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Recommendations for competing sexual-asexually typified generic names in Sordariomycetes (except Diaporthales, Hypocreales, and Magnaporthales)

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Abstract

With the advance to one scientific name for each fungal species, the generic names in the class Sordariomycetes typified by sexual and asexual morphs are evaluated based on their type species to determine if they compete with each other for use or protection. Recommendations are made for which of the competing generic names should be used based on criteria such as priority, number of potential names changes, and frequency of use. Some recommendations for well- known genera include Arthrinium over Apiospora, Colletotrichum over Glomerella, Menispora over Zignoella, Microdochium over Monographella, Nigrospora over Khuskia, and Plectosphaerella over Plectosporium. All competing generic names are listed in a table of recommended names along with the required action. If priority is not accorded to sexually typified generic names after 2017, only four names would require formal protection: Chaetosphaerella over Oedemium, Diatrype over Libertella, Microdochium over Monographella, and Phaeoacremonium over Romellia and Togninia. Concerning species in the recommended genera, one replacement name (Xylaria benjaminii nom. nov.) is introduced, and the following new combinations are made: Arthrinium sinense, Chloridium caesium, C. chloroconium, C. gonytrichii, Corollospora marina, C. parvula, C. ramulosa, Juncigena fruticosae, Melanospora simplex, Seimatosporium massarina, Sporoschisma daemonoropis, S. taitense, Torpedospora mangrovei, Xylaria penicilliopsis, and X. termiticola combs. nov.

Introduction

The class Sordariomycetes is composed of three subclasses and about 21 orders including many genera with species that express themselves in both their sexual and asexual morphs. Based on the obsolete version of Article 59 of the outdated International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (McNeill et al. 2006), these morphs had previously been described in different genera resulting in more than one scientific name for a single fungal species. With the change to the International Code of Nomenclature foralgae, fungi, and plants (ICN; McNeill et al. 2012), two or more names for different morphs of the same species are no longer allowed. Although determining which name to use generally follows the principle of priority of publication at the family, generic and species level, exceptions to this principle are allowed, especially in the case of economically important and widely used taxa.

In this paper generic names that appear to compete for use are reviewed to determine if their respective type species are congeneric using various resources including the USDA SMML Fungal Databases (http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/) and Wijayawardene et al. (2012). If so, then a number of factors are considered in deciding which generic name to recommend for use. These factors include the number of species in each competing genus, which correlates with the number of name changes that would be required, and how widely used are species in each genus as determined by reports and peer-reviewed publications. If these factors are about equal, then the generic name that has priority by date is recommended for use. For each set of competing generic names, these factors are discussed based on the literature. Finally, a draft of these recommendations was circulated widely amongst the community of mycologists interested in each major group of fungi to arrive at the proposals made here.

A synopsis of data concerning each genus is provided in Table 1 listing the generic names recommended for use and competing names, the type species for each genus and the current name for the type, and action required especially if the principle of priority will not be followed, i.e. the generic name must be protected. At present the ICN requires that names typified by sexual morphs should have priority unless protected, although it is proposed that this requirement be deleted in 2017 (Hawksworth 2015). Eventually all generic names proposed for protection will be evaluated by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF), and formally accepted or not at the Nomenclature Section meeting of the next International Botanical Congress in 2017.

Table 1 Names of pleomorphic genera in Sordariomycetes excluding Diaporthales, Hypocreales and Magnaporthales indicating those that are proposed for protection (including those which are asexually typified and recommended for use over sexually typified genera). For each genus the citation, type species and accepted name is given. NCF = Nomenclature Committee for Fungi.

For several groups of fungi having pleomorphic genera, this process has been completed, i.e. Dothideomycetes (Rossman et al. 2015b), Erysiphales (Braun 2013), Eurotiales (Samson et al. 2014, Visagie et al. 2014), Leotiomycetes (Johnston et al. 2014), yeast fungi (Daniel et al. 2014), and some orders of Sordariomycetes including Diaporthales (Rossman et al. 2015a), Hypocreales (Rossman et al. 2013, Quandt et al. 2014), Magnaporthales (Zhang et al. 2016), and Microascales and Ophiostomatales (de Beer et al. 2013). This paper addresses the remaining orders of the class Sordariomycetes listed alphabetically by order as outlined in Maharachchikumbura et al. (2015): Amphisphaeriales, Calosphaeriales, Chaetosphaeriales, Coniochaetales, Conioscyphales, Cordanales, Coronophorales, Glomerellales, Halosphaeriales, Melanosporales, Microascales, Phyllachorales, Pleurotheciales, Savoryellales, Sordariales, Togniniales, Torpedosporales, and Xylariales.

Recommendations for Generic Names

(A) = a name typified by an asexual morph, and (S) = a name typified by a sexual morph.

Amphisphaeriales

Use Dyrithiopsis L. Cai et al. 2003 (S) rather than Monochaetiopsis L. Cai et al. 2003 (A)

The monotypic genera Dyrithiopsis, typified by D. lakefuxianensis, and Monochaetiopsis, typified by M. lakefuxiansis, were described as the sexual and asexual morph of the same species at the same time (Jeewon et al. 2003), thus they are synonyms and have equal priority. Because Dyrithiopsis has been cited more widely in the literature, we recommend Dyrithiopsis for use.

Use Hyalotiopsis Punith. 1970 (A) rather than Ellurema Nag Raj & W.B. Kendr. 1985 (S)

When Punithalingam (1970) described the genus Hyalotiopsis, typified by H. subramanianii, he noted that the sexual morph was Massaria indica, the basionym of Ellurema indica, type of the monotypic Ellurema, thus Hyalotiopsis and Ellurema are synonyms. This history was recounted by Nag Raj & Kendrick (1986) when they described Ellurema. A second species of Hyalotiopsis has been redisposed in Parahyalotiopsis as P. borassi (syn. Hyalotiopsis borassi) (Nag Raj 1976), thus both genera include only one species. Given their equal use, we follow priority and recommend Hyalotiopsis for use.

Use Pestalotiopsis Steyaert 1949 (A) rather than Pestalosphaeria M.E. Barr 1975 (S)

The well-known genus Pestalotiopsis, typified by P. guepinii, was established for many species of Pestalotia determined to be distinct from the type of Pestalotia, P. pezizoides. Barr (1975) described the genus Pestalosphaeria, typified by P. concentrica, for the sexual morph of Pestalotiopsis guepinii var. macrotricha, both species on Rhododendron in southeastern North America. Thus, it appears that Pestalosphaeria is a synonym of Pestalotiopsis. Pestalotiopsis has been widely used and currently includes more than 200 names with two recent accounts of the genus (Maharachchikumbura et al. 2012, 2014). On the other hand, Pestalosphaeria includes 14 names, none of which are commonly used. Given the ubiquitous and widely reported species of Pestalotiopsis as well as the number of names in that genus and its priority, we recommend use of Pestalotiopsis.

