- Open Access
Overlooked competing asexual and sexually typified generic names of Ascomycota with recommendations for their use or protection
IMA Fungus volume 7, pages289–308(2016)
With the change to one scientific name for fungal species, numerous papers have been published with recommendations for use or protection of competing generic names in major groups of ascomycetes. Although genera in each group of fungi were carefully considered, some competing generic names were overlooked. This paper makes recommendations for additional competing genera not considered in previous papers. Chairs of relevant Working Groups of the ICTF were consulted in the development of these recommendations. A number of generic names need protection, specifically Amarenographium over Amarenomyces, Amniculicola over Anguillospora, Balansia over Ephelis, Claviceps over Sphacelia, Drepanopeziza over Gloeosporidiella and Gloeosporium, Golovinomyces over Euoidium, Holwaya over Crinium, Hypocrella over Aschersonia, Labridella over Griphosphaerioma, Metacapnodium over Antennularia, and Neonectria over Cylindrocarpon and Heliscus. The following new combinations are made: Amniculicola longissima, Atichia maunauluana, Diaporthe columnaris, D. liquidambaris, D. longiparaphysata, D. palmicola, D. tersa, Elsinoë bucidae, E. caricae, E. choisyae, E. paeoniae, E. psidii, E. zorniae, Eupelte shoemakeri, Godronia myrtilli, G. raduloides, Sarcinella mirabilis, S. pulchra, Schizothyrium jamaicense, and Trichothallus niger. Finally, one new species name, Diaporthe azadirachte, is introduced to validate an earlier name, and the conservation of Discula with a new type, D. destructiva, is recommended.
With the change to one scientific name for fungi (McNeill et al. 2012), a number of papers have been published with recommendations for use or protection of competing generic names of ascomycetes. These papers address genera in the major groups of Sordariomycetes such as Diaporthales (Rossman et al. 2015a), Hypocreales (Rossman et al. 2013, Quandt et al. 2014), Magnaporthales (Zhang et al. 2016), Microascales and Ophiostomatales (de Beer et al. 2013), Xylariaceae (Stadler et al. 2013) and remaining Sordariomycetes (Réblová et al. 2016) as well as Dothideomycetes (Rossman et al. 2015b), Eurotiales (Samson et al. 2014, Visagie et al. 2014), Leotiomycetes including Erysiphales (Braun 2013, Johnston et al. 2014), and yeast fungi (Daniel et al. 2014). A paper on competing genera of Pezizomycetes is concluded in this issue (Healy et al. 2016) and one on competing genera of Basidiomycetes is in preparation (J A Stalpers, pers. comm.). Thus competing generic names in most groups of pleomorphic fungi will then have been considered with recommendations made for use or protection of one generic name. Each of these papers was developed and recommendations approved by a Working Group of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). Although genera in each group of fungi were carefully considered, some competing generic names were overlooked. This paper makes recommendations for additional competing generic names not considered in previous papers. Table 1 is synopsis of the competing genera discussed in this paper with need for action noted, if necessary. If priority of sexually typified generic names is eliminated as has been proposed (Hawksworth 2015), asexually typified generic names that have priority need not be approved by the Nomenclature Committee on Fungi (NCF) as required now by the ICN. This is noted in Table 1 as required action similar to that required for generic names that do not have priority. Chairs of relevant Working Groups of the ICTF were consulted in the development of these recommendations as reflected in the authorship. Within each previously published paper necessary new combinations were made to place species in the recommended genera, however, additional required new combinations and nomenclatural issues have been discovered and are completed here.
In the following notes, (A) = a name typified by an asexual morph, and (S) = a name typified by a sexual morph.
The most commonly encountered members of Eurotiales, namely Aspergillus and Penicillium, have been reviewed with one scientific name recommended for each pleomorphic genus and species (Samson et al. 2014, Visagie et al. 2014). However, three additional sets of competing generic names within Eurotiales are considered here.
