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Recommended names for pleomorphic genera in Dothideomycetes
IMA Fungus volume 6, pages507–523(2015)
This paper provides recommendations of one name for use among pleomorphic genera in Dothideomycetes by the Working Group on Dothideomycetes established under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). A number of these generic names are proposed for protection because they do not have priority and/or the generic name selected for use is asexually typified. These include: Acrogenospora over Farlowiella; Alternaria over Allewia, Lewia, and Crivellia; Botryosphaeria over Fusicoccum; Camarosporula over Anthracostroma; Capnodium over Polychaeton; Cladosporium over Davidiella; Corynespora over Corynesporasca; Curvularia over Pseudocochliobolus; Elsinoë over Sphaceloma; Excipulariopsis over Kentingia; Exosporiella over Anomalemma; Exserohilum over Setosphaeria; Gemmamyces over Megaloseptoria; Kellermania over Planistromella; Kirschsteiniothelia over Dendryphiopsis; Lecanosticta over Eruptio; Paranectriella over Araneomyces; Phaeosphaeria over Phaeoseptoria; Phyllosticta over Guignardia; Podonectria over Tetracrium; Polythrincium over Cymadothea; Prosthemium over Pleomassaria; Ramularia over Mycosphaerella; Sphaerellopsis over Eudarluca; Sphaeropsis over Phaeobotryosphaeria; Stemphylium over Pleospora; Teratosphaeria over Kirramyces and Colletogloeopsis; Tetraploa over Tetraplosphaeria; Venturia over Fusicladium and Pollaccia; and Zeloasperisporium over Neomicrothyrium. Twenty new combinations are made: Acrogenospora carmichaeliana (Berk.) Rossman & Crous, Alternaria scrophulariae (Desm.) Rossman & Crous, Pyrenophora catenaria (Drechsler) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. dematioidea (Bubák & Wróbl.) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. fugax (Wallr.) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. nobleae (McKenzie & D. Matthews) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, P. triseptata (Drechsler) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, Schizothyrium cryptogamum (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, S. cylindricum (G.Y. Sun et al.) Crous & Batzer, S. emperorae (G.Y. Sun & L. Gao) Crous & Batzer, S. inaequale (G.Y. Sun & L. Gao) Crous & Batzer, S. musae (G.Y. Sun & L. Gao) Crous & Batzer, S. qianense (G.Y. Sun & YQ. Ma) Crous & Batzer, S. tardecrescens (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, S. wisconsinense (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, Teratosphaeria epicoccoides (Cooke & Massee) Rossman & W.C. Allen, Venturia catenospora (Butin) Rossman & Crous, V. convolvularum (Ondrej) Rossman & Crous, V. oleaginea (Castagne) Rossman & Crous, and V. phillyreae (Nicolas & Aggéry) Rossman & Crous, combs. nov. Three replacement names are also proposed: Pyrenophora grahamii Rossman & K.D. Hyde, Schizothyrium sunii Crous & Batzer, and Venturia barriae Rossman & Crous noms. nov.
A comprehensive account of the genera of Dothideomycetes was provided by Hyde et al. (2013), and updated by Wijayawardene et al. (2014). These works serve as the basis for the move to one scientific name for pleomorphic genera of fungi in this class. Based on the latter publication, an account is presented for all pleomorphic genera in Dothideomycetes including the generic names recommended for use. This article is essentially abstracted from Wijayawardene et al. (2014) to present only competing pairs of genera for consideration by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF), as well as including minor corrections. All but three of the recommendations listed here agree with those of Wijayawardene et al. (2014). For Acrogenospora-Farlowiella, a case is now made for protecting Acrogenospora based on the wider use and fewer name changes required rather than following the principle of priority. Similarly Camarosporula was determined to be more widely used than the competing generic name Anthracostroma, which has equal priority; Camarosporula is consequently recommended for use. Although Sydowia and Hormonema were considered distinct by Wijayawardene et al. (2014), a study by Hirooka et al. (2012) suggested that their type species were congeneric. Thus, Sydowia is now recommended for use based on the greater number of species, wider use, and priority. Four additional pairs of genera were discovered to be synonyms as explained below. In addition, three generic names with synonyms listed in Wijayawardene et al. (2014) are probably not, as explained under names not included. Generic names with synonyms that are not pleomorphic, i.e. all sexual or all asexually typified synonyms are not included.
A list of names of all pleomorphic genera, i.e. those having synonymous generic names for an alternate morph along with their type species and citations and the action required, if any, is presented in Table 1. A number of genera recommended for use require action by the NCF for two reasons. Generic names that do not have priority must be approved for protection by the NCF, equivalent to conservation. In addition, according to Article 57.2 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN; McNeill et al. 2012), generic names with type species typified by sexual morphs of species (S) must be suppressed or rejected before a generic name typified by a species with an asexual morph (A) can be used. We note, however, that the mycological community has proposed deletion of Art. 57.2 (Hawksworth 2015) so that names will in future compete on priority of publication regardless of the morph of their type species.
Clarifications of elements of the ICN relevant to this paper are as follows. One concerns the publication of two or more scientific names in the same publication. When this occurs, all names in that publication are considered to have equal priority. If names in that publication are determined to be synonyms, the first author to select one of them for use determines the priority. Secondly, if a generic name is protected for use because it is considered a synonym of another generic name but is later found not to be a synonym, that generic name remains available for use. This is similar to the concept of a genus that may initially be broadly circumscribed and later more narrowly defined. These and many other nomenclatural situations related to moving to one scientific name for fungi are explained in Rossman (2014), as determined by the ICN. For an updated account of the scientific names of fungi associated with plants including those previously having two names, consult the USDA SMML Fungal Databases (https://doi.org/nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/), which includes the scientific names of plant-associated fungi that reflect the most recent literature along with the host and worldwide distribution of each species.
