Recommendations of generic names in Diaporthales competing for protection or use
IMA Fungus volume 6, pages 145–154 (2015)
In advancing to one name for fungi, this paper treats generic names competing for use in the order Diaporthales (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes) and makes a recommendation for the use or protection of one generic name among synonymous names that may be either sexually or asexually typified. A table is presented that summarizes these recommendations. Among the genera most commonly encountered in this order, Cytospora is recommended over Valsa and Diaporthe over Phomopsis. New combinations are introduced for the oldest epithet of important species in the recommended genus. These include Amphiporthe tiliae, Coryneum lanciforme, Cytospora brevispora, C. ceratosperma, C. cinereostroma, C. eugeniae, C. fallax, C. myrtagena, Diaporthe amaranthophila, D. annonacearum, D. bougainvilleicola, D. caricae-papayae, D. cocoina, D. cucurbitae, D. juniperivora, D. leptostromiformis, D. pterophila, D. theae, D. vitimegaspora, Mastigosporella georgiana, Pilidiella angustispora, P. calamicola, P. pseudogranati, P. stromatica, and P. terminaliae.
The order Diaporthales includes 12 families with about 50 genera. In moving to one name for fungi in accordance with the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN; McNeill et al. 2012), two or more genera typified by a sexual or asexual morph may compete for use. Many genera in Diaporthales are known primarily from their sexual morphs and do not have competing generic names for their asexual morphs and vice versa; these are not considered here. A number of resources were consulted in order to find competing pairs of generic names in the order, including Wijayawardene et al. (2012) and the USDA SMML Fungal Databases (url: http://nt.ars-grin.gov/sbmlweb/fungi/index.cfm). The procedure for determining whether two genera are synonyms based on their type species and the factors that were reviewed in considering which genus to recommend for use or protection are outlined in Johnston et al. (2014). In that paper recommendations are made for competing genera in Leotiomycetes.
Following are recommendations for generic names in Diaporthales for use or protection when two or more names are synonyms. Although in general this follows the principle of priority, there are situations in which it is advantageous to protect a generic name that does not have priority by date of publication but has commonly been used as explained in Johnston et al. (2014). Asynopsis of these recommendations for generic names in Diaporthales is provided in Table 1, which includes a list of competing generic names with the citation and type species. These generic names have been compared with those listed in Kirk et al. (2013). In most cases both names are listed there; in one case the recommended name is not included but it is anticipated that the list will be modified to be consistent with the recommendations proposed here, indeed some of these are already included in the updated online version of that list prepared for IMC10 (http://www.indexfungorum.org/GeneraOfFungi/).
Protect Amphiporthe 1971 over Amphicytostroma 1921
The type species of Amphiporthe, A. hranicensis based on Diaporthe hranicensis, is the sexual morph of the type species of Amphicytostroma, A. tiliae based on Cytospora tiliae, according to Petrak (1921) and Sutton (1980), thus these generic names are synonyms. This species occurs on dead branches of Tilia in Europe (Farr & Rossman 2015). Five names have been described in Amphiporthe while only two names have been included in Amphicytostroma. The second name in Amphicytostroma, A. quercinum based on Gloeosporium quercinum, is the asexual morph of Amphiporthe leiphaemia based on Sphaeria leiphaemia, cause of stem and twig lesions of oak in Europe (Sieber et al. 1995). Sogonov et al. (2008) showed that Amphiporthe hranicensis belongs in Gnomoniaceae while A. castanea and A. leiphaemia are unrelated to A. hranicensis and fall elsewhere in Diaporthales (Zhang & Blackwell 2001; Castlebury, unpubl.); these species should be placed in another genus. Amphiporthe is more widely used than Amphicytospora, thus it seems best to protect Amphiporthe. Both names are included in Kirk et al. (2013), thus it is recommended that Amphicytospora be deleted.
Amphiporthe tiliae (Sacc.) Rossman & Castl., comb. nov.
Basionym: Cytospora tiliae Sacc., Michelia 1:519 (1879).
Synonyms: Diaporthe hranicensis Petr., Annls mycol. 12:477 (1914).
Amphiporthe hranicensis (Petr.) Petr., Sydowia 24: 257 (1971).
Protect Apiognomonia 1917 over Discula 1884
The genus Apiognomonia has recently been well-defined including five species (Sogonov et al. 2008) based on the type species, A. veneta, which had previously been distinguished from A. errabunda (Sogonov et al. 2007). The lectotype species of Discula, D. quercina, now considered a synonym of D. umbrinella (Sutton 1980), is the asexual morph of Apiognomonia errabunda; thus Apiognomonia and Discula are synonyms. Apiognomonia errabunda is the cause of anthracnose of oak and various hardwood trees (Boewe et al. 1954, Neely & Himelick 1967, Hepting 1971, Sinclair et al. 1987, Hibben & Daughtrey 1988). The concept of the genus Discula has never been clearly defined with species having diverse affinities in Gnomoniaceae. A number of species placed in Discula have been linked with species of Ophiognomonia (Sogonov et al. 2008, Walker et al. 2014). The cause of dogwood anthracnose in North America, Discula destructiva, is not congeneric with the type of Discula nor does it group with Ophiognomonia (Sogonov et al. 2008). Given the ill-defined concept of Discula and that a number of species are now linked with the genus Ophiognomonia, we recommend the protection and use of Apiognomonia. Both names are listed in Kirk et al. (2013), thus it is recommended that Discula be deleted.