Use Monascus Tiegh. 1884 (S) rather than Basipetospora G.T. Cole & W.B. Kendr. 1968 (A) and Backusia Thirum. et al. 1964 (S)
The asexual morph of the type species of Monascus, M. ruber, was described as Basipetospora rubra, type species of Basipetospora, by Cole & Kendrick (1968), and later regarded as B. vesicarum (Stalpers 1984), thus these generic names are synonyms. These authors also considered the monotypic genus Backusia based on B. terricola to be a synonym of Monascus. Stchigel et al. (2004) provided an account of Monascus recognizing Basipetospora for the asexual morph and placed it in Aspergillaceae. Monascus includes a number of species that are important in food science for which the name Monascus is used exclusively. Monascus includes 30 species, with four names currently accepted in Basipetospora of which the two species described by Matsushima (1975) belong to different orders (Seifert & Gams, unpubl.). Given its priority, the greater number of species, a recent monograph, and its economic importance, the use of Monascus is recommended.
Use Paecilomyces Bainier 1907 (A) rather than Byssochlamys Westling 1909 (S)
The type species of Paecilomyces, P. variotii, and the type species of Byssochlamys, B. nivea, were shown to be congeneric through molecular sequence analyses (Luangsa-ard et al. 2004, Samson et al. 2009), although the relationship between these genera had been known for some time (Stolk & Samson 1971). These fungi are thermotolerant and thus are important in the food and beverage industry as spoilage organisms (Samson et al. 2000). The concept of Paecilomyces had been confused due to the reduced morphology of the asexual reproductive structures, however, many species that are not monophyletic with the type species have now been placed in other genera. These include fungi used in biological control, Purpureocillium lilicinum (syn. Paecilomyces lilicinum) and insect pathogens such as Isaria farinosa (syn. Paecilomyces farinosus) and I. fumosoroseus (syn. Paecilomyces fumosoroseum; Luangsa-ard et al. 2004, 2005). The use of Paecilomyces in the strict sense of those involved in food spoilage is widespread; in a recent Food Mycology workshop held in Freising, Germany, the group discussed these competing generic names and decided to recommend use of the generic name that has priority, namely Paecilomyces (Samson pers. comm.). Although several valid and accepted species of Paecilomyces sensu Stolk & Samson (1971) remain to be renamed, we support the community opinion to maintain the use of Paecilomyces over Byssochlamys.
Use Xeromyces L.R. Fraser 1954 (S) rather than Fraseriella Cif. & A.M. Corte 1957 (A)
The type of the monotypic genus Xeromyces, X. bisporus, is an extreme xerophilic fungus that can grow in sugary substances and is thus important in food mycology (Dallyn & Everton 1969). The asexual morph of X. bisporus was described as Fraseriella bispora, type of the monotypic genus Fraseriella, thus these generic names are synonyms and compete for use. Although an early study suggested that Xeromyces bisporus belonged in Monascus (Stchigel et al. 2004), a more extensive account has shown that Xeromyces is a distinct genus within Eurotiales (Pettersson et al. 2011). Xeromyces has priority and is used more extensively than Fraseriella, thus we recommend the use of Xeromyces.
Protect Labridella Brenckle 1929 (S) over Gripho-sphaerioma Höhn. 1918 (A)
The sexual morph of the type species of Labridella, L. cornu-cervae, was determined to be Griphosphaerioma kansensis based on Cryptospora kansensis, an earlier name for G. symphoricarpi, by Shoemaker (1963). At present Griphosphaerioma includes one other species, G. zelkovicola, which has an asexual morph referred to as Sarcostroma zelkovicola (Ono & Kobayashi 2003). The generic name Sarcostroma is now regarded as Seimatosporium, thus it seems unlikely that G. zelkovicola is congeneric with the type of Griphosphaerioma. No molecular data exist for any of these species. The name Labridella cornu-cervae has been used in two major references (Nag Raj 1993, Sutton 1980) and Labridella is cited more frequently than Griphosphaerioma, thus we recommend Labridella for protection and use.
Five new combinations and one name validated in Diaporthe
The name Diaporthe has priority over Phomopsis and was recommended for use based on discussions within the Diaporthales Working Group (Rossman et al. 2015a). New combinations in Diaporthe of commonly encountered species were made in that paper. Some names of Phomopsis have been synonymized under older Diaporthe species names redefined using molecular data (Rossman et al 2014, Udayanga et al. 2014a,b). A number of economically important species of Phomopsis have been sequenced and appear to be unique species within Diaporthe. Based on these sequences and the use of the generic name Diaporthe, we propose a new species to validate a name previously described in Phomopsis and the following five new combinations.
Diaporthe azadirachtae Udayanga & Castl., sp. nov. MycoBank MB819047
Description: Original description as “Phomopsis azadirachtae” in Sateesh et al., Mycotaxon 65: 517 (1997).