Use Seimatosporium Corda 1833 (A) rather than Discostroma Clem. 1909 (S)

The generic names Discostroma and Seimatosporium have been applied to sexual and asexual morphs of the same species based on morphological studies (Brockmann 1976, Nag Raj 1993). The type species of Discostroma, D. rehmii, is a younger synonym of D. massarina, and has an asexual morph referred to as Seimatosporium ribis-alpini while the type of Seimatosporium, S. rosae, has a sexual morph described as Discostroma rosae (Shoemaker 1964, Brockmann 1976, Nag Raj 1993). Although neither of the type species of Discostroma or Seimatosporium were included, Tanaka et al. (2011) used three species of Discostroma and sixteen species of Seimatosporium in their LSU tree to show that representatives of these genera form a monophyletic genus that should be regarded as Seimatosporium. Norphanphoun et al. (2015) added four more isolates of Seimatosporium including one for the type species, S. rosae, and also concluded that the genus was monophyletic. Host-specificity should be considered in studying the taxonomy of this genus. Given that Seimatosporium is the oldest name, has the greater number of species, and is more commonly used, this generic name is recommended for use.

New combination:

Seimatosporium massarina (Sacc.) Jaklitsch & Voglmayr, comb. nov.

MycoBank MB817259

  • Basionym: Metasphaeria massarina Sacc., Atti Soc. Veneto-Trent. Sci. Nat., Padova, Sér. 6 2: 22 (1884).

  • Synonyms: Discostroma massarina (Sacc.) Arx, Gen. Fungi Sporul. Cult., 2nd edn. (Vaduz): 131 (1974).

  • Hendersonia ribis-alpini Fautrey, Revue Mycol., Toulouse 14: 171 (1892).

  • Seimatosporium ribis-alpini (Fautrey) Shoemaker & E. Müll., Canad. J. Bot. 42: 403 (1964).

  • Curreya rehmii Schnabl, Ber. Bayer. Bot. Ges., Beih. 2: 66 (1892)

  • Discostroma rehmii (Schnabl) Clem., Gen. Fungi: 173 (1909).

Use Seiridium Nees 1816 (A) rather than Blogiascospora Shoemaker et al. 1966 (S)

According to Shoemaker et al. (1966) Seiridium marginatum, the type species of Seiridium, is the asexual morph of Blogiascospora marginata, type of the monotypic genus Blogiascospora, thus Seiridium and Blogioascopsora are synonyms as confirmed by Jaklitsch et al. (2016). Seiridium is the older generic name, has the greater number of species, and is the more widely used, therefore Seiridium is recommended for use.

One species of Seiridium, S. cupressi, cause of the widespread disease known as cypress canker, has previously been referred to as Lepteutypa cupressi. The type of Lepteutypa, L. fuckelii, is now placed in a distinct genus in the Amphisphaeriaceae (Jaklitsch et al. 2016), while the species previously regarded as L. cupressi belongs in Seiridium as S. cupressi in Sporocadaceae.

Calosphaeriales

Use Calosphaeria Tul. & C. Tul. 1863 (S) rather than Calosphaeriophora Réblová et al. 2004 (A)

The genus Calosphaeria, typified by C. princeps, includes 114 names while an asexual morph of C. pulchella was described in the monotypic genus Calosphaeriophora as Ca. pulchella (Réblové et al. 2004). Calosphaeria pulchella is a saprobic fungus occurring on various woody plants and has been recently isolated from wood of sweet cherry trees showing canker symptoms (Trouillas et al. 2010a, Berbegal et al. 2014). If Calosphaeria princeps and C. pulchella are congeneric, then these generic names are synonyms as suggested by Réblové et al. (2015). Based on priority, the number of species in the genus, and its widespread use, the generic name Calosphaeria is recommended for use.

Use Pleurostoma Tul. & C. Tul. 1863 (S) rather than Pleurostomophora Vijaykr. et al. 2004 (A)

The genus Pleurostoma, typified by P. candollei, includes six names, two of which have been placed elsewhere. One species, P. ootheca, has an asexual morph described as Pleurostomophora ootheca, the type species of Pleurostomophora (Vijaykrishna et al. 2004). Réblová et al. (2015) explored the phylogeny of this group including one species of Pleurostoma and four species of Pleurostomophora, although the type species of Pleurostoma was not available. While both sexual species are lignicolous, the asexual species were isolated from woody plants, soil or sewage (Schol-Schwarz 1970). They were also identiied as etiological agents of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis (Meyer et al. 1975, Hironaga et al. 1989), and one asexual species of Pleurostoma, P. ochraceum, is known to cause human eumycetoma (Mhmoud et al. 2012). Assuming that Pleurostoma candollei and P. ootheca are congeneric, these generic names are synonyms. Given that the name Pleurostoma has priority, has the greater number of species, and has been widely used, we recommend the use of Pleurostoma. Based on these conclusions and recent molecular data, the three exclusively asexual Pleurostomophora species were transferred to Pleurostoma by Réblová et al. (2015).

Use Togniniella Réblová et al. 2004 (S) rather than Phaeocrella Réblová et al. 2004 (A)

The monotypic genera Togniniella, typified by T. acerosa, and Phaeocrella, typified by P. acerosa, were described in the same article for the sexual and asexual morphs of the same species and thus are synonyms having equal priority (Réblová et al. 2004). Although an older epithet was discovered for T. acerosa (Réblová 2011), this was later rescinded (Réblová et al. 2015). We recommend the use of the generic name Togniniella.

Chaetosphaeriales

Use Chloridium Link 1809 (A) rather than Gonytrichum Nees & T. Nees 1818 (A) or Melanopsammella Höhn.1920 (S)

The type species of Chloridium, C. viride as C. virescens, has long been known to be a synonym of Chaetosphaeria vermicularioides (syn. Melanopsammella vermicularioides), a species that is congeneric with M. inaequalis, the type of Melanopsammella (Réblová & Winka 2000, Fernández et al. 2006, Crous et al. 2012). The type species of Gonytrichum, G. caesium, is the asexual morph of M. inaequalis (Hughes 1951), thus Chloridium, Gonytrichum and Melanopsammella are synonyms. Over 60 names have been placed in Chloridium, the most well-known of these three generic names. Chloridium was monographed by Gams & Holubová-Jechová (1976), however, many of these names have been removed to other genera. Gonytrichum includes over 20 species while Melanopsammella consists of ive species, two of which already have names in Chloridium (Réblová et al. 1999, Réblová 2000). Melanopsammella has been distinguished from Chaetosphaeria by several authors (Réblová & Winka 2000, Fernéndez & Huhndorf 2005, Fernández et al. 2006, Crous et al. 2012). Given the widespread use of Chloridium and its priority, the generic name Chloridium is recommended for use.

New combinations:

Chloridium caesium (Nees) Réblová & Seifert, comb. nov.

MycoBank MB816825

  • Basionym: Gonytrichum caesium Nees, Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 9: 244 (1818).

  • Synonyms: Eriosphaeria inaequalis Grove, J. Bot., Lond. 24: 132 (1886).

  • Melanopsammella inaequalis (Grove) Höhn., Ann. Mycol. 17: 121 (1920).

Chloridium chloroconium (W. Gams & Hol.-Jech.) Réblová & Seifert, comb. nov.

MycoBank MB816826

  • Basionym: Chaetosphaeria chloroconia W. Gams & Hol.-Jech., Stud. Mycol. 13: 86 (1976).

  • Synonyms: Melanopsammella chloroconia (W. Gams & Hol.-Jech.) Réblová et al., Sydowia 51: 65 (1999).

  • Gonytrichum chlamydosporium G.L. Barron & G.C. Bhatt, Mycopath. Mycol. appl. 32: 126 (1967).

Because the name Chloridium chlamydosporium (J.F.H. Beyma) S. Hughes 1958 already exists, and refers to a different taxon, the next older epithet for this species is taken up and placed in Chloridium.