Use Coryneum 1816 rather than Pseudovalsa 1863
The type species of Coryneum, C. umbonatum, is the asexual morph of Pseudovalsa longipes, while the type species of Pseudovalsa, P. lanciformis, is considered the sexual morph of Coryneum brachyurum (Sutton 1975). Assuming that P. lanciformis and P. longipes are congeneric, then Coryneum and Pseudovalsa are synonyms. Sutton (1975) monographed Coryneum and accepted 19 species, referring many additional names to other genera. Many of the commonly reported plant pathogenic species previously known as Coryneum have now been placed in other genera such as Seiridium cardinale (syn. Coryneum cardinale), cause of cypress canker (Danti et al. 2014, Sutton & Gibson 1972), and Thyrostroma carpophilum (syn. Coryneum carpophilum, Stigmina carpophila, and Coryneum beyerinckii), cause of shot-hole disease of Rosaceae (Sutton 1997, Tovar-Pedraza et al. 2014). Although 68 names have been described in Pseudovalsa and three important species have been shown to group together (de Silva et al. 2009), many species of Pseudovalsa are now placed in other genera. These two genera are about equal in the number of currently accepted species and a monograph of Coryneum exists, thus it seems advisable to use the earliest name, Coryneum. Among the species of Coryneum known to have Pseudovalsa sexual morphs, only one requires a name change. Both generic names are listed in Kirk et al. (2013) thus it is recommended that Pseudovalsa be deleted.
Coryneum lanciforme (Fr.) Voglmayr & Jaklitsch, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaeria lanciformis Fr., Observ. mycol. 2: 324 (1818).
Synonyms: Pseudovalsa lanciformis (Fr.) Ces. & De Not., Comm. Soc. crittog. Ital. 1(4): 206 (1863).
Coryneum brachyurum Link, in Willdenow, Sp. pl., 4th edn 6(2): 124 (1825).
Use Cryphonectria 1905 rather than Endothiella 1906
The generic name Cryphonectria was recently conserved with the type species, C. parasitica (Gryzenhout et al. 2005), widely known as the cause of chestnut blight in North America (Anagnostakis 1987). Many additional species of Cryphonectria have been discovered on woody plants in both temperate and tropical regions (Gryzenhout et al. 2009). The generic name Endothiella based on the type species, E. gyrosa, is now placed in Cryphonectria as C. decipiens (Gryzenhout et al. 2009). Endothiella has been used for the asexual morphs of species of Cryphonectria. Given the widespread use of the name Cryphonectria and its priority, this name is recommended for use. Both names are included in Kirk et al. (2013) thus it is recommended that Endothiella be deleted.
Use Cryptosporella rather than Disculina 1916
The genus Cryptosporella, based on the type species C. hypodermia, has recently been monographed by Mejia et al. (2008, 2011b) and includes 19 species. The genus Disculina is based on D. neesii, regarded as D. vulgaris by Sutton (1980), who considered it the asexual morph of Ophiovalsa suffusa, now placed in Cryptosporella as C. suffusa (Mejia et al. 2008). Thus, Cryptosporella and Disculina are synonyms. Given that Cryptosporella has priority and has been recently monographed, while Disculina includes only six names, we recommend the use of Cryptosporella. Both names are included in Kirk et al. (2013) thus it is recommended that Disculina be deleted.