Pleomorphic Generic Names of Dothideomycetes and Recommendations for Use of one name
Protect Acrogenospora M.B. Ellis 1971 (A) over Farlowiella Sacc. 1891 (S)
The generic name Acrogenospora, typified by A. sphaerocephala, includes two of the 11 species that have sexual morphs placed in Farlowiella typified by F. repanda (also considered to be F carmichaeliana). Although no molecular data exist to support the synonymy of Acrogenospora with Farlowiella, the distinctive morphology of the asexual morph suggests this and has long been accepted (Ellis 1971, 1976, Schoch et al. 2009). Three names representing two species have been described in Farlowiella, both of which have earlier names in Acrogenospora and thus would require name changes if Farlowiella were retained. All names in Acrogenospora would need to be changed if Farlowiella were used. In addition, confusion exists with the fungal name Farlowiella because it has also been used for an algal genus of Phaeophyta for which a replacement name was published in 1975, and because there is also an insect genus named Farlowella. If the generic name Acrogenospora is protected, only one name change would be required. Acrogenospora has been monographed (Goh et al. 1998), including especially those known from freshwater that may not all belong in that genus. Acrogenospora is commonly used by plant pathologists and ecologists, thus protection of the generic name Acrogenospora is favoured as it would contribute to nomenclatural stability of these species. This disagrees with our previous recommendation (Wijayawardene et al. 2014), which was supported by the argument that Farlowiella was adopted in the comprehensive account of Dothideomycetes by Schoch et al. (2009), a paper published prior to the shift to single nomenclature for pleomorphic fungi (Crous et al. 2015a).
Acrogenospora carmichaeliana (Berk.) Rossman & Crous, comb. nov.
Basionym: Hysterium carmichaelianum Berk., in Hooker, Engl. Fl. 5 (2): 294 (1836).
Synonyms: Farlowiella carmichaeliana (Berk.) Sacc., Syll. fung. 9: 1101 (1891).
Monotospora megalospora Berk. & Broome, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., ser. 2, 13: 462 (1854).
Acrogenospora megalospora (Berk. & Broome) Goh et al., Mycol. Res. 102: 1311 (1998).
Hysterium repandum A. Bloxam ex Duby, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. nat. Genève 16: 27 (1861).
Farlowiella repanda (A. Bloxam ex Duby) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 9: 1101 (1891).
The genus Alternaria, typified by A. alternata, is a well-known genus with over 700 names including the causal organisms of diseases such as leaf spot of crucifers (A. brassicae), citrus fruit black spot (A. citri), sunflower blight (A. helianthi), and early blight of potatoes (A. solani) among others. Simmons (1986) was the first to describe a sexual morph for Alternaria based on Lewia scrophulariae having the asexual morph Alternaria conjuncta. A second sexually typified genus Allewia based on A. proteae was described for species that Simmons (1990) placed in Embellisia, a segregate of Alternaria. These genera, as well as the monotypic genus Crivellia typified by C. papaveracearum, were shown to be monophyletic and recognized as a broadly circumscribed Alternaria by Woudenberg et al. (2013, 2104). Given its widespread use, the number of species, and its priority, the use of Alternaria is recommended.
Alternaria scrophulariae (Desm.) Rossman & W.C. Allen, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaeria scrophulariae Desm., Pl. Crypt. Nord Fr. ed. 1, fasc. 15, no. 718. (1834).
Synonyms: Lewia scrophulariae (Desm.) M.E. Barr & E.G. Simmons, in Simmons, Mycotaxon 25: 294 (1986)
Pleospora scrophulariae (Desm.) Höhn., Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Kl., Abt. 1 126: 374 (1917)
Leptosphaeria scrophulariae (Desm.) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 57 (1883)
Alternaria conjuncta E.G. Simmons, Mycotaxon 25: 294 (1986)
When Barr & Simmons (in Simmons 1986) introduced the new generic name Lewia for the sexual morph of species of Alternaria, they selected L. scrophulariae (based on Sphaeria scrophulariae) as the type species. In the same publication the asexual morph of L. scrophulariae was described as a new species, A. conjuncta, thus there is no doubt that these names represent the same species. However, the oldest epithet for this species should be placed in Alternaria. Most reports of this species are under the names L. scrophulariae or Pleospora scrophulariae.
Protect Bipolaris Shoemaker 1959 (A) over Cochliobolus Drechsler 1954 (S)
The generic names Bipolaris typified by B. maydis and Cochliobolus typified by C. heterostrophus, the sexual morph of B. maydis, are unquestionably synonyms (Manamgoda et al. 2014). These genera include a number of economically important plant pathogens causing diseases of cereal crops worldwide, especially southern corn leaf blight caused by B. maydis. At present 115 names have been included in Bipolaris while 54 names have been described in Cochliobolus.
Although the sexually typified Cochliobolus is an older name than the asexually typified Bipolaris, asexual morphs are more commonly encountered in nature, thus the name Bipolaris has been used more frequently than Cochliobolus. In all but one case, the sexual morphs for these species were named at a later time than the asexual morphs. Three species of Cochliobolus have been studied as model organisms and their genomes sequenced with publications concerning their genomics and genetics using the name in Cochliobolus. Rossman et al. (2013) proposed that the generic name Bipolaris be conserved over Cochliobolus and that B. maydis (syn. Helminthosporium maydis), be conserved over the type species of Cochliolobus, C. heterostrophus (syn. Ophiobolus heterostrophus). If the generic name Bipolaris and the species name B. maydis are conserved, none of the names of Bipolaris will need to be changed. In all cases except that of Bipolaris maydis, the oldest epithet is already placed in Bipolaris. Use of the generic name Cochliobolus would result in the need to transfer 46 names from Bipolaris to Cochliobolus while another seven names in Bipolaris would replace names currently used in Cochliobolus. Given the frequency with which the name Bipolaris is used by plant pathologists, including a recent monograph (Manamgoda et al. 2014), and the number of name changes required if Cochliobolus were retained, protecting the generic name Bipolaris is recommended.
Use Botryohypoxylon Samuels & J.D. Rogers 1986 (S) rather than Iledon Samuels & J.D. Rogerson 1986 (A)
The monotypic genera Botryohypoxylon based on B. amazonense and Iledon based on I. versicolor were described in the same article and thus have equal priority. Neither name has been used later in the literature. Botryohypoxylon is recommended for use.