Chloridium gonytrichii (F.A. Fernández & Huhndorf) Réblová & Seifert, comb. nov.

MycoBank MB816827

  • Basionym: Melanopsammella gonytrichii F.A. Fernández & Huhndorf, Fungal Diversity 18: 42 (2005).

Crous et al. (2012) showed that this species is closely related to Chloridium virescens as Melanopsammella vermicularioides.

Use Menispora Pers. (A) 1822 rather than Zignoëlla Sacc. 1878 (S)

The genus Menispora is typified by M. glauca, which has a sexual morph referred to as Chaetosphaeria glauca (Holubová-Jechová 1973a), which is a synonym of the earlier name Zignoëlla ovoidea. The type of Zignoëlla is Z. pulviscula, which has an asexual morph known as Menispora caesia (Booth 1957, Constantinescu et al. 1995). Fernández et al. (2006) demonstrated that Zignoëlla is distinct from Chaetosphaeria based on C. innumera and that Z. pulviscula and Z. ovoidea are congeneric, thus Menispora and Zignoëlla are synonyms. Like Chaetosphaeria, Zignoëlla has been used as a repository for species that have a similar morphology, namely black non-stromatic ascomata with a papilla and hyaline, septate ascospores, but are phylogenetically diverse. Given the lack of characterization of Zignoëlla, the greater use of Menispora, and following the principle of priority, Menispora is recommended for use.

Use Menisporopsis S. Hughes 1952 (A) rather than Menisporopascus Matsush. 2003 (S)

The monotype species of Menisporopascus, M. kobensis, was described for the asexual morph Menisporopsis kobensis. Because M. kobensis is congeneric with the type species of Menisporopsis, M. theobromae, as indicated by Rodrigues de Cruz et al. (2014), Menisporopsis and Menisporopascus are synonyms. Menisporopsis includes 10 names, is widely known, and has priority, therefore, the use of Menisporopsis is recommended.

Use Sporoschisma Berk. & Broome 1847 (A) rather than Melanochaeta E. Müll. et al. 1969 (S)

The genus Sporoschisma, typified by S. mirabile, is considered the asexual morph of Melanochaeta aotearoae, while the type of Melanochaeta, M. hemipsila, is the sexual morph of S. saccardoi, now considered a synonym of S. hemipsila (Sivichai et al. 2000, Zelski et al. 2014a). Sporoschisma mirabile and S. hemipsila were shown to be congeneric (Fernéndez et al. 2006), thus Sporoschisma and Melanochaeta are synonyms. Of the five species in Melanochaeta, four have Sporoschisma asexual morphs (Sivichai et al. 2000, Mugambi & Huhndorf 2008). Sporoschisma includes 23 names, some of which have been placed elsewhere. If Melanochaeta were used, many name changes would be required. Based on priority and fewer number of name changes, we follow Zelski et al. (2014a) and recommend the use of Sporoschisma for this genus.

New combinations:

Sporoschisma daemonoropis (J. Fröhl. & K.D. Hyde) A.N. Mill., comb. nov.

MycoBank MB816828

  • Basionym: Melanochaeta daemonoropis J. Fröhl. & K.D. Hyde, Palm Microfungi: 235 (2000).

Sporoschisma taitense (Mugambi & Huhndorf) A.N. Mill., comb. nov.

MycoBank MB816829

  • Basionym: Melanochaeta taitensis Mugambi & Huhndorf, Sydowia 60: 263 (2008).

A Sporoschisma asexual morph was noted to occur with this type specimen.

Use Stanjehughesia Subram. 1992 (A) rather than Umbinosphaeria Réblová 1999 (S)

Stanjehughesia hormiscioides, type of Stanjehughesia, was established with cultivation techniques as an asexual morph of Umbrinosphaeria caesariata, the monotype species of Umbrinosphaeria (Réblová 1999), therefore Stanjehughesia and Umbrinosphaeria are synonyms. In exploring species of Sporidesmium, Shenoy et al. (2006) demonstrated the polyphyletic nature of Stanjehughesia; however, 15 species have been described in that genus and the name is well-known. Given its priority, we recommend the use of Stanjehughesia.

Coniochaetales

Use Coniochaeta (Sacc.) Cooke 1887 (S) rather than Lecythophora Nannf. 1934 (A)

The genus Coniochaeta, typified by C. ligniaria, was shown to be congeneric with Lecythophora, typified by L. lignicola (Weber et al. 2002, Damm et al. 2010, Khan et al. 2013, Perdomo et al. 2013). Coniochaeta is a well-known genus with almost 100 names while Lecythophora includes nine names, two of which are linked to species of Coniochaeta. These fungi are known as endophytes, pathogens of woody trees, saprobes in terrestrial and freshwater habitats (Raja et al. 2012) and, to a lesser degree, human pathogens (Damm et al. 2010). Both Khan et al. (2013) and Perdomo et al. (2013) include species of Lecythophora in a clade with the type species of Coniochaeta. Given the number of species, its widespread use, following the principle of priority, and in agreement with Khan et al. (2013), Coniochaeta is recommended for use.

Conioscyphales

Use Conioscypha Höhn. 1904 (A) rather than Conioscyphascus Réblová & Seifert 2004 (S)

The genus Conioscypha, with C. lignicola as type species, includes 13 species from freshwater and terrestrial habitats. The genus Conioscyphascus, typified by Ca. varius, was originally established for fungi with Conioscypha asexual morphs (Réblová & Seifert 2004a). The two sexual species, Ca. gracilis with C. gracilis as its asexual morph and Ca. varius with C. varia, were recently placed in Conioscypha (Zelski et al. 2014b, Réblové et al. 2016). Although C. lignicola and 10 other species of Conioscypha are known only in their asexual morph, using DNA sequence data and cultivation studies, the link between sexual and asexual morphs has been experimentally proven for C. peruviana (Zelski et al. 2014b) and C. varia (Réblová & Seifert 2004a). Such a link has not yet been conirmed for the third species known to have a sexual morph, C. gracilis, however, conidia were observed on the substratum near ascomata (Réblová & Seifert 2004a, Zelski et al. 2014b). The molecular data clearly show that Conioscypha and Conioscyphascus are congeneric (Réblová & Seifert 2004a). Based on priority and the greater number of species, the name Conioscypha is recommended for use.

Cordanales

Use Cordana Preuss 1851 (A) rather than Pseudobotrytis Krzemien. & Badura 1954 (A) or Porosphaerella E. Müll. & Samuels 1982 (S)

The type species of Cordana, C. pauciseptata, was linked to a sexual morph described as Porosphaerella cordanophora, type of Porosphaerella (Müller & Samuels 1982), thus these generic names are synonyms. Cordana is a well-known asexual genus that includes 22 names while three species have been placed in Porosphaerella. Réblová and Seifert (2007) showed that P. borinquinensis and P. cordanophora are closely related despite the fact that P. borinquinensis has an asexual morph regarded as Pseudobotrytis terrestris which Hernéndez-Restrepo et al. (2014) recognized as Cordana terrestris including Porosphaerella borinquinensis as a synonym. They also considered the type species of Pseudobotrytis, P. fusca, to be a synonym of C. terrestris, thus this generic name with four species is also a synonym of Cordana. Given its priority, fewer number of name changes required, and widespread use, we recommend the use of Cordana rather than Pseudobotrytis or Porosphaerella.