Use Cytospora 1818 rather than Valsa 1825, Valsella 1870, Leucostoma 1917, Valseutypella 1919, or Leucocytospora 1927
Numerous diseases of woody plants including those of economic importance are caused by species of the asexual genus Cytospora and its sexual counterpart Valsa and related genera Leucocytospora, Leucostoma, Valsella, and Valseutypella. The type species of Cytospora, C. chrysosperma as clarified by Donk (1964), is the asexual morph of Valsa sordida and commonly causes cankers on members of Salicaceae (Callan 1998). The type species of Valsa, V. ambiens, is linked with C. leucosperma (Spielman 1985, Hayova & Minter 1998). There is no question that these generic names are synonyms as their type species are congeneric. Both names have been widely used. At present 562 names have been described in Cytospora, while Valsa includes 875 names. Given that Cytospora is the oldest name and that several recent accounts of Cytospora species have been published (Adams 2005, Fotouhifar et al. 2010, Fan et al. 2014), it seems best to use the generic name that has priority, namely Cytospora. The genus Valsella is based on V. salicis, now considered a synonym of Cytospora fertilis. An isolate of V. salicis grouped with others species now considered Cytospora (Castlebury et al. 2002). The type species of Leucostoma, L. massarianum, falls within the genus Cytospora (Adams et al. 2002, 2005) near Cytospora mali and C. persoonii and thus Leucostoma is also a synonym of Cytospora. Adams et al. (2005) listed Leucocytospora as a synonym of Cytospora although the type species of L. corni was not included in the study. Leucostoma and Leucocytospora were described for species similar to Cytospora and Valsa that have a whitish ring around the ostiole. This characteristic occurs in many species of Cytospora scattered throughout the genus (Castlebury et al. 2004, Adams et al. 2005). The type species of Valseutypella, V. tristicha on Rosa spp., was also determined to fall within Cytospora based on molecular sequence data (Castlebury, unpubl.) and as suggested by Hubbes (1960) who described the asexual morph. No molecular data exist to support segregate genera within Cytospora, thus these generic names are all considered synonyms of Cytospora. Cytospora as well as Leucostoma, Valsa, Valsella, and Valseutypella are included in Kirk et al. (2013) while Leucocytospora is not. It is recommended that Leucostoma, Valsa, Valsella and Valseutypella be deleted.
Many names previously recognized in Valsa already have an older epithet in Cytospora with the correct scientific names presented in the SMML Fungal Databases (http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/). New names for the common species of Cytospora previously placed in Valsa are provided here:
Cytospora brevispora (G.C. Adams & Jol. Roux) G.C. Adams & Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Valsa brevispora G.C. Adams & Jol. Roux, Stud. Mycol. 52: 91 (2005).
Cytospora ceratosperma (Tode) G.C. Adams & Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaeria ceratosperma Tode, Fung. mecklenb. sel. 2: 53 (1791).
Valsa ceratosperma (Tode) Maire, Publ. Inst. Bot. Barcelona 3(4): 20 (1937).
Cytospora cinereostroma (G.C. Adams & M.J. Wingf.) G.C. Adams & Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Valsa cinereostroma G.C. Adams & M.J. Wingf., Stud. Mycol. 52: 73 (2005).
Cytospora eugeniae (Nutman & F.M. Roberts) G.C. Adams & Rossman, comb. nov.
MycoBank MB 812489
Basionym: Valsa eugeniae Nutman & F.M. Roberts, Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 36: 229 (1953).
Cytospora fallax (Nitschke) G.C. Adams & Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Valsa fallax Nitschke, Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 23–24: 200 (1870).
Cytospora myrtagena (G.C. Adams & M.J. Wingf.)
G.C. Adams & Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Valsa myrtagena G.C. Adams & M.J. Wingf., Stud. Mycol. 52: 97 (2005).
Use Diaporthe 1870 rather than Phomopsis 1884
Species in both Diaporthe and Phomopsis have been used for fungi that cause canker diseases of woody plants such as D. citri, cause of citrus melanose (Mondal et al. 2003), D. sojae, cause of pod and stem blight of soybean (Udayanga et al. 2015), and D. vaccinii, cause of blueberry and cranberry twig blight (Friend & Boone 1968, Milholland & Daykin 1983, Oudemans et al. 1998), as well as endophytes in herbaceous and woody plants (Castlebury et al. 2002). When most names of Diaporthe or Phomopsis were described, species in these genera were considered to be host specific. However, recent studies using molecular data have shown that, while a few species are host-specific, many others have a broad host range. Most species of Diaporthe can be identified only through the use of molecular sequences (Udayanga et al. 2014a, b). About 1000 names have been described in each genus including many that are sexual and asexual morphs of the same species.
Recently the type species of Diaporthe, D. eres, has been carefully circumscribed (Udayanga et al. 2014a) and this name is conserved against 21 obscure earlier names (Rossman et al. 2014). The type species of Phomopsis, P. lactucae, has not been as clearly defined but there is no doubt that it is congeneric with Diaporthe and that Diaporthe and Phomopsis are synonyms. Diaporthe and Phomopsis have been used about equally, thus, it seems best to use the name that has priority, Diaporthe. Diaporthe but not Phomopsis is listed in Kirk et al. (2013).
Determining the correct name for species of Diaporthe is difficult considering that names in both genera must be taken into account and defining old names is nearly impossible. Due to the lack of distinct morphological characteristics, examination of type specimens is only marginally useful. In his monograph of Diaporthe, Wehmeyer (1933) listed many synonyms under each of the species that he recognized. As in the case of D. eres, some of these names are older. Many names previously recognized in Phomopsis already have an older epithet in Diaporthe with the correct scientific names presented in the SMML Fungal Databases (http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/). However, a number of the most important and some recently described names in Phomopsis are here transferred to Diaporthe.
Diaporthe amaranthophila (Inácio et al) Rossman & Udayanga, comb. nov.
Basionym: Phomopsis amaranthophila Inácio et al., Fitopatol. Brasil. 24: 185 (1999).
