
Bostrichonema polygoni (Unger) J. Schröt., Krypt.-Fl. Schlesien 3 2(4): 484 (1897) .
Diplocarpon polygoni E. Müll., Beitr. Kryptfl. Schweiz 15(1): 40 (1977).
Diplocarpon fragariae (Sacc.) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Leptothyrium fragariae Lib., Pl. crypt. Ard. 2: no. 162 (1832).
Synonyms: Peziza earliana Ellis & Everh., Bull. Torrey bot. Club 11: 74 (1884).
Diplocarpon earlianum (Ellis & Everh.) F.A. Wolf, J. Elisha Mitchell scient. Soc. 39: 158 (1924) [as ‘earliana’].
Use Gelatinipulvinella 1995 (S) rather than Aureohyphozyma 1995 (A)
The monotypic genera Gelatinipulvinella based on G. astraeicola, and Aureohyphozyma based on A. astraeicola, were described as the sexual and asexual morphs of the same species (Hosoya 1995). The type species of these genera represent the same species, thus they are synonyms and compete equally for use. Given the more widespread use of Gelatinipulvinella based on the past preference for sexual morph names, it is recommended that Gelatinipulvinella be used.
Protect Gloeotinia 1954 (S) over Endoconidium 1891 (A)
The genus Gloeotinia, with the type species G. temulenta based on Phialea temulentum, was established for the sexual morph of Endoconidium temulentum, the type species of Endoconidium. Thus Gloeotinia and Endoconidium are synonyms. Although four species remain in Endoconidium, they are obscure without any recent reports. Two of the four species in Gloeotinia have been removed to Ciboria, leaving the two species that cause blind seed diseases, commonly referred to as Gloeotinia granigena and G. temulenta. Their distinction as two different species has only recently been reported (Alderman 1998). If Endoconidium were used, the relatively well known name G. granigena would have to be changed, thus it seems expedient to protect the name Gloeotinia.
Protect Godronia 1846 (S) over Sphaeronaema 1815 (A), Topospora 1836 (A), Mastomyces 1848 (A), Clinterium 1849 (A), Fuckelia 1864 (S) and Chondropodiella 1917 (A)
The genus Godronia, based on the type species G. muehlenbeckii on Phragmites australis in Europe, was monographed by Groves (1965) and includes a number of plant pathogenic species, primarily on woody, dicotyledonous hosts. Only one species, G. urceolata, has been sequenced (de Gruyter et al. 2009), thus the phylogenetic placement of this non-type species in Leotiomycetes is confirmed. The relationship of the type species to other species in Godronia or their asexual morphs is unknown. Although over 200 names have been placed in Sphaeronaema, almost nothing is known about the type species, S. cylindricum based on Sphaeria cylindrica. This type species is relatively obscure and undefined, described on Quercus and Salix in Sweden and Germany. Most of the names in Sphaeronaema that have been considered in the modern literature have been placed in other genera. The taxonomic congruence of Godronia with Sphaeronaema is not known. Topospora, based on T. uberiformis, is considered the asexual morph of Godronia uberiformis on Ribes (Groves 1965, Sutton 1980), thus these genera are taxonomically congruent. Godronia includes 88 names while eight species have been placed in Topospora. The type species of Mastomyces, Clinterium, and Chondropodiella are linked to species placed in Godronia or Topospora (Sutton 1977). The type of Fuckelia, F. ribis, is a synonym of G. ribis. Based on the unknown phylogeny of Sphaeronaema, the relative obscurity of Topospora, and the accepted use of Godronia, it seems advisable to protect the name Godronia. Not enough is know about the relationships among these species to make taxonomic changes. These generic names remain available for segregate genera.
Protect Godroniopsis 1929 (S) over Sphaeronaema 1815 (A) and Dichaenopsella 1952 (A)
Godroniopsis is a small but well defined genus with two plant-pathogenic species, including the type species G. quernea, the asexual morph of Dichaenopsella quernea, the monotype species of Dichaenopsella. The asexual morph of Godroniopsis nemopanthi is described as Sphaeronaema peckii. Over 200 names have been placed in Sphaeronaema, yet almost nothing is known about the type species, S. cylindricum, as mentioned above. Most of the names in Sphaeronaema that have been considered in the modern literature have been placed in other genera. It is not known if Godroniopsis and Sphaeronaema are taxonomically congruent. Based on the unknown phylogeny of Sphaeronaema and the accepted use of Godroniopsis, it seems advisable to protect the name Godroniopsis.
One new combination is needed:
Godroniopsis peckii (Sacc. & P. Syd.) J. K. Stone, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaeronaema peckii Sacc. & P. Syd., Syll. fung. 14: 900 (1899).
Synonym: Godroniopsis nemopanthi J.W. Groves, Mycologia 29: 71 (1937) [as ‘nemopanthis’].
Protect Gremmeniella 1969 (S) over Brunchorstia 1891 (A)
The type species of Gremmeniella, G. abietina based on Crumenula abietina, has been used for the sexual morph of the asexual name Brunchorstia pinea based on Septoria pinea, a synonym of B. destruens, and the type species of the genus Brunchorstia. All of these epithets are synonyms according to Punithalingam & Gibson (1973), Sutton (1980), and Müller & Dorworth (1983), thus there is no doubt that these generic names are synonyms. The serious disease of conifers caused by G. abietina is known as Scleroderris canker or Brunchorstia dieback of pines and has plant quarantine significance under that name (CABI 2013). Although seven names have been placed in Gremmeniella, only four species are still included in this genus. Among the seven names in Brunchorstia, only one remains in that genus. The name Gremmeniella especially for G. abietina is more widely used than Brunchorstia, thus it seems expedient to protect the name Gremmeniella. In addition the name G. abietina based on C. abietina will be formally proposed for conservation in a separate publication.
Use Grovesinia 1983 (S) rather than Hinomyces 2006 (A)
The type species of Grovesinia, G. pyramidalis, is considered the sexual morph of the type species of Hinomyces, H. moricola, thus these two genera are synonyms (Narumi-Saito et al. 2006). This fungus causes bull’s eye or zonate leaf spot on a number of hosts in colder regions of North America and Asia. Both genera have a second species, Grovesinia pruni (syn. Hinomyces pruni). These species have been placed in Cristulariella (Redhead 1975) but their separation into distinct genera was recognized by Narumi-Saito et al. (2006) as mentioned under Cristulariella. Given that usage of Grovesinia and Hinomyces is about equal, the older name, Grovesinia, is recommended for use. However, the oldest epithet for this species must be transferred to Grovesinia.