Coronophorales

Protect Chaetosphaerella E. Müll. & C. Booth 1972 (S) over Oedemium Link 1824 (A) and rather than Veramycina Subram. 1995 (A)

The genus Chaetosphaerella, typified by C. phaeostroma, has an asexual morph regarded as Oedemium minus (Booth 1958, Réblová 1999). The type species of Oedemium, O. atrum as O. didymium, is the asexual morph of Chaetosphaerella fusca (Ellis 1971). These two species of Chaetosphaerella were shown to be congeneric (Mugambi & Huhndorf 2010), thus Chaetosphaerella and Oedemium are synonyms. Veramycina elegans, the monotype species of Veramycina, was regarded as a later name for the asexual morph of C. phaeostroma (Réblová 1999), thus this generic name is also a synonym of Chaetosphaerella. Because Veramycina has been rarely used, that name is not a contender for use, however, the decision of whether to use Oedemium or Chaetospharella is more dificult. The genus Oedemium was clariied and monographed including two species by Hughes & Hennebert (1963) both of which have been linked with Chaetosphaerella. Although more species have been described in Oedemium, some have been placed elsewhere and others remain obscure. Chaetosphaerella has been placed phylogenetically in Chaetosphaerellaceae, Coronophorales (Mugambi & Huhndorf 2010). In the past decade Chaetosphaerella appears in the literature much more frequently than Oedemium, thus we recommend Chaetosphaerella for protection.

Glomerellales

Use Colletotrichum Corda 1837 (A) rather than Glomerella Spauld. & Schrenk 1903 (S)

The genus Colletotrichum, typified by C. lineola, is a large genus with 817 epithets (Index Fungorum 2016), many of which are considered plant pathogens. The number of accepted species has varied over the decades with most species previously considered to be host-speciic. Based on von Arx (1957) in which several hundred names were placed in synonymy with C. gloeosporioides, the number of species in Colletotrichum decreased to 11. Sutton (1980) included about 22 species in Colletotrichum for which he provided a key. With the use of molecular sequence data, the number of recognized species has increased with some species determined to be host-speciic while others have a broad host range (Rojas et al. 2010, Damm et al. 2009, 2012, Weir et al. 2012). The type species, Colletotrichum lineola, had long been considered to be a synonym of C. dematium but was recently recognized as a distinct species in the C. dematium species complex (Damm et al. 2009, Cannon et al. 2012). Meanwhile, the sexual morphs of Colletotrichum were placed in the genus Glomerella, typified by G. cingulata, which has been considered the sexual morph of C. gloeosporioides. Recently this relationship has been questioned with C. gloeosporioides and G. cingulata regarded as distinct species in the C. gloeosporioides species complex (Weir et al. 2012). Over 100 names have been described in Glomerella, many of which have names in Colletotrichum. Although considered different species, there is no question that Colletotrichum and Glomerella represent the same genus.

Use of Colletotrichum over Glomerella is recommended for use for several reasons. Species of Colletotrichum are mainly associated with plants as endophytes and pathogens and have been thoroughly studied. In contrast, their sexual morphs regarded as Glomerella tend to occur on dead plant material and are less frequently encountered (Cannon et al. 2012, Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015). Colletotrichum is the older generic name and is well established in the plant pathological and plant breeder literature (Cannon et al. 2012). Preference has been given to Colletotrichum by several groups working on this genus (Cannon et al. 2012, Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015) based on its widespread use, greater number of names, and priority.

Use Cylindrotrichum Bonord. 1851 (A) rather than Reticulascus Réblová & W. Gams 2011 (S)

The type species of Cylindrotrichum, C. oligospermum, was shown to represent the asexual morph of Chaetosphaeria tulasneorum, the type species of Reticulascus (Réblová & Gams 1999, Réblová et al. 2011a), thus the generic names Cylindrotrichum and Reticulascus are synonyms. Cylindrotrichum includes 23 names (Rambelli & Onofri 1987) while Reticulascus includes only two names. Between these two generic names, Cylindrotrichum is the most widely known. Given its widespread use, priority, and greater number of names, we recommend the use of Cylindrotrichum rather than Reticulascus.

Use Monilochaetes Halst. ex Harter 1916 (A) rather than Australiasca Sivan. & Alcorn 2002 (S)

The type species of Monilochaetes, M. infuscans, was shown to be congeneric with Australiasca queenslandica, the type species of Australiasca (Réblová et al. 2011a). The two species described in Australiasca have names in Monilochaetes, thus, if the older name Monilochaetes is used, no name changes are required. This generic name includes six species and has priority, thus Monilochaetes is recommended for use.

Use Plectosphaerella Kleb. 1929 (S) rather than Plectosporium M.E. Palm et al. 1995 (A)

The genus Plectosporium, typified by P. tabacinum, was established for the asexual morph of species of Plectosphaerella of which the type species, P. cucumeris, is the name applied to the sexual morph of Plectosporium tabacinum (Palm et al. 1995), thus Plectosphaerella and Plectosporium are synonyms. Plectosphaerella cucumerinum is known as the cause of fruit and collar rot, and collapse of several crops including melons (Carlucci et al. 2012). Plectosphaerella includes 14 names while four species have been placed in Plectosporium. Carlucci et al. (2012) provided a molecular account of Plectosphaerella in the Plectosphaerellaceae and transferred species of Plectosporium to Plectosphaerella. Given its priority, greater number of names, economic importance, and recent account of the genus, the use of Plectosphaerella is recommended.

Use Sporoschismopsis Hol.-Jech. & Hennebert 1972 (A) rather than Porosphaerellopsis Samuels & E. Müll. 1982 (S)

The generic name Sporoschismopsis was introduced by Holubová-Jechová & Hennebert (1972) with S. moravica as type species and it now includes eight names (Holubová-Jechová 1973b). The generic name Porosphaerellopsis, typified by P. sporoschismophora (Samuels & Müller 1978, Müller & Samuels 1982), was established for the sexual morphs of Sporoschismopsis. Porosphaerellopsis sporoschismophora was transferred to Sporoschismopsis (Réblová 2014) while a second species, P. bipolaris described by Ranghoo et al. (2001), was excluded from the genus. Another sexual morph was experimentally proven for S. angustata (Réblová 2014). Based on DNA sequence data, the two asexual morphs, S. angustata and S. sporoschismophora, form a strongly supported monophyletic clade in the Reticulascaceae, Glomerellales. Given that S. angustata, S. moravica, and S. sporoschismophora are congeneric, the generic names Sporoschismopsis and Porosphaerellopsis are synonyms. Based on priority and the greater number of species, Sporoschismopsis is recommended for use.

Halosphaeriales

Use Corollospora Werderm. 1922 (S) rather than Varicosporina Meyers & Kohlm. 1965 (A) and Halosigmoidea Nakagiri et al. 2009 (A)

Although the type species of Corollospora, C. maritima, does not appear to have an asexual morph in Varicosporina, a number of species of Corollospora are linked to varicosporina-like asexual morphs. Abdel-Wahab et al. (2009) showed that the type of Varicosporina, V. ramulosa, groups within Corollospora, thus Corollospora and Varicosporina are synonyms. The type species of Halosigmoidea, H. luteola as Sigmoidea luteola, was shown by culture techniques to be the asexual morph of Corollospora luteola (Nakagiri & Tokura, 1982). Jones et al. (2009) demonstrated that the three marine species recognized in Halosigmoidea grouped with Corollospora, thus Halosigmoidea is also a synonym of Corollospora. Over 20 species are included in Corollospora while only three names have been described in Varicosporina, two of which have names in Corollospora, and only three names were included in Halosigmoidea. Given the number of names, widespread use, and priority, we recommend the use of Corollospora.