Synonym: Phomopsis amaranthicola Rosskopf et al., Mycologia 92: 117 (2000); nom. inval. (Art. 40.3).
Diaporthe annonacearum (Bond.-Mont.) Rossman & Udayanga, comb. nov.
Basionym: Phomopsis annonacearum Bond.-Mont., Acta Inst. bot. Komarov. Acad. Sci., Pl. Crypt, ser. 2 3: 721 (1936).
Diaporthe bougainvilleicola (M.M. Xiang et al.) Rossman & Udayanga, comb. nov.
Basionym: Phomopsis bougainvilleicola M.M. Xiang et al., Mycosystema 22: 516 (2003).
Diaporthe caricae-papayae (Petr. & Cif.) Rossman & Udayanaga, comb. nov.
Basionym: Phomopsis caricae-papayae Petr. & Cif., Annls mycol. 28: 412 (1930).
Diaporthe cocoina (Cooke) Rossman & Udayanga, comb. nov.
Basionym: Phoma cocoina Cooke, Grevillea 5: 101 (1877).
Synonyms: Phomopsis cocoina (Cooke) Punith., Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 64: 435 (1975).
Phyllosticta cocos Cooke, Grevillea 8: 94 (1880).
Diaporthe cucurbitae (McKeen) Udayanga & Castl., comb. nov.
Basionym: Phomopsis cucurbitae McKeen, Canad. J. Bot. 35: 46. (1957).
This new combination was published in Udayanga et al. (2015) but without a registration number, so was not validly published there (Art. 42,1).
Diaporthe juniperivora (G.G. Hahn) Rossman & Udayanga, comb. nov.” MycoBankMB812497
Basionym: Phomopsisjuniperivora G.G. Hahn, Phytopathology 10: 249 (1920).
Diaporthe leptostromiformis (J.G. Kühn) Rossman & Udayanga, comb. nov.
Basionym: Cryptosporium leptostromiforme J.G. Kühn, Ber. physiol. Lab. Versuch. landw. Inst. Univ. Halle:  (1880).
Synonyms: Phomopsis leptostromiformis (J.G. Kühn) Bubák, Danish Fungi: 422 (1913).
Diaporthe woodii Punith., Mycol. Pap. 136: 51 (1974).
Diaporthe pterophila (Nitschke ex Fuckel) Rossman & Udayanga, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaeria pterophila Nitschke ex Fuckel, Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 23–24: 377 (1870).
Synonyms: Phomopsis pterophila (Nitschke ex Fuckel) Died., Annls mycol. 9:28(1911).
Diaporthe samaricola W. Phillips & Plowr., Grevillea 3: 126 (1875).
Diaporthe theae (Petch) Rossman & Udayanga, comb. nov.
Basionym: Phomopsis theae Petch, Ann. R. bot. Gdns Peradeniya 9: 324 (1925).
Diaporthe vitimegaspora (K.C. Kuo & L.S. Leu) Rossman & Udayanga, comb. nov.
Basionym: Phomopsis vitimegaspora K.C. Kuo & L.S. Leu, Mycotaxon 66: 498 (1998).
Synonym: Diaporthe kyushuensis Kajitani & Kanem., Mycoscience 41:112 (2000).
Use Endothia 1849 rather than Calopactis 1912
The type species of Endothia, E. gyrosa, and the monotype species of Calopactis, C. singularis, were shown to be congeneric by Gryzenhout (2009) who recognized C. singularis as the asexual morph of E. singularis. A number of diseases are caused by species of Endothia such as stem and twig canker of chestnut caused by E. singularis (Sung & Han 1986). Given the widespread use of the name Endothia with 32 names and its priority over Calopactis with only one name, use of Endothia is recommended. Endothia but not Calopactis is included in Kirk et al. (2013).
Use Massariovalsa 1882 rather than Melanconiopsis 1900
The type species of Massariovalsa, M. sudans, is considered the sexual morph of Melanconiopsis inquinans, type species of Melanconiopsis (Wehmeyer 1939), thus these congeneric names are synonyms. Five names are included in Massariovalsa while eight fungi have been described in Melanconiopsis, some of which also have names in Massariovalsa. Suarez et al. (2000) discussed the disposition of three names in Melanconiopsis placing two of them in Endomelanconium. These generic names have been used about equally in the literature, referring primarily to Massariovalsa sudans (syn. Melanconiopsis inquinans). Neither genus has been recently monographed or studied using molecular data. Given the lack of rationale for using Melanconiopsis and the lack of molecular data regarding the placement of species in either genus, the principle of priority should be followed, thus it is recommended that Massariovalsa be used. Both Massariovalsa and Melanconiopsis are listed in Kirk et al. (2013), thus it is recommended that Melanconiopsis be deleted.