Grovesinia moricola (I. Hino) Redhead, comb. nov.
Basionym: Botrytis moricola I. Hino, Bull. Miyazaki Coll. Agric. Forest. 1: 80 (1929).
Synonyms: Cristulariella moricola (I. Hino) Redhead, Mycologia 71: 1249 (1974).
Hinomyces moricola (I. Hino) Narumi & Y. Harada, Mycoscience 47: 357 (2006).
Sclerotinia moricola I. Hino, Bull. Miyazaki Coll. Agric. Forest. 1: 77 (1929).
Botryotinia moricola (I. Hino) W. Yaman., Trans. Mycol. Soc. Japan 2: 5. (1950).
Cristulariella pyramidalis Waterman & R.P. Marshall, Mycologia 39: 692 (1947).
Grovesinia pyramidalis M.N. Cline et al., Mycologia 75: 991 (1983).
Use Heterosphaeria 1824 (S) rather than Heteropatella 1874 (A)
The type species of Heterosphaeria, H. patella, is the sexual morph of the type species of Heteropatella, H. lacera (Leuchtmann 1987, Nag Raj 1993), thus these two genera are synonyms. None of these species have been analyzed phylogenetically but Leuchtmann (1987) provides a monographic account of the eight species accepted in Heterosphaeria. The number of names in each genus is about equal and Heterosphaeria is slightly more commonly used than Heteropatella. Because there is no compelling reason to do otherwise, use of the oldest generic name, Heterosphaeria, is recommended.
Based on Leuchtmann (1987), one new combination is required:
Heterosphaeria sublineolata (Thüm.) Leuchtm., comb. nov.
Basionym: Septoria sublineolata Thüm., Bull. Soc. Imp. nat. Moscou 52: 116 (1877).
Synonym: Heterosphaeria veratri Nespiak & Müller, Beitr. Kryptfl. Schweiz 15 (1): 44 (1977).
Protect Holwaya 1889 (S) over Crinula 1821 (A)
The type species of Holwaya, H. ophiobolus, now regarded as H. mucida, is the sexual morph of the type species of Crinula, C. caliciiformis (Korf & Abawi 1971), thus these type species are conspecific and the generic names are taxonomic synonyms. The connection has been confirmed by culturing. Neither name has been used more commonly than the other, although Holwaya is a well-known name among field mycologists interested in discomycetes. Ten names and two varieties have been included in Crinula, although most of the names have not been used in modern literature. Several of the names in Crinula are synonyms of the asexual state of H. mucida, previously referred to as C. caliciiformis. Among nine names described in Holwaya, six of them are synonyms of H. mucida. The two remaining names in Holwaya have been placed outside the genus. The generic name Holwaya is recommended for use. One species has been redescribed by Seifert (1985) and should be transferred to Holwaya.
Holwaya byssogena (Berk. & Broome) Seifert, comb. nov.
Basionym: Stilbum byssogenum Berk. & Broome, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 14: 97 (1875).
Synonym: Crinula byssogena (Berk. & Broome) Seifert, Stud. Mycol. 27: 192 (1985).
Use Hyphodiscus 1907 (S) rather than Catenulifera 2002 (A)
The genus Hyphodiscus, based on H. gregarius, now regarded as H. theioideus, was reviewed by Hosoya (2002) who described the genus Catenulifera typified by C. rhodogena as the asexual morph of H. hymeniophilus. More recently Bogale et al. (2010) confirmed the relationship based on sequence analyses of H. hymeniophilus and C. rhodogena. Assuming that H. hymeniophilus and H. theiodeus are congeneric as suggested by Hosoya (2002), then Hyphodiscus and Catenulifera are taxonomically congruent. Bogale et al. (2010) transferred two species of Phialophora to Catenulifera with four names in the latter genus. The genus Hyphodiscus currently includes 11 species many of which do not have known asexual morphs. Given the greater number of species, the frequency of use, and its priority, we recommend the use of Hyphodiscus.
Three species of Catenulifera should be transferred to Hyphodiscus:
Hyphodiscus brachyconius (W. Gams) Hosoya, comb. nov.
Basionym: Phialophora brachyconia W. Gams, Stud. Mycol. 13: 68 (1976).
Synonym: Catenulifera brachyconia (W. Gams) Bogale & Unter., Fungal Biology 114: 404 (2010).
Hyphodiscus brevicollaris (W. Gams) Hosoya, comb. nov.
Basionym: Phialophora brevicollaris W. Gams, Stud. Mycol. 13: 71 (1976).
Synonym: Catenulifera brevicollaris (W. Gams) Bogale & Unter., Fungal Biology 114: 404 (2010).
Hyphodiscus luxurians (Bogale & Unter) Hosoya, comb. nov.
Basionym: Catenulifera luxurians Bogale & Unter., Fungal Biology 114: 404 (2010).
Protect Hypohelion 1990 (S) over Leptostroma 1815 (A)
The type species of Hypohelion, H. scirpinum, is based on Hypoderma scirpinum, which is considered the sexual morph of Leptostroma scirpinum, the type species of Leptostroma. This relationship was first established by Grove (1937) as Leptothyrium scirpinum (syn. Leptostroma scirpinum) and accepted by Minter (1997) as Hypohelion scirpinum. Thus Hypohelion and Leptostroma are synonyms. The genus Leptostroma includes 208 names but many of these have been removed to other genera. Although Sutton (1980) recognized Leptostroma, he only included the type species. The remaining names in Leptostroma are of unknown phylogenetic affinities. Many species described in Leptostroma occur on Pinus (Minter 1980) and are more closely related to Lophodermium, not congeneric with L. scirpinum (Lantz et al. 2011). One additional species has been placed in Hypohelion, H. durum (Lin et al. 2004). Given the polyphyletic nature of the genus Leptostroma now applied to species deviating from the type, we recommend protecting the well-characterized genus Hypohelion. No name changes are needed.