New combinations:

Corollospora marina (Haythorn & E.B.G. Jones) E.B.G. Jones, K.L. Pang & Abdel-Wahab, comb. nov.

MycoBank MB816830

  • Basionym: Sigmoidea marina Haythorn & E.B.G. Jones, Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 74: 620 (1980).

  • Synonym: Halosigmoidea marina (Haythorn & E.B.G. Jones) Nakagiri et al., Bot. Mar. 52: 355 (2009).

Corollospora parvula (Zuccaro et al.) E.B.G. Jones, K.L. Pang & Abdel-Wahab, comb. nov.

MycoBank MB816831

  • Basionym: Halosigmoidea parvula Zuccaro et al., Bot. Mar. 52: 355 (2009).

Corollospora ramulosa (Meyers & Kohlm.) E.B.G. Jones & Abdel-Wahab, comb. nov.

MycoBank MB816832

  • Basionym: Varicosporina ramulosa Meyers & Kohlm., Canad. J. Bot. 43: 916 (1965).

Melanosporales

Use Melanospora Corda 1836 (S) rather than Gonatobotrys Corda 1839 (A)

The type species of Melanospora, M. zamiae, has been shown to be congeneric with M. damnosa (Cannon & Hawksworth 1982), of which the type species of Gonatobotrys, G. simplex, is considered a synonym (Vakili 1989). Given the widespread use of Melanospora, its priority, and the 120 names in Melanospora while Gonatobotrys includes only 32 names, Melanospora is recommended for use.

New combination:

Melanospora simplex (Corda) D. Hawksw., comb. nov.

MycoBank MB816833

  • Basionym: Gonatobotrys simplex Corda, Prachtflora: 9 (1839).

  • Synonyms: Sphaeroderma damnosum Sacc. & Berl., Riv. Patol. Veg. 4: 56 (1896) [“1895”].

  • Melanospora damnosa (Sacc.) Lindau, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1 (1*): 353 (1897).

Microascales

Use Knoxdaviesia M.J. Wingf. et al. 1988 (A) rather than Gondwanamyces G.J. Marais & M.J. Wingf. 1998 (S)

Knoxdaviesia proteae, type of the genus Knoxdaviesia, was described as the asexual morph of Ceratocystiopsis proteae, a species that was later placed in the genus Gondwanamyces as the type species, thus Knoxdaviesia and Gondwanamyces are synonyms. Both generic names have been used about equally. In agreement with de Beer et al. (2013), the use of the oldest name, Knoxdaviesia, is recommended.

Use Sphaeronaemella P. Karst. 1884 (S) rather than Gabarnaudia Samson & W. Gams 1974 (A)

The type species of Sphaeronaemella, S. helvellae, is congeneric with the type species of Gabarnaudia, G. betae, described as the asexual morph of S. fimicola (Samson 1974). Conirmed by molecular data (Hausner & Reid 2004), these generic names are synonyms. Five species of Gabarnaudia have been placed in Sphaeronaemella (De Beer et al. 2013), a genus with 30 species. Sphaeronaemella is most commonly used and has priority, thus we recommend the use of Sphaeronaemella.

Phyllachorales

Use Diachora Müll. Arg. 1893 (S) rather than Diachorella Höhn. 1918 (A)

The generic names Diachora, typified by D. onobrychidis, and Diachorella, typified by D. onobrychidis, are apparently based on the same type specimen, thus these names are synonyms. Diachora is considered a name for the sexual morph while Diachorella represents the asexual morph. Both generic names include less than ten species. Müller (1986) and Cannon (1991) reviewed species in these genera including the type species. Because Diachora is more widely known and has priority, we recommend that name for use.

Use Ophiodothella (Henn.) Höhn. 1904 (S) rather than Acerviclypeata Hanlin 1990 (A)

The genus Ophiodothella, typified by O. atromaculans, now includes 26 species, which are obligate parasites of subtropical and tropical plants (Hanlin et al. 1992). An asexual morph of O. vaccinii, now O. angustissima, cause of flyspeck leafspot of Vaccinium arboretum in the southeastern United States, was described as the monotype species of Acerviclypeatus, A. poriformans (Hanlin 1990), thus Ophiodothella and Acerviclypeatus are synonyms. Not much is known about O. atromaculans but this species appears to be congeneric with O. angustissima (Hanlin & Gonzáles 2013). Given the number of species and priority, we recommend the use of Ophiodothella.

Use Polystigma DC 1815 (S) rather than Polystigmina Sacc. 1884 (A) and Rhodoseptoria Naumov 1913 (A)

The generic names Polystigma, typified by P. rubrum, and Polystigmina, typified by P. rubrum, are based on the same basionym of their respective type species and, therefore, are synonyms for the sexual and asexual morphs. Cannon (1996) monographed Polystigma including ive species on Prunus among others. He also noted that the type species of the monotypic Rhodoseptoria was a synonym of Polystigma rubra, thus that generic name is also a synonym of Polystigma. Several species of Polystigma cause diseases such as red blotch of almonds caused by P. amygdalinum and red leaf spot of plum caused by P. rubrum (Habibi et al. 2015). All but two of the seven taxa placed in Polystigmina are synonyms of Polystigma rubra while Polystigma includes over 50 species. Given the greater number of species, its widespread use, economic importance, and priority, we recommend the use of Polystigma.

Use Pseudothiella Petr. 1928 (S) rather than Pseudothiopsella Petr. 1928 (A)

The monotypic generic names Pseudothiella, typified by P. hirtellae, and Pseudothiopsella, typified by P. hirtellae, were described at the same time for sexual and asexual morphs of the same species, thus they are synonyms with equal priority. Pseudothiella has been used slightly more often than Pseudothiopsella (Furlanetto & Dianese 1998), therefore we recommend use of Pseudothiella.

Pleurotheciales

Use Pleurothecium Höhn. 1919 (A) rather than Carpoligna F.A. Fernández & Huhndorf 1999 (S)

The genus Pleurothecium is typified by P. recurvatum. A sexual morph is known for P. recurvatum for which the monotypic generic name Carpoligna, typified by C. pleurothecii, was introduced (Fernández et al. 1999). Of the eight species assigned to the genus Pleurothecium, only three have DNA sequence data. Pleurothecium recurvatum and P. semifecundum form a strongly supported monophyletic clade in the Pleurotheciales and represent the core of the genus (Réblová et al. 2016), while P. obovoideum (Arzanlou et al. 2007) is nested in the same order but within another clade. Given its priority and greater number of species, Pleurothecium is recommended for use.

Savoryellales

Use Canalisporium Nawawi & Kuthub. 1989 (A) rather than Ascothailandia Sri-indr. et al. 2010 (S)

The genus Canalisporium, typified by C. caribense, includes 12 species (Nawawi & Kuthubutheen 1989). A sexual morph was described for C. grenadoideum and linked to the monotypic genus Ascothailandia, typified by A. grenadoidea (Sri-indrasutdhi et al. 2010). The link between sexual and asexual morphs of this species was confirmed experimentally in axenic culture. Six species of Canalisporium, including the type species, were the subject of phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequence data of three nuclear loci by Sri-indrasutdhi et al. (2010) who conirmed that Ascothailandia and Canalisporium are congeneric. Based on priority and the greater number of species, the generic name Canalisporium is recommended for use.