Protect Botryosphaeria Ces. & De Not. 1863 (S) over Fusicoccum Corda 1829 (A)
The type species of Botryosphaeria, B. dothidea, was shown to be a synonym of Fusicoccum aesculi, the type species of Fusicoccum, by Slippers et al. (2004). Although many species names have been placed in both genera, this complex has been divided into several genera with relatively few species remaining in Botryosphaeria. In the most recent account, Phillips et al. (2013) accepted only six species in Botryosphaeria, which has now been clearly defined and the type species epitypified. Additionally, most names in Fusicoccum have been redisposed in other genera (Crous et al. 2006, Xu & Zhang 2006, Mohali et al. 2007, Phillips & Alves 2009, Phillips et al. 2013) and Botryosphaeria is the generic name used most commonly by plant pathologists. Given that the recent studies of this group have adopted the name Botryosphaeria while names in Fusicoccum have been placed in other genera, we recommend protection of Botryosphaeria.
Use Brooksia Hansf. 1956 (S) rather than Hiospira R.T. Moore 1962 (A)
Brooksia tropicalis, the type species of Brooksia, is a leaf parasite reported on diverse hosts throughout tropical regions (Farr & Rossman 2015). The asexual morph was described as Hiospira hendrickxii, the type species of Hiospira, by Moore (1962); there is no question that these types represent the same species. A second variety of Brooksia tropicalis was described as well as a second species of Hiospira, but the identities of these remain obscure. Given the widespread use of Brooksia and its priority, the use of Brooksia is recommended.
Use Camarosporula Petr. 1954 (A) rather than Anthracostroma Petr. 1954 (S)
The monotypic generic names Camarosporula typified by C. persooniae and Anthracostroma by A. persooniae were published in the same article as alternate morphs of the same species by Petrak (1954), and thus have equal priority. Because this fungus has been reported most frequently as Camarosporula persooniae (Farr & Rossman 2015), as used by Crous et al. (2011b), Camarosporula is recommended for use, contrary to the proposal of Wijayawardende et al. (2014).
Protect Capnodium Mont. 1849 (S) over Polychaeton (Pers.) Lév. 1846 (A)
The generic name Capnodium is typified by C. salicinum, a species now regarded as a synonym of C. citri (Reynolds 1999). This genus is relatively large with over 100 names and is used for many common tropical leaf-inhabiting “sooty moulds”. On the other hand, Polychaeton, typified by P. quercinum (Hughes 1976), includes only 16 names some of which have been placed in other genera. Crous et al. (2009a) and Chomnunti et al. (2011) suggested that these genera were congeneric although they did not include the type species of Polychaeton in their studies. It seems likely that these generic names are synonyms. Chomnunti et al. (2011) assumed this and suggested that, given the great number of epithets and its widespread use, the name Capnodium should be used and thus protected over Polychaeton. Protection of Capnodium will prevent an excessive number of name changes and is, by far, the most commonly used generic name. This case is cited as an example of good practice in the ICN (Art. 57.2 Ex 2).
Use Cladosporium Link 1816 (A) rather than Davidiella Crous & U. Braun 2003 (S)
Cladosporium, typified by C. herbarum, is a well-known genus including over 700 names and the ubiquitous air-borne species C. cladosporioides. A sexual morph of C. herbarum was discovered and described in Davidiella, typified by D. tassiana (Braun et al. 2003), thus these two generic names are synonyms. The monograph of Bensch et al. (2012) provided a reliable circumscription of the genus and included 169 species based on a multi-gene phylogeny. Most names in Davidiella have already been redisposed in Cladosporium (Crous et al. 2007a). Given its widespread use, the importance of the genus in indoor air and buildings (Bensch et al. 2015), the greater number of species, and priority of publication, the name Cladosporium is recommended for use.
Use Comminutispora A.W. Ramaley 1996 (S) rather than Hyphospora A.W. Ramaley 1996 (A)
These monotypic generic names describe alternate morphs of the same species, Communitispora based on C. agavacearum and Hyphospora agavacearum, thus these names have equal priority. Several reports of this species as C. agavacearum exist (Farr & Rossman 2015), thus Comminutispora is recommended for use.
Use Corynespora Güssow 1906 (A) rather than Corynesporasca Sivan. 1996 (S)
The monotypic genus Corynesporasca, typified by C. carotae, was described by Sivanesan (1996) for the sexual morph of a species of Corynespora on a tropical plant. Corynespora, typified by C. mazei, a synonym of C. cassiicola, has been widely used and includes approximately 200 species names. The ubiquitous leaf spot fungus C. cassiicola has been shown to occur on many plant hosts, especially in tropical regions (Smith et al. 2009). Given the extensive use of the name Corynespora for plant pathogenic fungi and its priority, this generic name is recommended for use.
Use Curvularia Boedijn 1933 (A) rather than Pseudocochliobolus Tsuga et al. 1978 (S)
The generic name Curvularia, typified by C. lunata, has been recently separated from the related genera Bipolaris, Exserohilum, and Pyrenophora and monographed by Manamgoda et al. (2015). Although the sexual morph is known and placed in Pseudocochliobolus based on P. nisikadoi, that morph is rarely encountered. Species of Curvularia occur as both plant and animal pathogens with over 30 species described. Given its widespread use, priority, and number of species, the use of Curvularia is recommended.
Protect Elsinoë Racib. 1900 (S) over Sphaceloma de Bary 1874 (A)
The genus Elsinoë includes many species that cause a number of economically important leaf scab diseases, especially in tropical regions. The type species, E. canavaliae, occurs on Canavalia and is known from leguminous plants in the tropics (Sivanesan & Holliday 1971). Many species of Elsinoë have asexual morphs that are placed in Sphaceloma, a genus typified by S. ampelinum, and now known as Elsinoë ampelina, causing grape scab. Although Sphaceloma has priority, both genera contain about an equal number of names. Because Elsinoë is more commonly applied to these scab diseases and this name has been adopted in recent literature (Li et al. 2011, Crous et al. 2013), it is recommended that Elsinoë be protected.