Protect Leptotrochila 1871 (S) over Sporonema 1847 (A)
Yellow leaf blotch of alfalfa, a widespread disease in temperate regions, is caused by a fungus known as Leptotrochila medicaginis, which has an asexual morph referred to as Sporpnema phacidioides, the type species of Sporonema (Schuepp 1959, Sutton 1980). The type of Leptotrochila is L. radians occurring on Campanula in Europe. Assuming that L. medicaginis is congeneric with L. radians (Schuepp 1959), then Leptotrochila and Sporonema are taxonomically congruent. No species in either of these genera have been sequenced. Leptotrochila was separated from Pseudopeziza by Schuepp (1959) who included 14 species in Leptotrochila. These genera are about equally well known although plant pathologists appear to use the name Leptotrochila most frequently. A number of species of Sporonema are placed in unrelated genera such as Sirococcus or Coleophoma. Given the use of the Leptotrochila for L. medicaginis, an important plant pathogen, and the lack of knowledge about Sporonema, it seems useful to protect the generic name Leptotrochila. The name Leptotrochila medicaginis, cause of yellow leaf blotch of alfalfa, will be formally proposed for conservation in a separate publication.
Note: Leptotrochila medicaginis is distinct from Pseudopeziza medicaginis, the cause of a common leaf spot of lucerne (Booth & Waller 1979).
Leptotrochila campanulae (DC.) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Xyloma campanulae DC., Fl. franç., 3rd edn 5/6: 159 (1815).
Synonyms: Phacidium radians Roberge ex Desm., Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2 17: 116 (1842).
Leptotrochila radians (Roberge ex Desm.) P. Karst., Bidr. Känn. Finl. Nat. Folk 19: 22 (1871).
Use Micraspis 1963 (S) rather than Periperidium 1963 (A)
The type species of Micraspis, M. acicola, was described as the sexual morph of the type species of Periperidium, P. acicola, by Darker (1963), therefore, these generic names are synonyms. Two additional names have been placed in Micraspis and this name has been more frequently used than the monotypic Periperidium, thus the use of Micraspis is recommended. No name changes are needed.
Protect Monilinia 1928 (S) instead of Monilia 1794 (A), with the rejection of Epochnium 1809 (A)
Monilia is one of the most heterogeneous of the classical hyphomycete genera. Named for species with constricted chains of spores, i.e. monilioid, it included about 350 species that were subsequently classified in a vast array of yeast and hyphomycete genera such as Aspergillus, Candida, Chrysonilia (i.e. Neurospora asexual morphs), Cladosporium, and Scopulariopsis, to name just a few. The extremely confused nomenclature of this generic name was reviewed by Donk (1963). It was originally proposed in the pre-pre-starting point literature as Monilia Hill 1751, in this sense a synonym of the zygomycete genus Syzigites. Later Persoon (1794) provided conflicting lectotypifications as did Link (1809), in this sense a synonym of Bispora. Donk (1963) proposed conservation of the genus with attribution to Bonorden (1851), choosing M. cinerea as type, now a synonym of the asexual morph of Monilinia laxa. Since that time, the generic name Monilia has been used consistently for the asexual morphs of Monilinia. Despite its older age, the extremely confused nomenclatural history and contradictory typifications prior to its stabilized taxonomic application argues against the use of Monilia. Although Monilia has been used in a consistent sense in the modern literature, the name is not used independently of the sexual morph name, Monilinia.
Although Monilinia is a much younger generic name, it has been used in a taxonomically and phylogenetically consistent fashion, in particular since the monograph of Batra (1991). This monograph includes an account of 30 species with a discussion of ten additional names. The generic name Monilinia has been used almost exclusively in the plant pathogenic literature for economically important diseases of tree fruit such as M. fructicola and M. laxa on stone fruit, M. fructigena on pome fruit, and M. oxycocci and M. vaccinii-corymbosi on ericaceous berry crops (Batra 1991). Several of the species are involved in international quarantine legislation, most notably M. fructicola, of concern in the European Union (EPPO 2012).
Another asexually typified generic name, Epochnium Link 1809, was regarded as a synonym of Monilia by Hughes (1958), but Donk (1963) questioned the logic of this; neither examined the type specimen. Because no author has examined the type of Epochnium, if it exists, and the name has never been used in any literature other than taxonomic compilations, it would be impractical to adopt this name. We propose that Epochnium and its type species E. monilioides be rejected.
One new combination is needed:
Monilinia polystroma (G.C.M.Leeuwen) Kohn, comb. nov.
Basionym: Monilia polystroma G.C.M. Leeuwen, Mycol. Res. 106: 450 (2002).
Protect Monochaetiellopsis 1977 (A) over Hypnotheca 1970 (S)
The monotypic genus Hypnotheca, based on H. graminis, was described as the sexual morph of the type species of Monochaetiellopsis, M. themedae with the basionym Monochaetiella themedae (Tommerup 1970), thus these genera are synonyms. The two species of Monochaetiellopsis (Nag Raj 1993) are more widely known than H. graminis. Although Hypnotheca has priority, its use would require that both names in Monochaetiellopsis be changed. Given the greater use of Monochaetiellopsis and lack of required name changes, it is recommended that Monochaetiellopsis be protected for use.
Protect Mycopappus 1985 (A) over Redheadia 2005 (S)
The type species of Mycopappus, M. alni, does not have a known sexual morph; however, a second species, M. quercus, is the asexual morph of the type species of Redheadia, R. quercus (Suto & Suyama 2005). When Redhead & White (1985) described M. alni, they suggested that it was a sclerotiniaceous fungus, as is M. quercus, due to “the presence of phialides and microconidia in culture and the melanisation of the phialidic clusters converting them into microsclerotia.” It seems likely that M. alni and M. quercus are congeneric and the names Mycopappus and Redheadia are taxonomically congruent. Of the four names in Mycopappus, the two other species are now placed in Dothideomycetes: M. aceris in Xenostigmina (Crous et al. 2009) and M. aesculi as the asexual morph of Mycodidymella aesculi (Wei et al. 1998). Although Mycopappus appears to be a widely used generic name, some references are to species that no longer belong in that genus. Nevertheless, it seems advisable to use the earliest name, Mycopappus, for this genus. No name changes are required.