Sordariales

Use Chaetomium Kunze 1817 (S) rather than Trichocladium Harz 1871 (A), Botryotrichum Sacc. & Marchal 1885 (A), or Humicola Traaen 1914 (A)

Chaetomium, typified by C. globosum, is a well-known genus of cellulose-decomposing fungi some of which cause diseases of humans. The sexual morph of Botryotrichum piluliferum, type of the asexual genus Botryotrichum, was described as Chaetomium piluliferum (Daniels 1961). Later this species was conirmed to be congeneric with C. globosum (Untereiner et al. 2001, Nonaka et al. 2012), thus Chaetomium and Botryotrichum are synonyms. Although sexual states have not been discovered for the type of Humicola, H. fuscoatra or related species such as the common H. grisea, nuc28S rDNA sequences place these species within the present concept of Chaetomium. The type of Trichocladium, T. asperum, also lacks a sexual morph and occurs in the same clade (Hambleton et al. 2005). Over 500 names have been described in Chaetomium. Botryotrichum currently includes eight species. Humicola and Trichocladium each include about 20 species, but both are phylogenetically heterogeneous and most species belong to different clades. Given its extensive use and economic importance, its priority, and the greater number of species, we recommend the use of Chaetomium.

Use Lasiosphaeris Clem. 1909 (S) rather than Lasiadelphia Réblová & W. Gams 2011 (A)

The genus Lasiosphaeris was described by Clements (1909) with L. hispida as its type species. The name was reestablished by Miller & Huhndorf (2004) for species segregated from Lasiosphaeria based on nuc28S rDNA sequences. Two species were accepted in the genus, L. hispida and L. hirsuta. Gams & Holubová-Jechová (1976) introduced Phialophora sect. Catenulatae, typified by the dematiaceous species Phialophora lasiosphaeriae, the asexual morph experimentally proven for L. hispida (as L. hirsuta, Gams & Holubová-Jechová 1976, Gams 2000). Réblová et al. (2011b) desribed the generic name Lasiadelphia with L. lasiosphaeriae as the type species for the asexual morph of Lasiosphaeris hispida. Therefore, the type species of Lasiosphaeris and Lasiadelphia are morphs of the same species and the generic names are synonyms. Based on priority and the greater number of species, the generic name Lasiosphaeris should be used.

Use Mammaria Rabenh. 1854 (A) rather than Pseudocercophora Subram. & Sekar 1986 (S)

The genus Mammaria, typified by M. echinobotryoides, includes two names while the monotypic genus Pseudocercophora, typified by P. ingoldii, was described for the sexual morph of M. echinobotryoides, thus these generic names are synonyms. If the principle of priority is followed, no names changes are required, thus, the use of Mammaria is recommended.

Use Neurospora Shear & B.O. Dodge 1927 (S) rather than Chrysonilia Arx 1981 (A)

The genus Neurospora, typified by N. sitophila, includes the well-known model organism, N. crassa. The asexual morph of the type species was described in Chrysonilia with C. sitophila as the type species. There is no question that Neurospora and Chrysonilia are generic synonyms (von Arx 1981). At present Neurospora includes 57 names while only three names have been placed in Chrysonilia, all of which also have names in Neurospora. Given its priority, the number of species, and its widespread use, it is recommended that Neurospora be used rather than Chrysonilia.

Use Stromatographium Henn. 1907 (A) rather than Fluviostroma Samuels & E. Müll. 1980 (S)

The genus Stromatographium, typified by S. stromaticum, is the asexual state of Fluviostroma wrightii, monotype species of Fluviostroma (Samuels & Müller 1980). Seifert (1987) clariied the confusion between Stromatographium and Stromatostilbella and showed that the asexual morph of F. wrightii belongs in Stromatographium. Given its greater use and priority, we recommend the use of Stromatographium.

Togniniales

Protect Phaeoacremonium W. Gams 1996 (A) over Togninia Berl. 1900 (S) and Romellia Berl. 1900 (S)

The genus Phaeoacremonium was established for P. parasiticum, irst described causing phaeohyphomycosis in humans, but also causing wilts in tropical trees and an economically important disease of grapevine known as esca disease (Hawksworth et al. 1976, Crous et al. 1996). Once this genus was described, a number of species were discovered and placed in Phaeoacremonium. Based on phylogenetic analysis and mating studies, sexual morphs were found for these species in Togninia, formerly attributed to Calosphaeriales (Mostert et al. 2003). Species of Phaeoacremonium are known as vascular plant pathogens such as esca and Petri disease of grapevine as well as human pathogens. Two monographic accounts of Phaeoacremonium have been published (Mostert et al. 2006, Réblová et al. 2015). Gramaje et al. (2015) formally proposed to protect the name Phaeoacremonium against Togninia because although Togninia has 26 epithets, half have not been reported since their description, and only nine species have been experimentally linked with Phaeoacremonium. Phaeoacremonium includes 46 species of which all are known from culture and their DNA data are available. Also Phaeoacremonium is favoured by plant pathologists and medical mycologists and is well established in the literature. All required new combinations were made in Gramaje et al. (2015). The type species of Romellia, R. vibratilis, was sequenced and placed in Togninia by Réblová & Mostert (2007) and recently moved to Phaeoacremonium by Gramaje et al. (2015). Three of the four species of Romellia have since been placed elsewhere. Thus, because it is widely used and has the greatest number of species, we recommend the protection of Phaeoacremonium over Togninia and Romellia.

Torpedosporales

Use Juncigena Kohlm. et al. 1997 (S) rather than Moheitospora Abdel-Wahab et al. 2010 (A)

The monotypic genus Juncigena is typified by J. adarca for which an asexual morph was described as Cirrenalia adarca (Kohlmeyer et al. 1997). Later the asexual species was placed in the genus Moheitospora as M. adarca along with the type species, M. fruticosae (Abdel-Wahab et al. 2010), thus Juncigena and Moheitospora are synonyms. Although one name change would be required, Juncigena has priority and has greater use in the literature, thus it is recommended that Juncigena be used. Schoch et al. (2007) showed that this genus belongs in Hypocreomycetidae and later Jones et al. (2015) placed it in Juncigenaceae, Torpedosporales.

New combination:

Juncigena fruticosae (Abdel-Wahab et al.) A.N. Mill. & Shearer, comb. nov.

MycoBank MB816834

  • Basionym: Moheitospora fruticosae Abdel-Wahab et al., Mycol. Progr. 9: 551 (2010).

Use Torpedospora Meyers 1957 (S) rather than Glomerulispora Abdel-Wahab & Nagah. 2010 (A)

The monotype species of Glomerulispora, G. mangrovei, groups with the two species of Torpedospora such that these generic names are considered synonyms (Abdel-Wahab et al. 2010, Jones et al. 2015). These species are marine fungi found on driftwood throughout the world. Given the widespread use of Torpedospora and its priority, use of Torpedospora is recommended.

New combination:

Torpedospora mangrovei (Abdel-Wahab & Nagah.) E.B.G. Jones & Abdel-Wahab, comb. nov.