Type: India: Karnataka, on dry twigs of Azadirachta indica; 1996, M.K Sateesh (HCIO 42119-holotype; University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, MUBH 983-isotype).
Diaporthe azadirachtae (as “Phomopsis azadirachtae”) causes a serious twig blight disease on Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), neem, and has widely been reported in phytopathological literature (Sateesh et al. 1997, Fathima et al. 2004, Girish & Shankara Bhat 2008, Prasad et al. 2009, 2010). This new name replaces “Phomopsis azadirachtae”, which was described with two specimens designated as type and so was not validly published (Art. 40.3). In addition this taxon is now placed in the correct genus, Diaporthe.
Diaporthe columnaris (Farr & Castl.) Udayanga & Castl., comb. nov.
Basionym: Phomopsis columnaris D.F. Farr & Castl., Mycol. Res. 106: 747 (2002).
Diaporthe liquidambaris (C.Q. Chang et al.) Udayanga & Castl., comb.nov.
Basionym: Phomopsis liquidambaris C.Q. Chang et al., Mycosystema 24: 9 (2005).
Diaporthe longiparaphysata (Uecker & K.C. Kuo) Udayanga & Castl., comb. nov.
Basionym: Phomopsis longiparaphysata Uecker & K.C. Kuo, Mycotaxon 44: 426 (1992).
Diaporthe palmicola (G. Winter) Udayanga & Castl., comb. nov.
Basionym: Phoma palmicola G. Winter, Grevillea 15: 92 (1887).
Synonym: Phomopsis palmicola (G. Winter) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 25: 132 (1915).
Diaporthe tersa (Sacc.) Udayanga & Castl., comb. nov.
Basionym: Phoma tersa Sacc., Bolm Soc. broteriana, Coimbra, sér. 1, 11:16 (1893). Synonym: Phomopsis tersa (Sacc.) B. Sutton, The Coelomycetes: 573 (1980).
Use Discula Sacc. 1884 based on D. destructiva Redlin 1991
In reviewing the generic names competing for use in Diaporthales, Rossman et al. (2015a) suggested that the generic name Discula based on D. platani, which is now regarded as D. nervisequa but erroneously stated as D. quercina, should be considered a synonym of Apiognomonia. Discula nervisequa is, however, now regarded as Apiognomonia veneta while the sexual morph of D. quercina could not be determined (Sogonov et al. 2007). Most species of Discula are now recognized in Apiognomonia. One widely used species of Discula is not congeneric with the type species and is not synonymous with Apiognomonia, namely Discula destructiva, cause of dogwood anthracnose (Redlin 1991). This species has been shown to fall outside of Apiognomonia but still within Gnomoniaceae, and is not allied with any known genus (Castlebury et al. 2002, Mejia et al. 2012). In order to continue the use of Discula destructiva for the cause of dogwood anthracnose and to eliminate the need for a new generic name and name change, a conservation proposal has been published to conserve Discula with a new type species, D. destructiva (Allen et al. 2016).
When the paper on recommendations for competing generic names in the non-clavicipitaceous Hypocrealeswas published based on deliberations of the Hypocreales Working Group (Rossman et al. 2013), only those generic names needing protection due to lack of priority or having asexual types were included. Since then the philosophy has changed with the Working Group reports including all competing generic names in their papers, for completeness, thus additional competing generic names in the non-clavicipitaceous Hypocreales are presented here. The generic names recommended for use in Nectriaceae are in agreement with the comprehensive overview of this family presented by Lombard et al. (2015). Among the clavicipitaceous Hypocreales, Quandt et al. (2014) published a paper on Ophiocordycipitaceae and a second major paper on Cordycipitaceae is planned to be published soon (R Kepler, pers. comm.). Several important generic pairs in Clavicipitaceae are considered here.