Protect Neofabraea 1913 (S) over Phlyctema 1847 (A) and Allantozythia 1924 (A)
The genus Neofabraea is characterized by the type species N. malicorticis (Verkley 1999), the cause of bull’s eye rot of apple and pear, while the type species of Phlyctema, P. vagabunda, is the asexual morph of N. alba. Given that Verkley (1999) accepts both species in Neofabraea, Neofabraea and Phlyctema are taxonomically congruent. This monographic account provides a thorough account of the well circumscribed genus Neofabraea. In contrast, more than 60 names have been placed in Phlyctema, some of which have been transferred to other genera such as Phomopsis and Rhabdospora and placed among other genera of morphologically simple coelomycetes (Verkley 1999). The virtually unknown genus Allantozythia, based on A. alutacea, a synonym of Phlyctema vagabunda, is also a synonym of Neofabraea. Given that Neofabraea has been monographed, is well characterized phylogenetically (Abeln et al. 2000, de Jong et al. 2001), and includes a number of plant pathogens, it seems expedient to protect the name Neofabraea. The name of the type species, N. malicorticis, cause of bull’s-eye rot on apple and pear, will be formally proposed for conservation.
Many species described in Cryptosporiopsis belong in Neofabraea even though the type species, C. pruinosa, is placed in Pezicula.
Neofabraea actinidiae (P.R. Johnst. et al.) P.R. Johnst., comb. nov.
Basionym: Cryptosporiopsis actinidiae P.R. Johnst. et al., Mycotaxon 89: 132 (2004).
Neofabraea citricarpa (L. Zhu et al.) P.R. Johnst., comb. nov.
Basionym: Cryptosporiopsis citricarpa L. Zhu et al., Pl. Dis. 96: 809 (2012).
Neofabraea vagabunda (Desm.) P.R. Johnst., comb. nov.
Basionym: Phlyctema vagabunda Desm., Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3 8: 16 (1847).
Synonyms: Peziza alba E.J. Guthrie, Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 42: 504 (1959).
Neofabraea alba (E.J. Guthrie) Verkley, Stud. Mycol. 44: 125 (1999).
Use Ocotomyces 1985 (S) rather than Uyucamyces 1985 (A)
Ocotomyces and Uyucamyces are both monotypic genera described for the same species. Ocotomyces is more widely cited than Uyucamyces, thus we recommed the use of Ocotomyces.
Use Oculimacula 2003 (S) rather than Helgardia 2003 (A)
These genera were described in the same paper based on type species that represent the same species and thus are synonyms having equal priority. Four species have been placed in Helgardia while Oculimacula includes two species. Crous et al. (2003) determined that the name commonly used for eyespot of wheat, Tapesia yallundae, must be moved to another genus because the generic name Tapesia, based on T. fusca, is a rejected name (Hawksworth & David 1989). The name Oculimacula is most commonly used by plant pathologists for the eyespot diseases of wheat and barley. The name of the causal organism of eyespot disease of wheat, O. yallundae, has been widely accepted by plant pathologists and thus will be proposed for formal conservation while the name for the fungus causing eyespot disease of barley would remain O. acuformis. Even though two name changes are required, the generic name Oculimacula is recommended because of its use by plant pathologists.
Oculimacula aestiva (Nirenberg) Crous, comb. nov.
Basionym: Pseudocercosporella aestiva Nirenberg, Z. PflKrankh. PflSchutz 88: 246 (1981).
Synonyms: Ramulispora aestiva (Nirenberg) E.L. Stewart & Crous, Mycol. Res. 103: 1497 (1999).
Helgardia aestiva (Nirenberg) Crous & W. Gams, Eur. J. Pl. Path. 109: 848 (2003).
Oculimacula anguioides (Nirenberg) Crous, comb. nov.
Basionym: Pseudocercosporella anguioides Nirenberg, Z. PflKrankh. PflSchutz 88: 246 (1981).
Synonyms: Ramulispora herpotrichoides var. anguioides (Nirenberg) U. Braun, Nova Hedwigia 56: 433 (1993).
Ramulispora anguioides (Nirenberg) Crous, S. Afr. J. Bot. 61: 47 (1995).
Helgardia anguioides (Nirenberg) Crous & W. Gams, Eur. J. Pl. Path. 109: 846 (2003).
Use Ovulinia 1940 (S) rather than Ovulitis 1970 (A)
The type species of Ovulinia, O. azaleae, is the sexual morph of Ovulitis azaleae, the type species of Ovulitis, thus these generic names are synonyms. Both genera include a second species that are also synonyms. Because Ovulinia has priority, this name should be used. No name changes are required.
Use Pezicula 1865 (S) over Cryptosporiopsis 1912 (A) and Lagynodella 1922 (A)
The type species of Pezicula, P. carpinea, has an asexual morph regarded as Cryptosporiopsis fasciculata while the type species of Cryptosporiopsis, C. nigra, is the asexual morph of Pezicula ocellata (Verkley 1999). The genus Lagynodella based on L. pruinosa (as Cryptosporiopsis pruinosa) is the asexual morph of P. pruinosa and thus also a synonym of Pezicula. Both the monographic account by Verkley (1999) and a phylogeny of these species (Abeln et al. 2000) suggest that these three genera are taxonomically congruent. Pezicula and Cryptosporiopsis are used about equally. Some species of Cryptosporiopsis have also been linked to Neofabraea and may need to be placed in that genus while others have no known sexual morph. Verkley (1999) notes that those species of Cryptosporiopsis linked to Neofabraea rather than Pezicula tend to have conidia less regular in shape. Because a monograph of Pezicula exists and it has priority, this generic name should be used.
Out of the 26 species included in Verkley (1999), one name, Pezicula cinnamomea, cause of pezicula canker of red oak, will be formally proposed for conservation in a separate publication. The species listed as P. carpinea in Verkley (1999) should be recognized as P. fasciculata. Most species of Cryptosporiopsis that are in common use already have names in Pezicula; however, a number of recently described species of Cryptosporiopsis should be placed in Pezicula based on the molecular phylogeny of Lynch et al. (2013) or Verkley (1999). These new combinations are proposed here.
Pezicula brunnea (Sigler) P.R. Johnst., comb. nov.
Basionym: Cryptosporiopsis brunnea Sigler, Stud. Mycol. 53: 60 (2005).
Pezicula californiae (Cheewangkoon et al.) P.R. Johnst., comb. nov.
Basionym: Cryptosporiopsis californiae Cheewangkoon et al., Fungal Diversity 44: 91 (2010).
Pezicula cornina (Peck) P.R. Johnst., comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaeropsis cornina Peck, Ann. Rep. N.Y. St. Mus. nat. Hist. 32: 38 (1880) .
Synonym: Pezicula corni Petr., Annls mycol. 20: 197 (1922).
Pezicula diversispora (Robak) P.R. Johnst., comb. nov.
Basionym: Cryptosporiopsis diversispora Robak, Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 44: 471 (1950).