Use Excipulariopsis P.M. Kirk & Spooner 1982 (A) rather than Kentingia Sivan. & W.H. Hsieh 1989 (S)
The monotypic genus Kentingia, typified by K. corticola, was established for the sexual morph of another monotypic genus, Excipulariopsis based on E. narsapurensis (Sivanesan & Hsieh 1989); there is no question that these genera are synonyms. Following the principle of priority of publication for these genera would prevent a name change, thus Excipulariopsis is recommended for use.
Use Exosporiella P. Karst. 1892 (A) rather than Anomalemma Sivan. 1983 (S)
The monotypic genus Anomalemma, based on A. epochnii, was described for the sexual morph of the monotypic Exosporiella, typified by E. fungorum (Sivanesan 1983), thus these generic names are synonyms. Tian et al. (2015) found the asexual morph of an Exosporiella species when examining the isotype of Anomalemma epochnii. Even though molecular data for either the sexual or asexual morphs are lacking, following the principle of priority and use of the asexually typified name, Exosporiella is recommended for protection.
Use Exserohilum K.J. Leonard & Suggs 1974 (A) rather than Setosphaeria K.J. Leonard & Suggs 1974 (S)
The generic names Exserohilum, typified by E. turcicum, and Setosphaeria, typified by S. turcicum, were described in the same paper and thus have equal priority. Despite the use of the same epithet, these names are based on different type specimens and so are nomenclaturally distinct; however, Leonard & Suggs (1974) demonstrated that they represent the same species and so Exserohilum and Setosphaeria are synonyms. Exserohilum includes 36 names of important plant pathogens, such as E. rostratum, the cause of leaf spot and rot of wheat and other grasses, while only nine names have been placed in Setosphaeria. Use of Exserohilum would prevent a number of name changes, and so the use of Exserohilum is recommended.
Protect Gemmamyces Casagr. 1969 (S) over Megaloseptoria Naumov 1925 (A)
The generic name Gemmamyces, typified by G. piceae, was established for the cause of spruce bud blight occurring in northern Europe and China for which the asexual morph is Megaloseptoria mirabilis, type of the monotypic genus Megaloseptoria (Casagrande 1969, Sivanesan 1984). The basionym of G. piceae, Cucurbitaria piceae, has also been used when referring to this species although Yuan & Wang (1995) suggest that Gemmamyces is distinct from Cucurbitaria based on both biological and morphological characteristics. The latter authors describe a second species, G. piceicola. Given that Gemmamyces is widely used for the causes of spruce bud blight diseases (Hansen & Lewis 1997) and includes two species, the protection of Gemmamyces is recommended.
Use Kellermania Ellis & Everh. 1885 (A) rather than Planistromella A.W. Ramaley 1993 (S)
The generic name Kellermania, typified by K. yuccigena, was monographed by Minnis et al. (2012) who showed that Planistromella, typified by P. yuccifoliorum, is a synonym; this was subsequently confirmed by Monkai et al. (2013). Ramaley (1993) established Planistromella for the sexual morph of K. yuccifoliorum. Kellermania includes 38 names while 13 names have been placed in Planistromella, all except one of which also have names in Kellermania. Given its priority, widespread use, and adoption in a recent monographic account, the use of Kellermania is recommended.
Protect Kirschsteiniothelia D. Hawksw. 1985 (S) over Dendryphiopsis S. Hughes 1953 (A)
The type species of Kirschsteiniothelia, K. aethiops, is congeneric with the type species of Dendryphiopsis, D. atra, as demonstrated by the molecular phylogeny presented in Boonmee et al. (2012). Both species have been regarded as having various synonyms, but it now seems likely that this represents a species complex. Hughes (1958) treated D. atra as the asexual morph of Amphisphaeria incrustans, and the connection was confirmed by ascospore cultures (Hughes 1978), then using the generic name Microthelia, susbequently ruled as a nomen rejiciendum in favour of Anisomeridium nom. cons. Sequenced epitypes may be required to resolve the connections at the species level, as Boonmee et al. (2012) shows some material named as K. aethiops and D. atra to be distinct but congeneric species. Kirschsteiniothelia currently includes 17 species, with some recently added by Chen & Hsieh (2004), and Wang et al. (2004). Dendryphiopsis includes six names, one of which is recombined as K. atra. Given that Kirschsteiniothelia includes the most species and is now widely used, that name is proposed for protection.
Use Lecanosticta Syd. 1922 (A) rather than Eruptio M.E. Barr 1996 (S)
Lecanosticta acicola, an older name for the type species of Lecanosticta, L. pini, is now regarded as the name for the fungus that causes the widespread disease of pine known as brown spot needle blight. Previously this species had been referred to as Scirrhia acicola in the asexual morph and Eruptio acicola (the type species of Eruptio) and Mycosphaerella dearnessii in the sexual morph; all are now treated as synonyms of L. acicola, as evidenced by Crous et al. (2009b) and Quaedvlieg et al. (2012). Neither Scirrha typified by S. rimosa (Crous et al. 2011a), nor Mycosphaerella now considered a synonym of Ramularia (see p. 518 below) are synonyms of Lecanosticta. The genus Lecanosticta includes eight names, while only the type species of the three names originally placed in Eruptio is currently retained in that genus. Given the widespread use of Lecanosticta, its priority, and the greater number of names, the use of Lecanosticta is recommended.
Protect Paranectriella (Henn. ex Sacc.) Höhn. 1910 (S) over Araneomyces Höhn. 1909 (A)
The type species of Paranectriella, P. juruana, is a relatively uncommon hyperparasite of stromatic leaf-inhabiting fungi in the tropics. Some authors have observed an associated asexual morph similar to the staurospores of Araneomyces, possibly A. acarifer, the generic type (Rossman 1987, Kirschner et al. 2010). It appears likely that these generic names are synonyms. The two names in Araneomyces were moved to Titaea (Damon 1952), but Sutton (1984) considered A. acarifer and thus Araneomyces to be distinct from Titaea. The genus Paranectriella includes 10 names while only two names have been placed in Araneomyces. In addition, Paranectriella has been more widely reported than Araneomyces and no name changes would be required if it were used, thus Paranectriella is proposed for protection.