Use Mastigosporella 1914 rather than Wuestneiopsis 1990
The type species of Mastigosporella, M. hyalina, is considered to be the asexual morph of Wuestneiopsis quercifolia (as Dicarpella quercifolia) (Barr 1979, Nag Raj 1981). The generic type of Wuestneiopsis is W. georgiana. Both of these Wuestneiopsis names were placed in the illegitimate later homonym Dicarpella Syd. & P. Syd. 1921 non Bory 1824 by Reid & Dowsett (1990). Given that the type species of Mastigosporella and Wuestneiopsis were considered to be congeneric by Barr (1978) and that Reid & Dowsett (1990) suggested that W. georgiana may have a Mastigosporella asexual morph, these genera appear to compete for synonymy. The genus Mastigosporella containing two species was monographed by Nag Raj (1981) with another species, M. anisophylleae, added recently by Crous et al. (2013). Nag Raj (1981) examined the holotype of W. georgiana (as Dicarpella georgiana), which he considered to be the sexual morph of M. nyssae. Given that Mastigosporella is more widely used and has priority, use of Mastigosporella is recommended. Both Mastigosporella and Wuestneiopsis are listed in Kirk et al. (2013), thus Wuestneiopsis should be deleted. One new combination is needed.
Mastigosporella georgiana (J.H. Mill. & G.E. Thomps.) Rossman & Crous, comb. nov.
Basionym: Gnomoniella georgiana J.H. Mill. & G.E. Thomps., Mycologia 32: 8 (1940).
Synonyms: Wuestneiopsis georgiana (J.H. Mill. & G.E. Thomps.) J. Reid & Dowsett, Canad. J. Bot. 68: 2406 (1990).
Mastigosporella nyssae Nag Raj & Di Cosmo, Biblthca Mycol. 80: 57 (1981).
Use Mazzantia 1855 rather than Mazzantiella 1925
The generic name for the sexual morph Mazzantia, based on M. galii, has been widely used and this genus includes 27 names. Mazzantia galii has been included in molecular studies of Diaporthales as a sister group for Diaporthe (Udayanga et al. 2014a). Mazzantiella, based on M. sepium, was described as the asexual morph of Mazzantia sepia, thus these type species are most likely congeneric. Each of the three names in Mazzantiella has a sexual morph name in Mazzantia, thus no name changes are required if Mazzantia is maintained. Given the greater use of Mazzantia, its priority, and the lack of required name changes, use of Mazzantia is recommended. Mazzantia but not Mazzantiella is listed in Kirk et al. (2013).
Protect Melanconis 1863 over Melanconium 1832
Recently an account was provided of the type species of Melanconis, M. stilbostoma (Voglmayr et al. 2012) in distinguishing Melanconis from Melanconiella. The concept of Melanconium based on the type species, M. atrum, remains obscure with many species placed in other genera such as Arthrinium, Greeneria, and Harknessia. Conidial size and morphology of the lectotype specimen of Melanconium atrum is similar to Melanconis alni, but the latter is specific to Alnus and not known from Fagus, the host given for M. atrum; the true identity of M. atrum remains obscure (Voglmayr et al. 2012). Although more names exist in Melanconium, these generic names are reported in about equal numbers. Given the confusion surrounding Melanconium and the well-defined concept of Melanconis, we recommend that Melanconis be protected over Melanconium. Both generic names are listed in Kirk et al. (2013).
Protect Pilidiella 1927 over Schizoparme 1923
The type species of Pilidiella, P. quercicola, is congeneric with the type species of Schizoparme, S. straminea, which is the sexual morph of Pilidiella castaneicola (van Niekerk et al. 2004). Species of the asexual Pilidiella have been more widely reported than those of the sexually typified Schizoparme (Samuels et al. 1993, Farr & Rossman 2015). Sixteen names exist in Pilidiella while only nine species of Schizoparme have been described, three of which already have names in Pilidiella. With the use of Pilidiella five species must be transferred from Schizoparme. However, more name changes would result if the name Schizoparme were used. Species of Pilidiella and the closely related but distinct genus Coniella are commonly encountered in plant-associated environments while the sexual morph Schizoparme is rarely reported, thus we recommend the use of Pilidiella. A number of diseases are caused by Pilidiella, including foliage blight of quaresmeira (Tibouchina granulosa) in Brazil caused by P. tibouchinae (Miranda et al. 2012), and crown and stem rot of pomegranate (Punica granati) caused by P. granati (Celiker et al. 2012). Pilidiella is not listed in Kirk et al. (2013) and should be added while Schizoparme should be deleted.
Pilidiella angustispora (Samuels et al.) Rossman & Crous, comb. nov.
Basionym: Schizoparme angustispora Samuels et al., Mycotaxon 46: 465 (1993).
Pilidiella calamicola (J. Fröhl. & K.D. Hyde) Rossman & Crous, comb. nov.
Basionym: Schizoparme calamicola J. Fröhl. & K.D. Hyde, Palm Microfungi: 255 (2000).
Pilidiella pseudogranati (Crous) Rossman & Crous, comb. nov.