Pezicula ericae (Sigler) P.R. Johnst., comb. nov.
Basionym: Cryptosporiopsis ericae Sigler, Stud. Mycol. 53: 57 (2005).
Pezicula melanigena (T. Kowalski & Halmschl.) P.R. Johnst., comb. nov.
Basionym: Cryptosporiopsis melanigena T. Kowalski & Halmschl., Mycol. Res. 102: 348 (1998).
Pezicula querciphila (S.C. Lynch, et al.) P.R. Johnst., comb. nov.
Basionym: Cryptosporiopsis querciphila S.C. Lynch et al., Plant Dis. 97: 1033 (2013).
Pezicula radicicola (T. Kowalski & C. Bartnik) P.R. Johnst., comb. nov.
Basionym: Cryptosporiopsis radicicola T. Kowalski & C. Bartnik, Mycol. Res. 99: 663 (1995).
Pezicula rhizophila (Verkley & Zijlstra) P.R. Johnst., comb. nov.
Basionym: Cryptosporiopsis rhizophila Verkley & Zijlstra, Mycol. Res. 107: 694 (2003).
Protect the name Phacidiopycnis 1912 (A) over Potebniamyces 1962 (S) and Discosporiopsis 1921 (A)
The type species of Phacidiopycnis is P. malorum, now regarded as P. pyri (Windlmayr 1965). The genus Phacidiella Potebnia 1912 (non P. Karst. 1884) was replaced by the name Potebniamyces by Smerlis (1962) typified by P. discolor, now regarded as P. pyri. Phacidiopycnis pyri is considered the asexual morph of Potebniamyces pyri (Brooks 1928, Sutton 1980, as P. discolor), thus these two generic names are synonyms. A third generic name, Discosporiopsis, was based on Phacidiopycnis pyri and is likewise a synonym of Phacidiopycnis. Both Phacidiopycnis and Potebniamyces are used in the plant pathology literature most recently in reference to a canker and twig dieback of pear also associated with pome fruits (Xiao & Boal 2005, Xiao et al. 2005). A number of species also occur on conifers (Gross & Weidensaul 1967, Punithalingam & Gibson 1976) but their phylogenetic affinities are not known. The frequency of use and number of names is highest for Phacidiopycnis, therefore we recommend protecting this asexual name that has priority. No name changes are required except possibly for Potebniamyces gallicola if determined to belong in this genus.
Use Phacidium 1815 (S) rather than Ceuthospora 1826 (A)
The type species of Phacidium, P. lacerum, has an asexual morph named Ceuthospora pinastri (DiCosmo et al. 1984) while the type species of Ceuthospora, C. lauri, has been linked to P. multivalve (DiCosmo et al. 1984, Nag Raj 1993, Sutton 1972). The latter connection has not been reviewed in the recently literature but, given the number of species of Ceuthospora having sexual morphs in Phacidium, it seems likely that these genera are taxonomically congruent. Issues concerning the type species of Ceuthospora and conservation of Greville’s name were addressed by Sutton (1972). Ceuthospora lauri is known to cause a bleeding brown zonate leaf blight of tea (Ando et al. 1989). Species of Phacidium have been connected with a number of other genera, namely Allantophomopsis 1925 based on A. cytisporea and Apostrasseria 1983 based on A. lunata, neither of which are taxonomically congruent with Phacidium; however, the type species of these genera are synonyms (Carris 1990). The name Phacidium has been widely used and includes a greater number of names than Ceuthospora, therefore we recommend the use of the older name Phacidium. Given the number of species and lack of recent monographic accounts of either genus based on phylogenetic information, it is difficult to determine if name changes are required.
Protect Phialocephala 1961 (A) over Phaeomollisia 2009 (S)
Based on the phylogenetic studies by Grünig et al. (2009) and Day et al. (2012), it appears that, although it lacks a known asexual morph, the monotypic genus Phaeomollisia based on P. piceae is congeneric with Phialocephala. Based on an ITS phylogeny, Phaeomollisia piceae groups with several species of Phialocephala including the type species, P. dimorphospora. Given that 35 names exist in the genus Phialocephala and the genus was recently recircumscribed (Day et al. 2012), it seems expedient to use this older generic name.
Phialocephala piceae (T.N. Sieber & Grünig) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Phaeomollisia piceae T.N. Sieber & Grünig, Mycol. Res. 113: 213 (2009).
Protect Pilidium 1823 (A) over Discohainesia 1932 (S), Hainesia 1884 (A) and Sclerotiopsis 1882 (A)
The genus Pilidium, based on P. acerinum, was shown to include P. concavum, the asexual morph of Discohainesia oenotherae, monotype species of Discohainesia (Rossman et al. 2004). The relationship between D. oenotherae, P. concavum, Hainesia lythri, and Sclerotiopsis testudinacea as morphs of the same species was shown by Palm (1991) who grew the various morphs in culture. The type species of Hainesia, H. rhoina, and the type species of Sclerotiopsis, S. australasica, have long been considered synonyms of this species as Pezizella lythri (Shear & Dodge,1913, Sutton & Gibson 1977). Pilidium is taxonomically congruent with Discohainesia as well as Hainesia and Sclerotiopsis while the type species of Discohainesia, Hainesia and Sclerotiopsis all represent the same species and thus are synonyms. About twenty species of Pilidium and Sclerotiopsis each have been described, but Pilidium is the most widely used generic name and includes a number of plant pathogenic species. Given that Pilidium is the oldest generic name and has been recently monographed (Rossman et al. 2004), we recommend the use of that genus. Using the older epithet Dacryomyces lythri, the common pathogen known as Pilidium concavum is transferred to Pilidium below.
Pilidium lythri (Desm.) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Dacrymyces lythri Desm., Pl. Crypt. Fr. no. 1545 (1846).
Synonyms: Peziza oenotherae Cooke & Ellis, Grevillea 6: 90 (1878).
Discohainesia oenotherae (Cooke & Ellis) Nannf., Nova Acta R. Soc. Scient. upsal., ser. 4 8 (2): 88 (1932).
Ceuthospora concava Desm., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3, 8: 17 (1847).
Pilidium concavum (Desm.) Höhn., Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Abt. 1, 124: 148 (1915).
Many additional synonyms exist for this species (Palm 1991).