Protect Phaeosphaeria I. Miyake 1909 (S) over Phaeoseptoria Speg. 1908 (A)
The type species of Phaeosphaeria, P. oryzae, was shown to be congeneric with the type species of Phaeoseptoria, P. papayae, by Quaedvlieg et al. (2013). The latter authors reclassified a number of species in both genera placing some species of Phaeoseptoria in Phaeosphaeria. Over 200 names have been placed in Phaeosphaeria while Phaeoseptoria includes only 49 names. As Phaeosphaeria has a greater number of names and is more commonly used than Phaeoseptoria, Phaeosphaeria is proposed for protection.
Use Phragmocapnias Theiss. & Syd. 1918 (S) rather than Conidiocarpus Woron. 1927 (A)
The type species of Phragmocapnias, P. betle, was epitypified and classified as a member of Capnodiaceae by Chomnunti et al. (2011). Although molecular data were lacking, they followed Hughes (1976) who considered the type species of Conidiocarpus, C. penzigii, to be related to Phragmocapnias and transferred it to that genus; they therefore consider Phragmocapnias and Conidiocarpus to be synonyms. Phragmocapnias includes 13 names while only 10 names have been placed in Conidiocarpus. Phragmocapnias is more widely used for these species than Conidiocarpus, has priority, and includes the greatest number of species, so we recommend the use of Phragmocapnias.
Use Phyllosticta Pers. 1818 (A) rather than Guignardia Viala & Ravaz 1892 (S)
Both Phyllosticta and Guignardia have been widely used for ubiquitous leaf spot fungi on diverse hosts including black rot of grape (Farr & Rossman 2015). The relationship between the commonly encountered asexual morphs placed in Phyllosticta and the sexual morphs described in Guignardia is well known. Recent molecular research has also confirmed this relationship for such common species as Phyllosticta maculata (syn. Guignardia musae) causing freckle disease of banana in Southeast Asia and Oceania (Wong et al. 2012) and P. citricarpa (syn. G. citricarpa) causing citrus black spot (Glienke et al. 2011). These species are also commonly encountered as endophytes in leaves of woody plants, especially P. capitalensis (Wikee et al. 2013b). The relationship between Guignardia bidwellii, conserved type of Guignardia, and Phyllosticta ampelicida has been known for several decades (Aa 1973) and has recently been confirmed using molecular data (Zhang et al. 2013). Placement of the type species of Phyllosticta, P. convallariae, which is now considered a synonym of P. cruenta (Aa 1973), in the same genus has also been shown using a multigene phylogeny (Motohashi et al. 2009). There is therefore no doubt that these two generic names are synonyms. Over 3000 names have been placed in Phyllosticta (Aa & Vanev 2002), while over 300 names have been placed in Guignardia. The asexual morph is most commonly encountered, and thus species of Phyllosticta are widely reported (Farr & Rossman 2015). Given the priority of Phyllosticta, the greater number of names, and its widespread use including a recent account (Wikee et al. 2013a), the use of Phyllosticta is recommended.
Protect Podonectria Petch 1921 (S) over Tetracrium Henn. 1902 (A)
The generic name Podonectria is typified by P. coccicola, a species that has been used for the biocontrol of scale insects on Citrus (Moore 2002). The asexual morph of P. coccicola is Tetracrium coccicola, which appears morphologically similar to T. aurantii, the type species of Tetracrium, a name with a sexual morph regarded as P. aurantii (Rossman 1978, 1987). Although neither genus has been studied using molecular data, these generic names appear to be synonyms. At present 11 names exist in Podonectria, and nine in Tetracrium. Many of the species are, however, poorly known. Although Tetracrium is older, the name Podonectria has been widely used within the biocontrol community and thus Podonectria is proposed for protection.
Use Polythrincium Kunze 1817 (A) rather than Cymadothea F.A. Wolf 1935 (S)
The type species of Polythrincium, P. trifolii, is known as the cause of sooty blotch of clover occurring on leaves throughout temperate regions. The sexual morph of this species was described as Cymadothea trifolii, the type of the monotypic genus Cymadothea, thus these generic names are synonyms. Both names have been well-used in the literature, but Polythrincium features more commonly than Cymadothea (in papers using these generic names). Given that there are five species names in Polythrincium, and just one in Cymadothea, and priority, the use of Polythrincium is recommended.
Use Prillieuxina G. Arnaud 1918 (S) rather than Leprieurina G. Arnaud 1918 (A)
The generic name Lepreurina, typified by L. winteriana, was established for the asexual morph of Prillieuxina winteriana, the type species of Prillieuxina, in the same article; these names therefore have equal priority. Over 70 names have been placed in Prillieuxina, compared with just four in Leprieurina, so Prillieuxina is recommended for use. The type species have both been placed in Asterinella Theiss. 1912, typified by A. puiggarii (Speg.) Theiss. 1912, but the species in that genus have a distinct peridial morphology and Asterinella is not congeneric with Prillieuxina.
Use Prosthemium Kunze 1817 (A) rather than Pleomassaria Speg. 1880 (S)
The type species of Prosthemium, P. betulinum, is the asexual morph of the type species of Pleomassaria, P. siparia. The connection was initially based on morphology (Sivanesan 1984, Hantula et al. 1998) and later confirmed using molecular data (Tanaka et al. 2010). Although more names have been placed in Pleomassaria, a number of these have now been removed to other genera, and recent studies have used Prosthemium (Kamiyama et al. 2009). Based on its priority and recent use in the literature, the use of Prosthemium is recommended.
Use Pseudodidymella C.Z. Wei et al. 1997 (S) rather than Pycnopleiospora C.Z. Wei et al. 1997 (A)
The monotypic generic names, Pseudodidymella typified by P. fagi and Pycnopleiospora typified by P. fagi, were described in the same publication and so have equal priority. Both names remain obscure, and no subsequent reports were traced, so we recommend the use of Pseudodidymella.