Protect Balansia Speg. 1885 (S) over Ephelis Fr. 1849 (A)
The genus Balansia is typified by B. claviceps and was monographed by Diehl (1950) with 13 species. A phylogeny of Balansia within Clavicipitaceae was provided by Reddy et al. (1998), who determined that six species of Balansia including the type form a monophyletic group. Balansia claviceps causes a disease referred to as false smut or flower blight that infects living inflorescences in tropical regions (Reddy et al. 1998). This and other species of Balansia produce alkaloids that provide protection to grasses that harbour this fungus as an endophyte (White 1997). The generic name Ephelis, based on E. mexicana, has been used for the asexual morphs of species of Balansia but includes many fewer names. Ephelis mexicana is considered the asexual morph of B. claviceps as confirmed by Diehl (1950) and later authors (Bacon & White 1994, White 1997), thus these generic names are synonyms. Balansia is here proposed for protection over Ephelis and only Balansia is included in Kirk et al. (2013).
Use Calonectria De Not. 1867 (S) rather than Cylindrocladium Morgan 1892 (A) and Candelospora Rea & Hawley 1912 (A)
The relationship and restricted definition of Calonectria based on C. pyrochroa and its asexual morph in Cylindrocladium typified by C. scoparium was first recognized by Rossman (1979) and confirmed by Lombard et al. (2010, 2015). The type of Candelospora, C. ilicicola, has most recently been recognized as a synonym of Calonectria pyrochroa (Lombard et al. 2015). Both Calonectria and Cylindrocladium are used about equally, thus we recommend following the principle of priority and using the name Calonectria. A number of important plant pathogic fungi are placed in this genus including Calonectria pseudonaviculata, cause of boxwood blight, and C. ilicicola, cause of black rot of peanut.
Use Calostilbe Sacc. & P. Syd. 1902 (S) rather than Calostilbella Höhn. 1919 (A) or Xenostilbum Petr. 1959 (A)
The relationships of the type species of Calostilbe, C. striispora, to the asexual morph Calostilbella calostilbe, type of the monotypic Calostilbella, was first recognized by Samuels (1973, as “Nectria striispora”) and later confirmed as a genus distinct from Nectria in Rossman et al. (1999) and Lombard et al. (2015). The synonymy of Xenostilbum sydowii, type of the monotypic Xenostilbum, with Calostilbella calostilbe was first recognized by von Arx (1981) and accepted by later authors. Given that the generic name Calostilbe has priority and is most widely used, Calostilbe is recommended for use.
Use Chaetopsina Rambelli 1956 (A) rather than Chaetopsinectria J. Luo & W.Y. Zhuang 2010 (S)
Four species of Nectria s. lat. having Chaetopsina asexual morphs were described by Samuels (1985). These species were later placed in a separate genus Chaetopsinectria typified by N. chaetopsinae by Luo & Zhuang (2010). The asexual morph of N. chaetopsinae is Chaetopsina fulva, type of the generic name Chaetopsina (Samuels 1985), thus these generic names are synonyms. One of the four nectria-like species described by Samuels (1985) and placed in Chaetopsinectria has since been placed in Mariannaea, M. catenulatae, thus only three names remain in Chaetopsinectria all of which have names in Chaetopsina. Chaetopsina includes 18 names. Given its priority, widespread use, and greater number of names, the generic name Chaetopsina is recommended for use.
Protect Claviceps Tul. 1853 (S) over Sphacelia Lév. 1827 (A) and rather than Ustilagopsis Speg. 1880 (A)
The genus Claviceps, typified by C. purpurea, is well known as the cause of ergot and human diseases associated with infected cereals (Bove 1970) while the asexual morph producing a honey dew has been placed in Sphacelia. The type of Sphacelia, S. segetum, has long been regarded as the asexual morph of C. purpurea (Tulasne 1853). This species was recently determined to consist of three species with S. segetum recognized as a synonym of C. purpurea sensu stricto (Pažoutová et al. 2015), thus there is no question that Claviceps and Sphacelia are synonyms. Another younger generic name, Ustilagopsis based on U. deliquescens, competes with Claviceps. This type is a synonym of Claviceps paspali as suggested by Wolf & Wolf (1947) and Langdon (1954), thus Ustilagopsis is a further synonym of Claviceps. In addition to ergot caused by C. purpurea, there are a number of important diseases caused by Clavicipes such as sorghum ergot, C. africana (Tooley et al. 2006), and horse’s tooth of corn, C. giganteum (Fuentes et al. 1964). These fungi produce a number of industrially important alkaloids (Hulvová et al. 2013). Although Sphacelia includes 33 species names, the generic name Claviceps includes 88 names, many of which have been thoroughly studied (White et al. 2003), is much more widely used, and should be protected for use.