Use Ploioderma 1967 (S) rather than Cryocaligula 1986 (A)
The monotypic genus Cryocaligula, based on the type species C. hedgcockii, was described for the asexual morph of Ploioderma hedgcockii, the type species of Ploioderma, thus these generic names are synonyms. The name Cryocaligula has not been used since it was described while the older Ploioderma includes 11 names and is well known, thus the use of Ploioderma is recommended. No name changes are needed.
Use Pragmopora 1855 (S) rather than Pragmopycnis 1975 (A)
Although the type species of Pragmopora, P. amphibola, was initially considered to possibly be lichenized, later authors, most recently Groves (1967), concluded that a thallus was lacking in this species. He accepted six more species in his monograph of this genus, including P. pithya. The type species of the monotypic genus Pragmopycnis, P. pithya, was described as the asexual morph of Pragmopora pithya, thus these genera are regarded as taxonomically congruent. None of these species have been sequenced. Pragmopora is most frequently cited and has priority, thus its use is recommended. No name changes are needed.
Protect Pycnopeziza 1938 (S) over Acarosporium 1911 (A), Chaetalysis 1922 (A) and Ciliosira 1942 (A)
The genus Pycnopeziza based on P. sympodialis is regarded as the sexual morph of the type species of Acarosporium, A. sympodiale (White & Whetzel 1938, 1940, Sutton 1980) thus these genera are synonyms. Nag Raj (1993) included three species in the genus Acarosporium with one species, A. lichenicola, added since then (Ihlen 1998), although it seems unlikely that this species belongs here. An equal number of species were recognized in Pycnopeziza by White & Whetzel (1938) and Whetzel & White (1940). Both Chaetalysis and Ciliosira are monotypic genera whose type species are regarded as synonyms of Acarosporium sympodiale (Sutton 1980). Holst-Jensen (1997, 2004) confirmed the placement the type species of Pycnopeziza, P. sympodialis, in the Sclerotiniaceae. Given the recent phylogenetic placement of Pycnopeziza and the more extensive use of this name, it seems preferable to use Pycnopeziza for this genus. Although one or two name changes may be required, this is not done until the placement of these species is confirmed.
Protect Pyrenopeziza 1870 (S) over Cylindrosporium 1823 (A)
The genus Pyrenopeziza includes a number of important plant pathogenic species. Although reported several times from Europe on Apiaceae, the type species, P. chailletii, has not been well-characterized. One important plant pathogen, P. brassicae, has been linked to the asexually typified generic name Cylindrosporium concentricum, type of the genus Cylindrosporium (Rawlinson et al. 1978, Cheah et al. 1980). Assuming that P. chailletii is congeneric with P. brassicae as C. concentricum, then Pyrenopeziza and Cylindrosporium are taxonomically congruent. Kirk et al. (2008) suggested that Pyrenopeziza includes ca 59 names with three names in Cylindrosporium, although many more names in that genus remain obscure. Sutton (1980) states that “Few genera have been the subject of more confusion than Cylindrosporium ..”. Considerable research has been published on Pyrenopeziza although no monographic account exists, and Pyrenopeziza is more commonly used than Cylindrosporium. Given the plant pathogenic species recognized as Pyrenopeziza, the greater use of the name Pyrenopeziza, and the lack of clarity about Cylindrosporium, we recommend protectiing the name Pyrenopeziza over Cylindrosporium. The name for the important pathogen, Pyrenopeziza brassicae, cause of light leaf spot on winter oilseed rape, will be formally proposed for conservation in a separate publication.
Protect Rhabdocline 1922 (S) over Meria 1896 (A), Hartigiella 1900 (A) and Rhabdogloeum 1922 (A)
Rhabdocline and the asexually typified genus Rhabdogloeum were described in the same article based on different type species (Sydow & Petrak 1922). The type species of Rhabdogloeum, R. pseudotsugae, is connected to Rhabdocline weirii according to Parker & Reid (1969). The genus Rhabdocline is clearly defined to include both the type species of Rhabdocline, R. pseudotsugae, and R. weirii by Stone & Gernandt (2005), thus the genera Rhabdocline and Rhabdogloeum appear to be taxonomically congruent. Two older asexual genera are also considered synonymys of Rhabdocline, namely Hartigiella and Meria. The monotype species of Hartigiella, H. laricis, is a synonym of Meria laricis (Vuillemin 1905), thus Hartigiella is also taxonomically congruent with Rhabdocline. Gernandt et al. (1997) showed that the type species of Meria, M. laricis, and Rhabdocline pseudotsugae to be congeneric, thus Meria is also taxonomically congruent with Rhabdocline.
Rhabdocline includes nine names and is more commonly used than Meria, with two names, and Rhabdogloeum, with only the type species left in the genus. Of the two species of Meria, M. parkeri has a name in Rhabdocline while M. laricis Vuill. needs to be placed in Rhabdocline. Note that two additional Meria species belonging in the Clavicipitaceae were recombined in Drechmeria by Gams & Jannson (1985). Given its more common use, protecting the name Rhabdocline for this genus is recommended. One name change is required.
Rhabdocline laricis (Vuill.) J. K. Stone, comb. nov.
Basionym: Meria laricis Vuill., Compt. Rend. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 122: 21 (1896).
Synonyms: Allescheria laricis R. Hartig, Centralbl. Gesammte Forstwesen 25: 425 (1899).
Hartigiella laricis (R. Hartig) Dietel & P. Syd. Hedwigia (Beibl.) 39: (91) (1900).
Protect Rhizothyrium 1915 (A) over Rhizocalyx 1928 (S) and Bactrexcipula 1918 (A)
The type species of Rhizothyrium, R. abietis, was shown to be the asexual morph of Rhizocalyx abietis, type species of Rhizocalyx, by Smerlis (1967), thus Rhizothyrium and Rhizocalyx are synonyms. The type species, Bactrexcipula strasseri, of the monotypic genus Bactrexcipula was considered to be the same as Rhizothyrium abietis by Petrak (1962). Based on Petrak’s (1928) hypothesis about the relationships of these taxa, Smerlis (1967) grew both morphs in culture and provided convincing descriptions and illustrations. While Rhizocalyx remains monotypic, a second species of Rhizothyrium, R. parasiticum, was described by Butin (1986). No molecular data exist for either genus. Although both genera are relatively obscure, Rhizothyrium has been used more often than Rhizocalyx, thus it seems most useful to protect the earlier name Rhizothyrium for this genus. No name changes are required.