Use Pyrenophora Fr. 1849 (S) rather than Drechslera S. Ito 1930 (A) or Marielliottia Shoemaker 1999 (A)
The type species of Pyrenophora, P. phaeocomes, has long been said to have a Drechslera asexual morph (Sivanesan 1987), although it remained unnamed. Recent studies place this species in a genus including the type of Drechslera, D. tritici-vulgaris, now regarded as P. tritici-repentis (Ariyawansa et al. 2014). Many previous authors had noted this relationship (e.g. Shoemaker 1959, 1962, Sivanesan 1987, Zhang & Berbee 2001, Crous et al. 2011b), thus there is no doubt that Pyrenophora and Drechslera are generic synonyms. These fungi cause a number of important diseases on grasses, such as yellow leaf spot of wheat caused by P. tritici-repentis, and leaf blotch and head rot of oats caused by P. avenae. Both generic names are well known to plant pathologists. Many species of Drechslera, however, are now placed in the segregate genera Bipolaris, Curvularia, and Exserohilum (Sivanesan 1987, Manamgoda et al. 2012, 2014, 2015). More names have been placed in Pyrenophora than in Drechslera (199 vs 136 species epithets, respectively). Based on priority, the number of species, and recent usage, Pyrenophora is recommended for use.
The generic name Marielliottia, typified by M. biseptata, was established for three species segregated from Drechslera by Shoemaker (1999). Marielliottia biseptata (syn. Drechslera biseptata) as well as the two other species were shown to belong in Pyrenophora by Zhang & Berbee (2001) and Ariyawansa et al. (2014); Marielliottia is therefore considered a synonym of Pyrenophora.
Pyrenophora catenaria (Drechsler) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov.
Basionym: Helminthosporium catenarium Drechsler, J.Agric. Res. 24: 627 (1923).
Synonym: Drechslera catenaria (Drechsler) S. Ito, Proc. Imper. Acad. Tokyo 6: 355 (1930).
Pyrenophora dematioidea (Bubák & Wróbl.) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov.
Basionym: Helminthosporium dematioideum Bubák & Wróbl., Hedwigia 62: 337 (1921).
Synonyms: Drechslera dematioidea (Bubák & Wróbl.) Scharif, Stud. Graminic. Sp. Helminthosporium: 81 (1963).
Marielliottia dematioidea (Bubák & Wröbl.) Shoemaker, Canad. J. Bot. 76: 1563 (1999).
Pyrenophora fugax (Wallr.) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov.
Basionym: Helminthosporium fugax Wallr., Fl. crypt. Germ. 2: 164 (1833).
Synonym: Drechslera fugax (Wallr.) Shoemaker, Canad. J. Bot. 36: 765 (1958).
Pyrenophora grahamii Rossman & K.D. Hyde, nom. nov.
Replaced synonym: Helminthosporium dictyoides var. phlei J.H. Graham, Phytopathology 45: 228 (1955).
Synonyms: Drechslera phlei (J.H. Graham) Shoemaker, Canad. J. Bot. 37: 881 (1959).
Non P. phlei (E. Mull.) Crivelli 1983.
Pyrenophora nobleae (McKenzie & D. Matthews) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov.
Basionym: Drechslera nobleae McKenzie & D. Matthews, Trans. Brit. mycol. Soc. 68: 309 (1977).
Pyrenophora triseptata (Drechsler) Rossman & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov.
Basionym: Helminthosporium triseptatum Drechsler, J. Agric. Res. 24: 686 (1923).
Synonyms: Drechslera triseptata (Drechsler) Subram. & B.L. Jain, Curr. Sci. 35: 355 (1966).
Marielliottia triseptata (Drechsler) Shoemaker, Canad. J. Bot. 76: 1565 (1999).
Use Ramularia Unger 1833 (A) rather than Mycosphaerella Johanson 1884 (S)
The very large genus Mycosphaerella, typified by M. punctiformis, has long been known to include a diverse range of relatively non-descript sexual morphs that cause leaf spots. This became more obvious as their asexual morphs were explored and determined to belong to numerous genera (Sivanesan 1984, Crous & Braun 2003). Crous et al. (2009b, 2011b) determined that M. punctiformis, now regarded as Ramularia endophylla (Videira et al. 2015a), belongs in Ramularia typified by R. pusilla, thus Mycosphaerella and Ramularia are synonyms. Crous et al. (2009b, 2011b) and others have also determined that most of the 1738 names placed in Mycosphaerella are not congeneric with the type of the genus such that many species have already been placed in segregate genera including Batcheloromyces, Delphinella, Passalora, Pseudocercospora, Stenella, and Pseudocercospora amongst many others (Farr & Rossman 2015). Although Mycosphaerella includes many names, those that are congeneric with the type species are relatively few. Around 225 names in Mycosphaerella have been reported to be morphologically indistinguishable from M. punctiformis (Aptroot 2006) and are thus likely to belong to Ramularia. Given the extreme morphological convergence of the sexual morphs placed in Mycosphaerella and confusion associated with these names, the use of the generic name that has priority, Ramularia, for the species of Mycosphaerella sensu stricto as already reflected in the recent literature (Videira et al. 2015b), is recommended.
Use Schizothyrium Desm. 1849 (S) rather than Zygophiala E.W. Mason 1945 (A)
The type species of Zygophiala, Z. jamaicensis, was initially shown to be the asexual morph of Schizothyrium pomi by Batzer et al. (2005), although later Batzer et al. (2008) considered Z. jamaicensis to be distinct from S. pomi. Nevertheless Batzer et al. (2005, 2008), Gao et al. (2014), Li et al. (2010) and Ma et al. (2010) demonstrated that S. pomi and species of Zygophiala are congeneric. The type species of Schizothyrium, S. acerinum, is relatively unknown and has long been considered to be a synonym of S. pomi (Arx 1959). Schizothyrium includes over 50 names while Zygophiala includes only 11 names. These fungi cause sooty blotch and fly speck diseases such as S. pomi on the fruits of apple and pear. Based on priority, widespread use, and the greater number of names, the use of Schizothyrium is recommended. In the event that S. acerinum should eventually be typified and prove to not be congeneric with Z. jamaicensis, further disruption could be avoided by the conservation of Schizothyrium with S. pomi.