Use Corallomycetella Henn. 1904 (S) rather than Rhizostilbella Wolk 1914 (A)
The type species of Corallomycetella, C. heinsenii, was confirmed as a synonym of C. repens by Rossman et al. (1999), a common tropical fungus that is known to cause diseases such as violet root rot of cacao, Theobroma cacao, and other root rot diseases on woody plants (Booth & Holliday 1973, as “Sphaerostilbe repens”). Seifert (1985) recognized the synonymy of the type species of Rhizostilbella, R. rubra, with Stilbum hibisci, then considered the asexual morph of Nectria mauritiicola, now C. repens (Rossman et al. 1999). Corallomycetella was recently monographed by Herrera et al. (2013) in which Corallomycetella was accepted over Rhizostilbella as was also the case in Lombard et al. (2015). Given its priority and widespread use, we recommend the use of Corallomycetella.
Use Epichloë (Fr.) Tul. & C. Tul. 1865 (S) rather than Neotyphodium Glenn et al. 1996 (A)
The relationship of Epichloë and Neotyphodium has already been addressed with all names resolved by Leuchtmann et al. (2014). They clearly demonstrated that these generic names are synonyms and agreed with priority thus recommending the use of Epichloë.
Protect Hypocrella Sacc. 1878 (S) over Aschersonia Mont. 1848 (A)
The genus Hypocrella based on H. discoidea has been defined to include the type and four additional species while most species previously regarded as Hypocrella are now placed in the genera Moelleriella and Samuelsia (Chaverri et al. 2008). The type species of Aschersonia, A. tahitensis, was said to be closely related to the type of Hypocrella (Chaverri et al. 2008), although H. discoidea was considered to have an asexual morph referred to as A. samoensis by Hywel-Jones et al. (1993). Nevertheless the generic names Hypocrella and Aschersonia are synonyms. Both names have been used extensively in the literature and include many names but with the narrow concept of Hypocrella, relatively few species remain in that genus but even fewer remain in Aschersonia. Given its widespread use and the greater number of names, we recommend the generic name Hypocrella for protection and use.
Protect Neonectria Wollenw. 1917 (S) over the additional synonym Heliscus Sacc. 1880 (A) as well as Cylindrocarpon Wollenw. 1913 (A)
As part of discussions by the Hypocreales Working Group, it was decided to protect Neonectria over Cylindrocarpon (Rossman et al. 2013). Since then Lombard et al. (2014) demonstrated that the type species of Heliscus, H. lugdunensis, belongs in Neonectria. This species is an aquatic hyphomycete with unusual helicoid conidia. Heliscus includes only a few species while over 50 species have been described in Neonectria including a number of important plant pathogens such as N. coccinea, cause of beech bark disease in Europe, and N. galligena, cause of canker disease of apple, birch and other hardwood trees in temperate regions. Given that Neonectria is already proposed for protection over Cylindrocarpon and that Heliscus is a relatively unknown genus with few species, it is recommended that Neonectria also be protected over Heliscus.
Use Ophionectria Sacc. 1878 (S) rather than Antipodium Piroz. 1974 (A)
The type of the generic name Ophionectria, O. trichospora, is a relatively common and distinctive species occurring on rotting wood in tropical regions (Rossman 1977). The asexual morph of O. trichospora was described as the equally distinctive Antipodium spectabile in the monotypic genus Antipodium (Pirozynski 1974), thus these generic names are synonyms. Given its priority and widespread use, the name Ophionectria is recommended for use.
Use Penicillifer Emden 1968 (A) rather than Viridispora Samuels & Rossman 1999 (S)
Two species of Nectria s. lat. were determined to have asexual morphs belonging to the genus Penicillifer by Samuels (1989). Rossman et al. (1999) recognized these species with two others as the distinct genus Viridospora, typified by V. penicilliferi. Lombard et al. (2015) demonstrated that the type species of Viridospora and the type species of Penicillifer, P. pulcher, were congeneric thus these generic names are synonyms. About eight names are included in Penicillifer with only four names in Viridispora, all of which also have names in Penicillifer. Given its priority, widespread use and greater number of names, we recommend the use of Penicillifer.