MycoBank MB816835

  • Basionym: Glomerulispora mangrovei Abdel-Wahab & Nagah., Mycol. Progr. 9: 553 (2010).

Xylariales

Use Arthrinium Kunze 1817 (A) rather than Apiospora Sacc. 1875 (S), Pteroconium Sacc. ex Grove 1914 (A), and Scyphospora L.A. Kantsch 1928 (A)

Species in the genus Arthrinium are widespread and commonly encountered as saprobes and secondary invaders especially on monocotyledonous plants. The common species, A. arundinis, is the name typified by the sexual morph of the type species of Apiospora, A. montagnei (Müller & Arx 1962). Less is known about the type species of Arthrinium, A. caricicola, but this species is assumed to be congeneric with A. arundinis (Crous & Groenewald 2013), although they were unable to ind material to include in their molecular phylogeny. Crous & Groenewald (2013) also showed that Pteroconium asteroides, type of Pteroconium, is a synonym of Arthrinium. Samuels et al. (1981) suggested that Scyphospora phyllostachydis was the asexual morph of Apiospora tintinnabula, now Arthrinium hysterinum, thus Scyphospora is a synonym of Arthrinium. In agreement with both Crous & Groenewald (2013) and Senanayake et al. (2015), Arthrinium has priority and is the most widely used of these generic names, thus use of Arthrinium is recommended.

Although Hughes (1958) followed by Ellis (1965), Samuels et al. (1981) and Crous & Groenewald (2013) suggested that Cordella is a synonym of Arthrinium, this is based on the assumption that C. coniosporioides is the type species. Cordella was described with two species without indicating a type. Clements & Shear (1931) were the irst to select a type species for Cordella and they list C. spinulosa, a species that Hughes (1958) placed in Melanographium, thus Cordella is not a synonym of Arthrinium.

Based on the molecular sequence data provided by Crous & Groenewald (2013), Apiospora sinensis is placed in Arthrinium.

New combination:

Arthrinium sinense (K.D. Hyde et al.) Crous & J.Z. Groenew., comb. nov.

MycoBank MB816836

  • Basionym: Apiospora sinensis K.D. Hyde et al., Sydowia 50: 27 (1998).

In addition a nomenclator is provided for Arthrinium hysterinum because of confusion about the correct name for this species and its numerous synonyms. Previously recognized in Apiospora by Tang et al. (2007), Kirk (1986) and Sivanesan (1983), Crous & Groenewald (2013) and Senanayake et al. (2015) included Apiospora bambusae, A. setosa and A. tintinnabula as synonyms within the genus Arthrinium. The correct name for this species is Arthrinium hysterinum with the synonyms listed below:

Arthrinium hysterinum (Sacc.) P.M. Kirk, Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 86: 409 (1986).

  • Basionym: Melanconium hysterinum Sacc., Bolm Soc. broteriana, Coimbra, sér. 1 11: 21 (1893).

  • Synonyms: Scyphospora hysterina (Sacc.) Sivan., Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 81: 331 (1983).

  • Melanconium bambusae Turconi, Atti Ist. bot. R. Univ. Pavia, sér.2 16: 251 (1916).

  • Scirrhia bambusae Turconi, Atti Ist. bot. R. Univ. Pavia, sér. 2 16: 531 (1916).

  • Scirrhodothis bambusae (Turconi) Trotter, in Saccardo, Syll. Fung. 24: 611 (1926).

  • Placostroma bambusae (Turconi) R. Sprague, Diseases Cereals Grasses N. Amer.: 121 (1950).

  • Apiospora bambusae (Turconi) Sivan., Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 81: 331 (1983).

  • Scyphospora phyllostachydis L.A. Kantsch., Bolêz. Rast. 17: 88 (1928).

  • Cordella johnstonii M.B. Ellis, Mycol. Pap. 103: 31 (1965).

  • Apiospora setosa Samuels et al., New Zealand J. Bot. 19: 142 (1981).

  • Apiospora tintinnabula Samuels et al., New Zealand J. Bot. 19: 142 (1981).

Use Collodiscula I. Hino & Katum. 1955 (S) rather than Acanthodochium Samuels et al. 1987 (A)

The genus Collodiscula, typified by C. japonica, was linked to Acanthodochium collodisculae, type of Acanthodochium, by Samuels et al. (1987), who considered these names morphs of the same species, thus these generic names are synonyms. Three species have been added to Collodiscula (Li et al. 2015a, b). Given that this generic name has priority and includes four species, the use of Collodiscula is recommended.

Use Daldinia Ces. & De Not. 1863 (S) rather than Annellosporium M.L. Davey 2010 (A) or Versiomyces Whalley & Watling 1989 (S)

The genus Daldinia, typified by D. concentrica, has recently been monographed by Stadler et al. (2014). They showed that the monotype species of Annellosporium, A. nemorosa, belongs in Daldinia as D. nemorosa, thus Daldinia and Annellosporium are synonyms. They also showed that the monotype species of Versiomyces, V. cahuchucosus, belongs in Daldinia as D. cahuchucosa, thus Versiomyces is a synonym of Daldinia. Daldinia is a well-known genus with many species and has priority, thus it is recommended for use.

Protect Diatrype Fr. 1849 (S) over Libertella Desm. 1830 (A)

The genus Diatrype, typified by D. disciformis, includes over 500 names (Index Fungorum 2016), some of which cause canker diseases of hardwoods such as D. stigma associated with diseased grapevines (Rolshausen et al. 2006). Libertella betulina, type of the genus Libertella, is known to be the asexual morph of Diatrype stigma (Grove 1937, Kutorga et al. 2006) and D. disciformis has an asexual morph described as L. disciformis. Trouillas et al. (2010b) showed that D. disciformis and D. stigma are congeneric, thus Diatrype and Libertella are synonyms. Because Diatrype is widely known, has a greater number of species, and includes important plant pathogenic fungi, Diatrype is recommended for protection over Libertella.

Use Hypocreodendron Henn. 1897 (A) rather than Discoxylaria J.C. Lindq. & J.E. Wright 1964 (S)

Hypocreodendron is a monotypic genus based upon H. sanguineum for which Lindqvist & Wright (1964) introduced the monotypic genus Discoxylaria, typified by D. myrmecophila, as the sexual morph. Rogers et al. (1995) observed a specimen of D. myrmecophila that bore both conidial and mature perithecial morphs. They compared their collection with the holotype specimen and obtained the conidial morph in culture initiated from ascospores to demonstrate that these were alternate morphs of the same species. Thus, Hypocreodendron and Discoxylaria are synonyms. In agreement with Stadler et al. (2013), Maharachchikumbura et al. (2015), and priority, we recommend the use of Hypocreodendron.

Use Hypoxylon Bull. 1791 (S) rather than Nodulisporium Preuss 1849 (A)

The genus Hypoxylon, typified by H. fragiforme, is a well-known group of stromatic ascomycetes on rotting wood. Although a number of segregated genera are now recognized such as Annulohypoxylon, Biscogniauxia, and Nemania, many species still remain within Hypoxylon sensu stricto (Hsieh et al. 2005). Von Arx (1982), fide Deighton (1985), demonstrated the relationship of the asexual morph Nodulisporium ochraceum, type of Nodulisporium, to Hypoxylon fragiforme, thus these generic names are synonyms. Other species of Nodulisporium have been placed in various genera suggesting the artiicial circumscription of this genus. Given the widespread use of Hypoxylon, the number of names, and priority, the use of Hypoxylon is recommended.