Basionym: Schizoparme pseudogranati Crous, Persoonia 32: 219 (2014).
Pilidiella stromatica (Samuels et al.) Rossman & Crous, comb. nov.
Basionym: Schizoparme stromatica Samuels et al., Mycotaxon 46: 474 (1993). 1993
Pilidiella terminaliae (Samuels et al.) Rossman & Crous, comb. nov.
Basionym: Schizoparme terminaliae Samuels et al., Mycotaxon 46: 478 (1993).
Protect Plagiostoma 1870 over Diplodina 1857, and the additional synonyms Septomyxa 1884 and Cryptodiaporthe 1921
The type species of Plagiostoma, P. euphorbiae, has served as the basis for a monographic account of this genus (Mejia et al. 2011a) including a number of plant pathogens such as P. populinumm, cause of bark necrosis of white poplar (Melnik & Zarudnaya 2008). The type species of Diplodina, D. salicis, is considered a synonym of D. microsperma by Sutton (1980), the asexual morph of Plagiostoma apiculata (Mejia et al. 2011a); thus Diplodina and Plagiostoma are synonyms. Although Diplodina includes several hundred names, these names have been placed in diverse genera, such as Ascochyta, Discella, Microdiplodia, and Phloeospora, suggesting that the concept of Diplodina is poorly defined. The concept of Plagiostoma, however, is well-defined, and there are two recent monographic works on the genus including many new species (Mejia et al. 2011a, Walker et al. 2014). These accounts suggest that the protection of this generic name is warranted, which would prevent a significant number of name changes. The type species of Septomyxa, S. aesculi, and Cryptodiaporthe, C. aesculi, are both regarded as Plagiostoma aesculi (Mejia et al. 2011a), thus those later generic names are synonyms of Plagiostoma. Sutton (1977) listed six additional generic synonyms of Diplodina but this synonymy could not be confirmed. Plagiostoma, Cryptodiaporthe, and Diplodina, but not Septomyxa, are listed in Kirk et al. (2013), thus Cryptodiaporthe and Diplodina should be deleted.
Use Stilbospora 1794 rather than Prosthecium 1852
The type species of Stilbospora, S. macrosperma, is the name applied to the asexual morph of the type species of Prosthecium, P. ellipsosporum; thus these generic names are synonyms (Voglmayr & Jaklitsch 2014). At present 26 names have been described in Prosthecium, while 85 names were placed in Stilbospora; however, most names in Prosthecium and Stilbospora should most likely be excluded from both of these genera (Voglmayr & Jaklitsch 2014). Stilbospora appears to be more widely used, has priority, and has recently been monographed with three accepted species (Voglmayr & Jaklitsch 2014). In addition, many species of Prosthecium were redisposed in Stilbospora and Stegonsporium (Voglmayr & Jaklitsch 2008). Stilbospora appears to be more widely used, has priority, and has recently been monographed (Voglmayr & Jaklitsch 2014); thus, we recommend the use of Stilbospora. Both names are included in Kirk et al. (2013), and Prosthecium should therefore be deleted.
Adams GC, Surve-lyer RS, lezzoni AF (2002) Ribosomal DNA sequence divergence and group I introns within the Leucostoma species L. cinctum, L. persoonii, and L. parapersoonii sp. nov., ascomycetes that cause Cytospora canker of fruit trees. Mycologia 94: 947–967.
Adams GC, Wingfield MJ, Common R, Roux J (2005) Phylogenetic relationships and morphology of Cytospora species and related teleomorphs (Ascomycota, Diaporthales, Valsaceae) from Eucalyptus. Studies in Mycology 52: 1–144.
Anagnostakis SL (1987) Chestnut blight: the classical problem of an introduced pathogen. Mycologia 79: 23–37.
Barr ME (1978) The Diaporthales in North America with emphasis on Gnomonia and its segregates. Mycologia Memoirs 7: 1–232.
Boewe GH, Campana HR, Schneider IR (1954) Sycamore anthracnose severe in Illinois. Plant Disease Report 38: 597–598.
Callan BE (1998) Diseases of Populus in British Columbia: a diagnostic manual. Ottawa: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service.
Castlebury LA, Rossman AY, Jaklitsch WJ, Vasilyeva LN (2002) A preliminary overview of the Diaporthales based on large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycologia 94: 1017–1031.
Celiker NM, Uysal A, Cetinel B, Poyraz D (2012) Crown rot on pomegranate caused by Coniella granati in Turkey. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 7: 161–162.
Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Guarro J, Cheewangkoon R, van der Bank M, et al. (2013) Fungal Planet Description Sheets: 154–213. Persoonia 31: 188–296.
Danti R, Barberini S, Pecchioli A, Di Lonardo V, Rocca GD (2014) The epidemic spread of Seiridium cardinale on Leyland cypress severely limits its use in the Mediterranean. Plant Disease 98: 1081–1087.