Use Sarcopodium Ehrenb. 1818 (A) rather than Actinostilbe Petch 1925 (A) and Lanatonectria Samuels & Rossman 1999 (S)
A clade with the type species of Sarcopodium, S. circinatum, was shown to include the type species of Lanatanectria, L. flocculenta (as S. macalpinei), and the type species of Actinostilbe, A. vanillae (as S. vanilla) by Lombard et al. (2015), thus these three generic names are synonyms. Actinostilbe had previously been shown to be a synonym of Sarcopodium by Sutton (1981). About thirty names are included in Sarcopodium, a generic name that is widely used. Only five names have been placed in Lanatonectria. Given its priority, widespread use and greater number of names, we recommend the use of Sarcopodium.
Use Ustilaginoidea Bref. 1895 (A) rather than Villosiclava E. Tanaka & C. Tanaka 2009 (S)
The type species of Ustilaginoidea, U. oryzae, now recognized as U. virens, causes a disease called false smut of rice that occurs throughout the rice-growing regions of the world (Mulder & Holliday 1971). A monotypic generic name for the sexual morph of this fungus, Villosiclava based on V. virens, was published by Tanaka et al. (2009) in which the relationship between these two names as the same species was confirmed. Thus there is no question that these generic names are synonyms. Ustilaginoidea has been used widely for this disease while the sexual morph name is relatively recent and has not been used to any extent. Given its widespread use and priority, Ustilaginoidea is recommended for use.
Use Volutella Fr. 1832 (A) nom. cons. rather than Volutellonectria J. Luo & W.Y. Zhuang 2012 (S)
Volutella based on V. ciliata is a well known genus of ubiquitous, sporodochial, saprobic fungi. This generic name has been conserved over the plant name Volutella Forsk. 1775 (Lauraceae) (Hawksworth & Tulloch 1972). The link with the nectria-like sexual morph Nectria consors was determined by Samuels (1977). This species, as Volutellonectria consors, served as the type of the generic name Volutellonectria with three species. Gräfenhan et al. (2011) and Lombard et al. (2015) demonstrated that Volutella ciliata and V. consors are congeneric and should be regarded as a distinct genus in Nectriaceae. Given the numerous species, its priority, and widespread use, it is recommended that Volutella be used for this genus.
Use Xenocylindrocladium Decock et al. 1997 (A) rather than Xenocalonectria Crous & C.L. Schoch (2000)
The type species of Xenocylindrocladium, X. serpens, was described as the asexual morph of Nectria serpens (Decock et al. 1997), a name that was later transferred to the monotypic Xenocalonectria (Schoch et al. 2000), thus these generic names are synonyms. Given the three names in that genus and its priority, we recommend the use of Xenocylindrocladium.
Sordariomycetes Incertae Sedis
Use Batistia Cif. 1958 (S) rather than Acrostroma Seifert 1987 (A)
The monotypic genus Batistia is based on B. annulipes with which an asexual morph, Acrostroma annellosynnema, was linked using cultural methods by Samuels & Rodriguez (1989). No sequence data have been published for this species and the only known cultures are lost (S Huhndorf, in litt. to K A Seifert). The generic name Acrostroma, typified by A. annulipes, was described by Seifert (1987) with two species added since then (Verma et al. 2008) that are probably misclassified (Seifert et al. 2011). Batistia annulipes is a relatively common and distinctive tropical fungus, thus this genus is more widely known than Acrostroma. Based on its greater use in the literature and priority, we recommend the use of Batistia.
In reviewing generic names in Leotiomycetes, Johnston et al. (2014) listed competing generic names and proposed a single generic name for protection or use. However, the following three sets of generic names were not included in that paper. In addition two new combinations are made in genera reviewed previously and the protection of a generic name of a powdery mildew (Leotiomycetes, Erysiphales) omitted in Braun (2013) is proposed.