Schizothyrium cryptogamum (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, comb. nov.
Basionym: Zygophiala cryptogama Batzer & Crous, Mycologia 100: 254 (2008).
Schizothyrium cylindricum (G.Y. Sun et al.) Crous & Batzer, comb. nov.
Basionym: Zygophiala cylindrica G.Y. Sun et al., Mycol. Progr. 9: 250 (2010).
Schizothyrium emperorae (G.Y. Sun & L. Gao) Crous & Batzer, comb. nov.
Basionym: Zygophiala emperorae G.Y. Sun & L. Gao, PLoS ONE 9 (10, e110717): 6 (2014).
Schizothyrium inaequale (G.Y. Sun & L. Gao) Crous & Batzer, comb. nov.
Basionym: Zygophiala inaequalis G.Y. Sun & L. Gao, PLoS ONE 9 (10, e110717: 8 (2014).
Schizothyrium musae (G.Y. Sun & L. Gao) Crous & Batzer, comb. nov.
Basionym: Zygophiala musae G.Y. Sun & L. Gao, PLoS ONE 9 (10, e110717): 7 (2014).
Schizothyrium qianense (G.Y. Sun & Y.Q. Ma) Crous & Batzer, comb. nov.
Basionym: Zygophiala qianensis G.Y. Sun & Y.Q. Ma, Mycol. Progr. 9: 153 (2010).
Schizothyrium sunii Crous & Batzer, nom. nov. MycoBank MB815102
Replaced name: Zygophiala longispora G.Y. Sun & L. Gao,
PLoS ONE 9 (10, e110717): 9 (2014).
Non S. longisporum (Pat. & Gaillard) Arx 1962.
Schizothyrium tardecrescens (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, comb. nov.
Basionym: Zygophiala tardicrescens Batzer & Crous, Mycologia 100: 255 (2008).
Schizothyrium wisconsinense (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, comb. nov.
Basionym; Zygophiala wisconsinensis Batzer & Crous, Mycologia 100: 255 (2008).
Use Sphaerellopsis Cooke 1883 (A) rather than Eudarluca Speg. 1908 (S)
The confusion regarding the commonly encountered mycoparasitic species on rust fungi considered under the generic names Sphaerellopsis and Eudarluca has been clarified by Trakunyingcharoen et al. (2014). The type species of Sphaerellopsis, S. quercuum, for which the oldest name is S. filum, was suggested to be congeneric with the type species of Eudarluca, E. australis, often considered a synonym of E. caricis (Eriksson 1966). The name Sphaerellopsis was used in preference to Eudarluca by Trakunyingcharoen et al. (2014). Sphaerellopsis has the greater number of names, is most widely used, and has priority so the the use of the generic name Sphaellopsis is recommended.
Use Sphaeropsis Sacc. 1880 (A) rather than Phaeobotryosphaeria Speg. 1908 (S)
The generic name Sphaeropsis Sacc. 1880, typified by S. visci, has been conserved against Sphaeropsis Lév. 1842 (Donk 1968) and over 600 names have been included in this conserved genus. Phillips et al. (2008, 2013) have now shown that S. visci has a sexual morph that they placed in Phaeobotryosphaeria within Botryosphaeriaceae. The type species of Phaeobotryosphaeria, P. yerbae, was examined by Phillips et al. (2008) but not placed within Sphaeropsis. Nevertheless these genera appear to be synonyms. Given its widespread use, the number of names, its priority, and the recent study of this genus, the use of Sphaeropsis is recommended.
Use Stemphylium Wallr. 1833 (A) rather than Pleospora Rabenh. ex Ces. & De Not. 1863 (S)
The type species of Stemphylium, S. botryosum, is considered the asexual morph of Pleospora tarda, cause of black mold rot and leaf blight on diverse hosts while the type species of Pleospora, P. herbarum, has an asexual morph referred to as Stemphylium herbarum, a widespread species (Ariyawansa et al. 2015). There is no question that these two generic names are synonyms. Although over 1000 names have been placed in Pleospora with only about 200 names in Stemphylium, many names initially placed in Pleospora have now been moved to other genera. Stemphylium is more widely used, especially by plant pathologists, and has priority, thus the use of Stemphylium is recommended.
Use Sydowia Bres. 1895 (S) rather than Hormonema Lagerb. & Melin 1927 (A)
The genus Sydowia, typified by S. gregaria, is congeneric with the type species of Hormonema, H. dematioides, now recognized as S. polymorpha by Hirooka et al. (2012). Twelve species are currently accepted in Sydowia while only seven are retained in Hormonema. Given the priority, the greater number of species, as well as the widespread use, Sydowia is recommended for use. This recommendation is contrary to that presented in Wijayawardene et al. (2014) who considered these genera to be distinct. Protection of Sydowia would not, however, preclude the use of Hormonema by anyone wishing to follow an alternative taxonomy and recognize both genera.
Use Teratosphaeria Syd. & P. Syd. 1912 (S) rather than Kirramyces J. Walker et al. 1992 (A) and Colletogloeopsis Crous & Wingfield 1997 (A)
The genus Teratosphaeria, typified by T. fibrillosa, has been circumscribed by Crous et al. (2009b) to include species having asexual morphs placed in Kirramyces and Colletogloeopsis. The type species of Colletogloeopsis, C. nubilosum, was placed in Kirramyces by Andjic et al. (2007), which was supported by molecular data. The type species of Kirramyces, K. epicoccoides (syn. T. suttonii), has also been sequenced and shown to be a species of Teratosphaeria (Crous et al. 2009b, Quaedvlieg et al. 2014). Teratosphaeria includes 90 names while Colletogloeopsis includes only 9, and Kirramyces 19. As Teratosphaeria has priority and the most names, the use of Teratosphaeria is recommended.
Teratosphaeria epicoccoides (Cooke & Massee)
Rossman & W.C. Allen, comb. nov.
Basionym: Cercospora epicoccoides Cooke & Massee, Grevillea 19: 91 (1891).
Synonyms: Kirramyces epicoccoides (Cooke & Massee) J. Walker et al. Mycol. Res. 96 919 (1992).