De Silva H, Castlebury LA, Green S, Stone JK (2009) Characterisation and phylogenetic relationships of Anisogramma virgultorum and A. anomala in the Diaporthales (Ascomycota). Mycological Research 113: 73–81.
Donk MA (1964) Nomina conservanda proposita I. Proposals in fungi. Deuteromycetes. Regnum Vegetabile 34: 7–15.
Fan X-L, Liang Y-M, Ma R, Tian C-m (2014) Morphological and phylogenetic studies of Cytospora (Valsaceae, Diaporthales) isolates from Chinese scholar tree, with description of a new species. Mycoscience 55: 252–259.
Farr DF, Rossman AY (2015) Fungal Databases. Beltsville, MD: Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, ARS, USDA; https://doi.org/nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/
Fotouhifar K-B, Hedjaroude G-A, Leuchtmann A (2010) ITS rDNA phylogeny of Iranian strains of Cytospora and associated teleomorphs. Mycologia 102: 1369–1382.
Friend RJ, Boone DM (1968) Diaporthe vaccinii associated with dieback of cranberry in Wisconsin. Plant Disease Reporter 52: 341–344.
Gryzenhout M, Glen HF, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ (2005) (1686) Proposal to conserve the name Cryphonectria (Diaporthales) with a conserved type. Taxon 54: 539–540.
Gryzenhout M, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ (2009) Taxonomy, Phytogeny, and Ecology of Bark-Inhabiting and Tree-Pathogenic Fungi in the Cryphonectriaceae. St Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society Press.
Hayova VP, Minter DW (1998) Valsa ambiens subsp. ambiens. International Mycological Institute Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria 1364: 1–4.
Hepting GH (1971) Diseases of the Forest and Shade Trees of the United States. [Agriculture Handbook no. 386.] Washington, DC: USDA-Forest Service.
Hibben CR, Daughtrey ML (1988) Dogwood anthracnose in northeastern United States. Plant Disease 72: 199–203.
Hubbes M (1960) Systematische und physiologische Untersuchungen an Valsaceen auf Weiden. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 39: 65–93.
Johnston PR, Seifert KA, Stone JK, Rossman AY, Marvanova L (2014) Recommendations on generic names competing for use in Leotiomycetes (Ascomycota). IMA Fungus 5: 91–120.
Kirk PM, Stalpers JA, Braun U, Crous PW, Hansen K, et al. (2013) A without-prejudice list of generic names of fungi for protection under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. IMA Fungus 4: 381–443.
McNeill J, Barrie FF, Buck WR, Demoulin V, Greuter W, et al. (eds.) (2012) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code). [Regnum Vegetabile no. 154.] Kbnigstein: Koeltz Scientific Books.
Mejia LC, Castlebury LA, Rossman AY, Sogonov MV, White JF (2008) Phylogenetic placement and taxonomic review of the genus Cryptosporella and its synonyms Ophiovalsa and Winterella (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales). Mycological Research 112: 23–35.
Mejia LC, Castlebury LA, Rossman AY, Sogonov MV, White JF (2011a) A systematic account of the genus Plagiostoma (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales) based on morphology, host-associations, and a four-gene phylogeny. Studies in Mycology 68: 211–235.
Mejia LC, Rossman AY, Castlebury LA, White jr JF (2011b) New species, phylogeny, host-associations and geographic distribution of genus Cryptosporella (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales). Mycologia 103: 379–399.
Melnik VA, Zarudnaya GI (2008) Bark necrosis on white poplar in Saint Petersburg. Mikologia u Fitopatologica 42: 369–373.
Milholland RD, Daykin ME (1983) Blueberry fruit rot caused by Phomopsis vaccinii. Plant Disease 67: 325–327.
Miranda BEC, Barreto RW, Crous PW, Groenewald JZ (2012) Pilidiella tibouchinae sp. nov. associated with foliage blight of Tibouchina granulosa (quaresmeira) in Brazil. IMA Fungus 3: 1–7.
Mondal SN, Agostini JP, Timmer LW (2003) Factors affecting pycnidial development of Diaporthe citri, the cause of citrus melanose. Phytopathology 93: S63.
Nag Raj TR, DiCosmo F (1981) A monograph of Harknessia and Mastigosporella, with notes on associated teleomorphs. Bibliotheca Mycologica 80: 1–62.
Neely D, Himelick EB (1963) Temperature and sycamore anthracnose severity. Plant Disease Reporter 47: 171–175.
Oudemans PV, Caruso FL, Stretch AW (1998) Cranberry fruit rot in the northeast: a complex disease. Plant Disease 82: 1176–1184.
Petrak F (1921) Mykologische Notizen. II. Annates Mycologici 19: 17–128.
Reid J, Dowsett JA (1990) On Dicarpella, Sphaerognomonia, and Apiosporopsis. Canadian Journal of Botany 68: 2398–2407.
Rossman A, Udayanga D, Castlebury LA, Hyde KD (2014) (2304) Proposal to conserve the name Diaporthe eres against twenty-one competing names (Ascomycota: Diaporthales: Diaporthaceae). Taxon 63: 934–935.