Protect Drepanopeziza (Kleb.) Jaap 1914 (S) over Gloeosporium Desm. & Mont. 1848 (A) and rather than Gloeosporidiella Petr. 1921 (A)
Drepanopeziza ribis, type species of Drepanopeziza, is commonly encountered causing a leaf spot disease of current or gooseberry anthracnose (Booth & Walker 1979). The name Drepanopeziza was recognized at the generic rank for the first time by Jaap (1914) based on Pseudopeziza subgenus Drepanopeziza described by Klebahn (1906) who based this subgenus on P. ribis, the only species mentioned in this description; Index Fungorum erroneously gives P. campestris as the type of Drepanopeziza. Although Jaap (1914) recognized D. campestris based on P. campestris, he attributed the generic name to Klebahn’s name Pseudopeziza subgenus Drepanopeziza, which was described with only one species, P. ribis (Klebahn 1906). This name automatically becomes the type. Drepanopeziza was not included in Johnston et al (2014) because this name was considered to represent a good genus with no competing synonyms. Since then, it has been discovered that the type species of Gloeosporium, G. castagnei, is the asexual morph of D. populi-albae and the type species of Gloeosporidiella, G. ribis, is the asexual morph of D. ribis. Similarly G. variabile is the asexual morph of D. variabilis (Rimpau 1961). Thus Gloeosporium and Gloeosporidiella are congeneric with Drepanopeziza. Von Arx (1957) provided an account of the over 800 names described in a very broadly circumscribed Gloeosporium, which are used for asexual morphs of species in genera throughout the ascomycetes. Gloeosporidiella is a smaller genus with only 18 species some of which were included in von Arx (1957) and Sutton (1980). Based on its widespread use, the ill-defined, historical concept of Gloeosporium, and the relative obscurity of Gloeosporidiella, Drepanopeziza is recommended for protection and use over these two competing generic names.
Protect Golovinomyces (U. Braun) Heluta 1988 (S) over Euoidium Y.L. Paul & J.N. Kapoor 1985 (A)
Braun (2012) discussed the relevance of asexual and sexual morph-typified names in powdery mildews (Erysiphales) and proposed to give general preference to names based on sexual morphs. This approach to solve corresponding nomenclatural problems in powdery mildews was implemented by Braun (2013) who proposed to conserve the sexual morph-typified name Blumeria against the asexual morph-typified name Oidium and twenty-two sexual morph-typified species names against competing asexual morph-typified names. One case at the generic level was omitted. Braun (1978) introduced Erysiphe sect. Golovinomyces for powdery mildews characterized by having ascomata with mycelioid appendages, 2-spored asci, and a characteristic asexual morph: i.e. appressoria indistinct to nipple-shaped, conidia catenescent, without fibrosin bodies. Heluta (1988) raised this section to generic rank by introducing the new combination Golovinomyces. The asexual morphtypified name Euoidium was proposed by Paul & Kapoor (1985) with Oidium erysiphioides as type species. This generic name was previously used in the broad sense for all kinds of asexual powdery mildews with conidia formed in chains. Oidium erysiphoides is also a dubious name, i.e. used in a very wide sense for all kinds of asexual powdery mildews. Type material of O. erysiphoides is not preserved. In order to clarifiy the application of Oidium erysiphoides and thereby Euoidium, Braun & Cook (2012) neotypified this species name with asexual morph material of Golovinomyces biocellatus making Euoidium a heterotypic synonym of Golovinomyces. The name Euoidium dates from 1985 while Golovinomyces was introduced at the generic rank in 1988. Following the proposal to give general preference to sexual morph-typified names in powdery mildews, its wide recognition, and phylogenetically proven distinction, Golovinomyces is proposed for protection over Euoidium.
Protect Holwaya Sacc. 1889 over the additonal synonym Crinium Fr. 1819 (A)
Although the generic name Holwaya has been proposed for protection over Crinula in Johnston et al. (2014), since then it has been determined that Holwaya must also be protected against Crinium based on the type, Acrospermum caliciiforme. In the protologue for Crinium Fries (1819) mentioned only this species with reference to its place of publication. Later Fries (1821) placed A. caliciiforme in the genus Crinula. The name Crinium has not been used since then, thus Holwaya is proposed for protection over Crinium.
Use Pseudeurotium J.F.H. Beyma 1937 (S) rather than Teberdinia Sogonov et al. 2005 (A)
The genus Pseudeurotium based on P. zonatum includes 19 names and belongs in Pseudeurotiaceae. Sogonov et al. (2005) described the monotypic genus Teberdinia, based on T. hygrophila, including three unnamed asexual morphs of species of Pseudeurotium. In determining the phylogenetic position of the fungus causing white-nose syndrome of bats now known as Pseudogymnoascus destructans, Minnis & Lindner (2013) demonstrated that Pseudeurotium and Teberdinia were synonyms and placed T. hygrophila in Pseudeurotium. While Teberdinia is monotypic and relatively obscure, Pseudeurotium has priority, includes a number species, and is well known, thus we recommend the use of Pseudeurotium.