Use Rhytisma 1818 (S) rather than Melasmia 1846 (A)
The type species of Rhytisma, R. acerinum, is the sexual morph of the type species of Melasmia, M. acerina (Cannon & Minter 1984), therefore, the genera are synonyms. Melasmia is a morphologically simple, putatively spermatial asexual state. The genus Rhytisma has been widely used for species causing various tar spot diseases on living leaves. We recommended that the older, relatively well characterised name Rhytisma be used. Most names in Melasmia are obscure, thus it is difficult to determine if any name changes are required.
Use Scleropezicula 1999 (S) rather than Cryptosympodula 1999 (A)
These monotypic genera were described for the sexual and asexual morphs of the same species, therefore, the genera are synonyms. Neither name has been widely used but the sexual morph has been more frequently reported and is already in Scleropezicula, therefore, we recommend the use of the sexual morph generic name Scleropezicula.
Protect Scytalidium 1957 (A) rather than Xylogone 1969 (S)
The type species of Scytalidium, S. lignicola, appears to be congeneric or at least closely related with the type species of Xylogone, X. sphaerosperma, in the phylogenetic analyses by Kang et al. (2010), thus Xylogone and Scytalidium may be taxonomically congruent. A second species of Xylogone, X. ganodermophthora, causes yellow rot of cultivated Ganoderma lucidum in Korea (Kang et al. 2010). The genus Scytalidium has included two well-known species that are now placed in the Botryosphaeriaceae, specifically the medically important and plant pathogenic species known as Neoscytalidium dimidiatum (syn. Scytalidium dimidiatum) and N. hyalinum (syn. Scytalidium hyalinum) (Crous et al. 2006, Phillips et al. 2013). The four species of Scytalidium having affinities with Xylogone are used in the forest products industry (Robinson et al. 2014). The remaining 18 species of Scytalidium are of unknown affinity, many of which were isolated from soil and wood but also animals including humans. Two thermophilic species are considered to belong outside of Scytalidium, although no genus was available (Straastma & Samson 1993). Given the number of species remaining in Scytalidium compared to the small genus Xylogone, we recommend the use of Scytalidium.
Use Seaverinia 1945 (S) rather than Verrucobotrys 1973 (A)
The type species of Verrucobotrys, V. geranii, was established for the asexual morph of the type species of Seaverinia, S. geranii, thus these genera are synonyms. Both genera are monotypic. Given the equal citation of these names, the use of the older generic name Seaverinia is recommended.
Use Septotinia 1961 (S) rather than Septotis 1970 (A)
The type species of Septotis, S. podophyllina, was established for the asexual morph of the type species of Septotinia, S. podophyllina, thus these genera are synonyms. Both genera include two names that represent the same two species. Given the equal citation of these names, use of the older generic name Septotinia is recommended.
Use Stamnaria 1870 (S) rather than Titaeospora 1916 (A)
Stamnaria persoonii, type species of Stamnaria, is a relatively common fungus on stems and leaves of Equisetum spp. in temperate regions (Farr & Rossman 2014). The asexual morph of Stamnaria persoonii was described as Titaeospora equiseti of which T. detospora, the type species of Titaeospora, is a synonym (von Arx 1970), thus Stamnaria and Titaeospora are synonyms. Given the equal number of species and the equal use of names in these genera, the older generic name Stamnaria is recommended for use.
Use Streptotinia 1945 (S) rather than Streptobotrys 1973 (A)
The genus Streptobotrys, based on the type species S. streptothrix, was described for the asexual morph of Streptotinia (Hennebert 1973) although Streptobotrys streptothrix does not have a known sexual morph. The other two species of Streptobotrys are listed with their corresponding sexual morphs including Streptotinia arisaematis, the type species of Streptotinia. Thus these two genera are taxonomically congruent. Given that the number of species in each genus is small and both generic names are cited about equally, we recommend use of the older generic name Streptotinia.
The following new combination is required:
Streptotinia streptothrix (Cooke & Ellis) Seifert & Kohn, comb. nov.
Basionym: Polyactis streptothrix Cooke & Ellis, Grevillea 7: 39 (1878).
Use Strossmayeria 1881 (S) rather than Pseudospiropes 1971 (A)
The sexual morph of Pseudospiropes nodosus, the type species of Pseudospiropes, has been shown to be Strossmayeria atriseda by Iturriaga & Korf (1990) who regarded S. atriseda as congeneric with the type species of Strossmayeria, S. basitricha, thus Strossmayeria and Pseudospiropes are taxonomically congruent. They suggest that the asexual morphs of species of Strossmayeria are referable to Pseudospiropes, but note that other phylogenetically distant, morphologically similar asexual species have been described in Pseudospiropes. Many of the 36 names described in Pseudospiropes have been placed in other genera leaving only 16 species in that genus while 20 species are accepted in Strossmayeria (Index Fungorum, Iturriaga & Korf 1990). We recommend use of the older, well characterised generic name Strossmayeria. Although new combinations in Strossmayeria may be required for species in Pseudospiropes (Casteñada Ruiz et al. 2001), this be done as phylogenetic data become available because of the heterogeneity of Pseudospiropes.
Use Symphyosirinia 1956 (S) rather than Symphyosirella 2009 (A)
Although the type species of the discomycete genus Symphyosirinia, based on S. galii, and the type species of the hyphomycete genus Symphyosirella, S. parasitica, are not synonyms, they are considered congeneric (Gams et al. 2009), thus these genera are taxonomically congruent. Symphyosirella was described for two species parasitic on seeds (Gams 2009). Because Symphyosirinia includes five species (Baral 1994, Ellis 1956, Svrcek 1989), is widely used, and has priority, we recommend the use of this generic name. Priority at the species level requires recombining Symphyosirella parasitica and S. rosea into Symphyosirinia. According to Gams et al. (2009) the earlier hyphomycete generic name Symphiosira Preuss 1853, in which these two species were originally described, is a nomen dubium.
Symphyosirinia parasitica (Massee & Crossl.) Seifert, comb. nov.
Basionym: Symphyosira parasitica Massee & Crossl., Naturalist, Hull 1904: 6 (1904).
Synonyms: Symphyosirella parasitica (Massee & Crossl.) Seifert, Mycotaxon 110: 105 (2009).
Symphyosirinia heraclei E.A. Ellis, Trans. Norfolk Norw. Nat. Soc. 25(2): 43 (1980).
Symphosirinia rosea (Keissl.) Seifert, comb. nov.