Samuels GJ, Barr ME, Lowen R (1993) Revision of Schizoparme (Diaporthales, Melanconidaceae). Mycotaxon 46: 459–483.
Sieber TN, Kowalski T, Holdenrieder O (1995) Fungal assemblages in stem and twig lesions of Quercus robur in Switzerland. Mycological Research 99: 534–538.
Sinclair WA, Lyon HH, Johnson WT (1987) Diseases of Trees and Shrubs. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Sogonov MV, Castlebury LA, Rossman A, White JF (2007) The type of species of Apiognomonia, Apiognomonia veneta, with its Discula anamorph is distinct from Apiognomonia errabunda. Mycological Research 111: 693–709.
Sogonov MV, Castlebury LA, Rossman AY, Mejia LC, White JF (2008) Leaf-inhabiting genera of the Gnomonianceae, Diaporthales. Studies in Mycology 62: 1–79.
Spielman LJ (1985) A monograph of Valsa on hardwoods in North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 63: 1355–1378.
Suarez V, Carmaran CC, Sutton BC (2000) Melanconiopsis microspora sp. nov. from bamboo in Argentina. Mycological Research 104: 1530–1534.
Sung JM, Han SS (1986) Identification of canker-causing fungi associated with stems and twigs of chestnut tree. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology 2: 174–184.
Sutton BC (1975) Coelomycetes. V Coryneum. Mycological Papers 138: 1–224.
Sutton BC (1977) Coelomycetes VI. Nomenclature of generic names proposed for Coelomycetes. Mycological Papers 141: 1–253.
Sutton BC (1980) The Coelomycetes: Fungi Imperfect! with pycnidia, acervuli and stromata. Kew: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.
Sutton BC (1997) On Stigmina, Wilsonomyces and Thyrostroma (Hyphomycetes). Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 14: 33–35.
Sutton BC, Gibson IAS (1972) Seiridium cardinale. Commonwealth Mycological Institute Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria 326: 1–2.
Tovar-Pedraza JM, Ayala-Escobar V, Segura-Leon OL (2013) Thyrostroma carpophilum causing apricot shot-hole in Mexico. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 8: 31–33.
Udayanga D, Castlebury LA, Rossman AY, Chukeatirote E, Hyde KD (2014a) Insights into the genus Diaporthe: phylogenetic species delimitation in the D. eres species complex. Fungal Diversity 67: 203–229.
Udayanga D, Castlebury LA, Rossman AY, Hyde KD (2014b) Species limits in Diaporthe: molecular re-assessment of D. citri, D. cytosporella, D. foeniculina and D. rudis. Persoonia 32: 83–101.
Udayanga D, Castlebury LA, Rossman AY, Chukeatirote E, Hyde KD (2015) The Diaporthe sojae species complex: Phylogenetic reassessment of pathogens associated with soybean, cucurbits, and other field crops. Fungal Biology 119: 383–407.
van Niekerk JM, Groenewald JZ, Verkley GJM, Fourie PH, Wingfield MJ, et al. (2004) Systematic reappraisal of Coniella and Pilidiella, with specific reference to species occurring on Eucalyptus and Vitis in South Africa. Mycological Research 108: 283–303.
Voglmayr H, Rossman AY, Castlebury LA, Jaklitsch WM (2012) Multigene phytogeny and taxonomy of the genus Melanconiella (Diaporthales). Fungal Diversity 57: 1–44.
Voglmayr H, Jaklitsch WM (2008) Prosthecium species with Stegonsporium anamorphs on Acer. Mycological Research 112: 885–905.
Voglmayr H, Jaklitsch WM (2014) Stilbosporaceae resurrected: generic reclassification and speciation. Persoonia 33: 61–82.
Walker DM, Lawrence BR, Wooten JA, Rossman AY, Castlebury LA (2014) Five new species of the highly diverse genus Plagiostoma (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales) from Japan. Mycological Progress 13: 1057–1067.
Wehmeyer LE (1933) The Genus Diaporthe Nitschke and its Segregates. [University of Michigan Studies, Science Series no. 9.] Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.
Wehmeyer LE (1939) The genus Massariovalsa. American Journal of Botany 26: 831–834.
Wijayawardene DNN, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD (2012) Toward incorporating anamorphic fungi in a natural classification — checklist and notes for 2011. Mycosphere 3: 157–228.
Zhang N, Blackwell M (2001) Molecular phytogeny of dogwood anthracnose fungus (Discula destructiva) and the Diaporthales. Mycologia 93: 355–365.
Hermann Voglmayr acknowledges financial support by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF; project P27645-B16).
About this article
Cite this article
Rossman, A.Y., Adams, G.C., Cannon, P.F. et al. Recommendations of generic names in Diaporthales competing for protection or use. IMA Fungus 6, 145–154 (2015). https://doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2015.06.01.09