Phaeophleospora epicoccoides (Cooke & Massee) Crous et al., S. Afr. J. Bot. 63: 113 (1997).
Readeriella epicoccoides (Cooke & Massee) Crous & U. Braun, Stud. Mycol. 58: 11 (2007).
Hendersonia grandispora McAlpine, Proc. R. Soc. N.S.W. 28: 99 (1903).
Phaeoseptoria eucalypti Hansf., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 82: 225 (1957).
Phaeoseptoria luzonensis Tak. Kobay., Trans. Mycol. Soc. Japan 19: 377 (1978).
Mycosphaerella suttonii Crous & M.J. Wingf., Canad. J. Bot. 75(5): 783 (1997).
Teratosphaeria suttonii (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & U. Braun, Stud. Mycol. 58: 11 (2007).
This species causes a leaf spot and premature defoliation of Eucalyptus, as described by Taole et al. (2012) and Walker et al. (1992) who provide the synonyms listed here. Cercospora epicoccoides provides the oldest epithet for this species, which is now placed in Teratosphaeria.
Use Tetraploa Berk. & Broome 1850 (A) rather than Tetraplosphaeria Kaz. Tanaka & K. Hiray. 2009 (S)
When Tanaka et al. (2009) proposed the generic name Tetraplosphaeria, they showed that the type species T. sasicola grouped closely with the type species of Tetraploa, T. aristata. This relationship was accepted by Hyde et al. (2013) and Wijayawardene et al. (2014), both of whom recommended the use of Tetraploa over Tetraplosphaeria. Tetraploa includes 20 names while Tetraplosphaeria has only four names, thus, having priority and the most names, use of Tetraploa is recommended.
Protect Venturia Sacc. 1882 (S) over Fusicladium Bonord. 1851 (A) and Pollaccia E. Bald. & Cif. 1947 (A)
The generic name Venturia is well known because of the ubiquitous disease of apple known as apple scab, caused by V. inaequalis, and for species causing other diseases especially on Rosaceae. Venturia is typified by V. inaequalis, which has an asexual morph referred to as Fusicladium pomi, while the type of Fusicladium, F. virescens, has a sexual morph known as Venturia pyrina, the cause of pear scab (Sivanesan & Waller 1974, Schubert et al. 2003). The genus Pollaccia, typified by P. radiosa, was established for the asexual morph of Venturia radiosa. Using a molecular phylogeny Crous et al. (2007b) showed that V. inaequalis, V. pyrina and V. radiosa were congeneric, thus Venturia, Fusicladium, and Pollaccia are synonymous generic names. All three generic names have been used in reports of the diseases. The names in Venturia, however, are more widely known than those in Fusicladium or Pollaccia so Venturia is recommended for protection.
Venturia barriae Rossman & Crous, nom. nov. MycoBank MB815108
Replaced name: Fusicladium fagi Crous & de Hoog, Stud. Mycol. 58: 209 (2007).
Non V. fagi M.E. Barr 1968.
Venturia catenospora (Butin) Rossman & Crous, comb. nov.
Basionym: Pollaccia catenospora Butin, Mycol. Res. 96: 658 (1992).
Synonym: Fusicladium catenosporum (Butin) Ritschel & U. Braun, Schlechtendalia 9: 30 (2003).
Venturia convolvularum (Ondřej) Rossman & Crous, comb. nov.
Basionym: Fusicladium convolvularum Ondřej, Česká Mykol. 25: 171 (1971).
Venturia oleaginea (Castagne) Rossman & Crous, comb. nov.
Basionym: Cycloconium oleagineum Castagne, Cat. Pl. Mars.: 220 (1845).
Synonym: Fusicladium oleagineum (Castagne) Ritschel & U. Braun, Schlechtendalia 9: 70 (2003).
Venturia phillyreae (Nicolas & Aggéry) Rossman & Crous, comb. nov.
Basionym: Cycloconium phillyreae Nicolas & Aggéry, Bull. trimest. Soc. mycol. Fr. 44: 303 (1928).
Synonym: Fusicladium phillyreae (Nicolas & Aggéry) Ritschel & U. Braun, Schlechtendalia 9: 73 (2003).
Use Zeloasperisporium R.F. Castañeda 1996 (A) rather than Neomicrothyrium Boonmee et al. 2011 (S)
The type species of Zeloasperisporium, Z. hyphopodioides, was recently show to be congeneric with the monotype species of Neomicrothyrium, N. siamense, by Crous et al. (2015b) and Hongsanan et al. (2015), thus these generic names are synonyms. Crous et al. (2015b) added another species to Zeloasperisporium while Hongsanan et al. (2015) described two further new species of Zeloasperisporium and placed N. siamense in Zeloasperisporium. Given its priority and greater number of species, Zeloasperisporium is recommended for use here.
Genera Not Competing for Use
Notes are provided below on generic names that were considered synonyms by Wijayawardene et al. (2014), but upon closer examination may not be. Until questions about the relationships between the type species involved are answered, no recommendations are made.
Antennulariella Woron. 1915 (S) and Antennariella Bat. & Cif. 1963 (A) may not be synonyms
The type species of Anntenulariella, A. fulignosa, has been placed in Wentiomyces, a genus that includes 22 names while the type species of Antennariella, A. unedonis, is now considered a synonym of Polychaeton brasiliense, a name that should be placed in Capnodium. This suggests that these type species are not congeneric and thus the generic names Antennulariella and Antenariella are probably not synonyms.
Use Cyclopeltella Petr. 1953 (A)
The monotypic generic names Cyclopeltis and Cyclopeltella were described in the same article by Petrak (1953), however, Cyclopeltis is a later homonym of the fern genus Cyclopeltis J. Sm. 1846 (Aspidiaceae), and thus cannot be used. Only Cyclopeltella typified by C. orbicularis Petr. is available for use.
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Rossman, A.Y., Crous, P.W., Hyde, K.D. et al. Recommended names for pleomorphic genera in Dothideomycetes. IMA Fungus 6, 507–523 (2015). https://doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2015.06.02.14
- Fungal systematics
- genera of fungi
- one fungus one name