Basionym: Symphyosira rosea Keissl., Mycol. Zentbl. 2: 322 (1913).
Synonym: Symphyosirella rosea (Keissl.) Seifert, Mycotaxon 110: 105 (2009).
Use Tympanis 1790 (S) rather than Sirodothis 1909 (A) or Pleurophomella 1914 (A).
The type species of Tympanis, T. saligna, is considered the sexual morph of Sirodothis saligna while the type species of Sirodothis, S. populi, is a synonym of S. populnea, the asexual morph of Tympanis spermatiospora (Sutton & Funk 1975, Sutton 1980), therefore these genera are taxonomically congruent. The type species of Pleurophomella, P. eumorpha, has been linked to “one of the three species” of Tympanis on Pinus, possibly T. confusa (Groves 1949), thus is also taxonomically congruent with Tympanis. The genus Tympanis has many more species than Sirodothis and Pleurophomella and is widely used. We recommend use of the well known genus Tympanis. Although some name changes may be required, most species of Sirodothis and Pleurophomella have names in Tympanis.
Use Unguiculariopsis 1909 (S) rather than Deltosperma 1988 (A)
When Zhuang (1988) monographed the genus Unguiculariopsis, including the type specie U. ilicincola, she established the genus Deltosperma based on D. infundibuliformis for the asexual morph of U. infundibuliformis. Unguiculariopsis and Deltosperma are taxonomically congruent. Given that there are many more species of Unguiculariopsis than Deltosperma and that Unguiculariopsis is more frequently cited, the older name Unguiculariopsis is recommened for use. Although two new combinations may be required, only the older name with a known sexual morph is recombined here.
Unguiculariopsis caespitosa (Fuckel) W.Y. Zhuang, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaeronaema caespitosum Fuckel, Fungi Rhenani Exs. no. 2147 (1868).
Synonyms: Deltosperma caespitosum (Fuckel) W.Y. Zhuang, Mycotaxon 32: 48 (1988).
Cenangium parasiticum Fuckel, Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 25–26: 43 (1871).
Unguiculariopsis parasitica (Fuckel) W.Y. Zhuang, Mycotaxon 32: 46 (1988).
Protect Valdensia 1923 (A) over Valdensinia 1953 (S) and Asterobolus 1972 (A).
The monotype genus Valdensinia, based on V. heterodoxa, was established for the sexual morph of Valdensia heterodoxa, type of Valdensia (Peyronel 1923, 1953), thus Valdensia and Valdensinia have the same type species and are generic synonyms. This species has an asexual morph that produces large staurosporous propagules quite unlike the discoid sexual morph and belongs in the Sclerotiniaceae (Holst-Jensen et al. 1997). It causes a leaf-spot disease of ericaceous plants and others hosts. Norvell & Redhead (1994) speculated that this fungus may cause a 20 % loss of green foliage used for floral arrangements in western North America; it is also being considered as a bioherbicide for the treatment of ericaceous shrubs beneath power lines (Wilkin et al. 2005). Although both generic names have been used, more reports have been made using the asexually typified genus, thus the earlier name Valdensia is proposed for protection. According to Redhead & Perrin (1972), their genus Asterobolous, based on A. gaultheriae, is a synonym of Valdensia heterodoxa. No name changes are required.
Use Vibrissea 1822 (S) over Anavirga 1975 (A)
The type species of Vibrissea, V. truncorum, occurring on submerged wood in temperate regions, lacks a known asexual morph. The type of Anavirga, A. laxa, is found on cupules of Castanea sativa and rotting tree leaves and lacks a known sexual morph. A second species of Anavirga, A. dendromorpha, on submerged leaves and twigs (Descals & Sutton 1976) has a sexual morph referred to as Vibrissea favovirens, initially as the name Apostemidium torrenticola (Hamad & Webster 1987). Phylogenetic studies are lacking to confirm the congeneric status of the type species of Vibrissea and Anavirga, however, A. laxa is morphologically similar to A. dendromorpha; the differences in branching pattern and size of conidial elements are small, possibly due to differences in specimens from pure culture (A. dendromorpha) and nature (A. laxa). The phialocephala-like state observed in cultures of A. dendromorpha was not seen in the collections of A. laxa from nature. We suggest that Vibrissea and Anavirga circumscribe the same group of species and are taxonomically congruent. Anavirga has only three species including A. vermiformis known from a terrestrial habitat in a mountain forest in India associated with monsoon rains (Bhat & Kendrick 1993). It differs somewhat in conidial morphology from the two older species, A. laxa and A. dendromorpha, namely through the inconspicuous or absent conidiophores and branching of conidia exclusively near the base; therefore, we refrain from recombining it, until information on relationships on molecular level becomes available. The genus Vibrissea with over 50 species is widely known and thus that name is recommended for use.
One new combination is proposed:
Vibrissea laxa (B. Sutton) Marvanová, comb. nov.
Basionym: Anavirga laxa B. Sutton, Trans. Br. mycol Soc. 64: 406 (1975).
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In obtaining input from the diverse user communities, the individuals listed below were consulted about their preferences for use of generic names. Although conflicting preferences could not be accommodated, all opinions and ideas were taken into consideration. These scientists include: Hans-Otto Baral, Christiane Baschien, Virginia Bianchinotti, Paul Cannon, Pedro Crous, Everett Hansen, David L. Hawksworth, Charles Hodges, Tsuyoshi Hosoya, Theresa Iturriaga, Paul M. Kirk, Richard Korf, Linda Kohn, Adrian Leuchtmann, Henrik Nilsson, Alan Phillips, Scott Redhead, Megan Romberg, Andrea Irene Romero, Conrad Schoch, Lynn Sigler, Matthew Smith, Wendy Untereiner, Gerard Verkley, Zheng Wang, Chang-Lin Xiao, and Wen-ying Zhuang. L. Marvanová acknowledges the financial support from the Czech Collection of Microorganisms. P.R. Johnston acknowledges financial support from the Landcare Research Systematics Portfolio through funding from the Science and Innovation group of the New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment.
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Johnston, P.R., Seifert, K.A., Stone, J.K. et al. Recommendations on generic names competing for use in Leotiomycetes (Ascomycota). IMA Fungus 5, 91–120 (2014) doi:10.5598/imafungus.2014.05.01.11
- Article 59
- inoperculate discomycetes
- one fungus-one name
- pleomorphic fungi
- unit nomenclature