Use Microdochium Syd. & P. Syd. 1924 (A) rather than Monographella Petr. later in 1924 (S)

The genus Microdochium, typified by M. phragmitis, was published a few months later than Monographella, typified by M. divergens, now regarded as a synonym of Microdochium nivale. Hernández-Restrepo et al. (2016) recognized the synonym of Microdochium and Monographella and considered Microdochium to be the best generic name to use for these fungi because Microdochium included more species and was more widely known than Monographella. They added six species to the 31 names in the genus Microdochium while Monographella includes only 15 names. In addition they epitypified the type of Microdochium, M. phragmitis, a species that had been shown to represent two sympatric species (Ernst et al. 2011). Thus, in agreement with Hernández-Restrepo et al. (2016), we recommend the protection of Microdochium over Monographella.

Use Nemania Gray 1821 (S) rather than Geniculosporium Chesters & Greenh. 1964 (A)

An asexual morph of Nemania serpens, type species of Nemania, was described as Geniculosporium serpens, type of Geniculosporium (Chesters & Greenhalgh 1964), thus the generic names Nemania and Geniculosporium are synonyms. Nemania includes over 30 names while only four names have been placed in Geniculosporium. In addition, Nemania is well-known and has priority, thus we recommend the use of Nemania.

Use Rosellinia De Not. 1844 (S) rather than Dematophora R. Hartig 1883 (A)

The genus Rosellinia, typified by R. aquila, is a well-known genus that has recently been monographed (Petrini 2013). A number of plant pathogenic species are included in Rosellinia such as R. bunodes causing black root rot of tropical woody plants and R. thelena causing root collar of hardwoods. Dematophora necatrix, type of Dematophora, is considered the asexual morph of R. necatrix, cause of white root rot (Petrini 2013), thus Rosellinia and Dematophora are synonyms. The only other species of Dematophora, D. glomerata, is considered the asexual morph of R. glomerata.

Given the widespread use of Rosellinia, the recent monographic account, its importance as a plant pathogen, and priority, we recommend the use of Rosellinia.

Use Virgaria Nees 1816 (A) rather than Ascovirgaria J.D. Rogers & Y.-M. Ju 2002 (S)

The monotypic genus Ascovirgaria, typified by A. occulta, was described for the sexual morph of the type species of Virgaria, V. nigra, by Rogers & Ju (2002), thus these generic names are synonyms. Nonaka et al. (2013) demonstrated that A. occulta was a synonym of V. nigra and that Virgaria was distinct from other genera in the Xylariaceae. Although some names have been transferred to other genera, Virgaria still includes 10 names and is more commonly used than Ascovirgaria. Given its priority and widespread use, Virgaria is recommended for use over Ascovirgaria.

Use Xylaria Hill ex Schrank 1789 (S) rather than Moelleroclavus Henn. 1902 (A), Xylocoremium J.D. Rogers 1984 (A), Arthroxylaria Seifert & W. Gams 2002 (A) or Geniculisynnema Okane & Nakagiri 2007 (A)

Xylaria is a well-known genus with many species such as Xylaria polymorpha, commonly known as dead man’s fingers, also said to cause root rot of urban trees (Proffer 1988). The asexual morphs of species of Xylaria have been described in four genera. The monotype species of Moelleroclavus, M. penicillioides, has a sexual morph described as Xylaria moelleroclavus (Rogers et al. 1997) and Xylocoremium flabelliforme, monotype species of Xylocoremium, is the asexual morph of Xylaria cubensis (Rogers 1984), now known to be X. flabelliformis (Ju et al. 2016). Both Arthroxylaria and Geniculisynnema are monotypic genera proposed for asexual morphs not yet connected to a sexual morph but clearly within Xylaria based on rDNA sequences (Seifert et al. 2002, Okane & Nakagiri 2007). The type species of Arthroxylaria, A. elegans, is herein placed in Xylaria. Although Stadler et al. (2013) connected Geniculisynnema with Nemania, a BLAST search with the ITS sequence of G. termiticola (AB274813), type species of Geniculisynnema, showed top matches with Xylaria species associated with termite nests.. These four generic names are now considered synonyms of Xylaria. Given its widespread use, the number of species, and priority, Xylaria is recommended for use.

New combinations:

Xylaria benjaminii Seifert & W. Gams, nom. nov. MycoBank MB816839

  • Replaced name: Arthroxylaria elegans Seifert & W. Gams, Czech Mycol. 53: 209 (2002).

  • Non Xylaria elegans Syd. & P. Syd., Annls mycol. 5: 357 (1907).

Xylaria penicilliopsis (Henn.) Y.-M. Ju, comb. nov. MycoBank MB816837

  • Basionym: Moelleroclavus penicilliopsis Henn., Hedwigia 41: 15 (1902).

  • Synonym: Xylaria moelleroclavus J.D. Rogers et al., Mycol. Res. 101: 345 (1997).

Xylaria termiticola (Okane & Nakagiri) Y.-M. Ju, comb. nov.

MycoBank MB816838

  • Basionym: Geniculisynnema termiticola Okane & Nakagiri, Mycoscience 48: 245 (2007).

Sordariomycetidae incertae sedis

Use Brachysporium Sacc. 1886 (A) rather than Cryptadelphia Réblová & Seifert 2004 (S)

Brachysporium, typified by B. obovatum, is a widespread and well-established asexual genus that includes 113 species and varieties. The genus Cryptadelphia, typified by C. groenendalensis, was introduced for the sexual morphs of six species of Brachysporium (Réblová & Seifert 2004b). The link between the sexual and asexual morphs was experimentally proven only for B. nigrum, which is the asexual morph of C. groenendalensis. The axenic cultures of B. obovatum and B. polyseptatum derived from ascospores yielded only sterile mycelium. Recently, C. fusiformis was described with its asexual morph regarded as B. fusiformis (Markovskaja & Treigiené 2007). Based on molecular sequence data, B. nigrum and B. polyseptatum form a strongly supported monophyletic clade (Réblová & Seifert 2004b). If B. obovatum is congeneric with B. nigrum, then the generic names Brachysporium and Cryptadelphia should be treated as synonyms. Based on priority and the greater number of species, Brachysporium is recommended for use.

Use Nigrospora Zimm. 1902 (A) rather than Khuskia H.J. Huds. 1963 (S)

The monotype species of Khuskia, K. oryzae, was described as the sexual morph of Nigrospora oryzae, a well-known species of Nigrospora, by Hudson (1963). He also considered N. oryzae and N. panici, the type species of Nigrospora, to be congeneric, thus Nigrospora and Khuskia are synonyms. Nigrospora oryzae is reported from a variety of hosts including marine sponges (Ding et al. 2011) and as endophytes of plants (Persoh et al. 2010) as well as causing plant diseases (Moshrei-Zarandi et al. 2014). Given that Nigrospora has priority, includes ifteen names, and is more widely known than Khuskia, the use of Nigrospora is recommended.

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Réblová, M., Miller, A.N., Rossman, A.Y. et al. Recommendations for competing sexual-asexually typified generic names in Sordariomycetes (except Diaporthales, Hypocreales, and Magnaporthales). IMA Fungus 7, 131–153 (2016) doi:10.5598/imafungus.2016.07.01.08

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Key words

  • Ascomycota
  • nomenclature
  • pleomorphic fungi
  • protected lists
  • taxonomy