New Combinations in Leotiomycetes
In reviewing generic names in Leotiomycetes, Johnston et al. (2014) recommended the use of Godronia rather than Topospora. Since then it has been determined that two names in Topospora should be placed in Godronia so these new combinations are proposed here:
Godronia myrtilli (Feltgen) J.K. Stone, comb. nov.
Basionym: Dothiopsis myrtilli Feltgen, Vorstud. Pilzfl. Luxemb., Nachtr. III: 286 (1903).
Synonym: Topospora myrtilli (Feltgen) Boerema, Gewasbes-cherming 1(4): 66(1970).
In studying Sirococcus, Konrad et al. (2007) used Godronia (syn. Topospora) as an outgroup and showed that two isolates of T. myrtilli grouped with G. cassandrae, thus confirming that T. myrtilli belongs in Godronia.
Godronia raduloides (Sacc. & Scalia) J.K. Stone, comb. nov.
Basionym: Rhynchophoma raduloides Sacc. & Scalia, Harriman Alaska Expedition 5: 20 (1904).
Synonym: Topospora raduloides (Sacc. & Scalia) Verkley, Nova Hedwigia 75: 444 (2002).
In placing this species in Topospora, Verkley (2002) noted that on the type material there was a note “…accompanied by apothecia of a species of Godronia”, and he suggested that Godronia was the sexual morph of T. raduloides.
Although a list has been published of recommendations for competing genera in the Dothideomycetes (Rossman et al. 2015b) based on Wijayawardene et al. (2014), a number of additional competing generic names have been noted since then and are listed here with recommendations for the generic name to use.
Use Abrothallus De Not 1845 (S) rather than Vouauxiomyces Dyko & D. Hawksw. 1979 (A)
The generic name Abrothallus, typified by A. bertianus, represents a relatively well-known group of lichenicolous fungi including about 60 names, while Vouauxiomyces based on V. truncatus (Hawksworth & Dyko 1979), the asexual morph of A. microspermus. The connection between these generic names was confirmed using electrophoretic methods by Pérez-Ortega et al. (2011), who cited numerous papers in which this relationship was noted. In addition two recent accounts of Abrothallus have been published in which the phylogeny and species of this genus are elaborated (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2014, Suija et al. 2015). Given the greater number of species, widespread use, and priority, use of Abrothallus is recommended.
Use Acroconidiellina M.B. Ellis 1971 (A) rather than Zeuctomorpha Sivan. et al. 1984 (S)
The monotypic genus Zeuctomorpha, based on Z. arecae, was described as the sexual morph of Acroconidiellina arecae. No molecular work exists to confirm that A. arecae is congeneric with the type species of Acroconidiellina, A. loudetiae, but this seems likely. Assuming that these type species belong in the same genus, it follows that Acrodonidiellina and Zeuctomorpha are congeneric. Acroconidiellina includes four species, is more commonly used, has priority, and was accepted by Hernández-Restropo et al. (2016), thus we recommend the use of Acroconidiellina.
Protect Amarenographium O.E. Erikss. 1982 (A) over Amarenomyces O.E. Erikss. 1981 (S)
The type species of Amarenomyces, A. ammophilae, was determined to be the sexual morph of Amarenographium metableticum, type of Amarenographium (Eriksson 1982, Phooksamsak et al. 2014), thus these generic names are synonyms. Although Amarenomyces ammophilae is widely reported as an aquatic fungus, it remains the only name placed in this genus while four species have been included in Amarenographium (Nag Raj 1989). Both generic names have been cited about equally. Rather than make three name changes, we recommend protecting the name Amarenographium forwhich no name changes are required.
Protect Amniculicola Y. Zhang ter & K.D. Hyde 2008 (S) over Anguillospora Ingold 1942 (A)
Both Zhang et al. (2009) and Shearer et al. (2009) showed that the type species of Anguillospora, A. longissima, groups with three species of Amniculicola including the type, A. lignicola, within Pleosporales, thus Anguillospora and Amniculicola are synonyms. Although more species of Anguillospora have been described, these aquatic hyphomycetous fungi tend to be morphologically convergent with most sequenced species belonging in the Leotiomycetes (Belliveau & Barlocher 2005, Baschien et al. 2006, Duarte et al. 2013). Although 18 species have been described in Anguillospora, five are known to belong in the Leotiomycetes, another in the Orbiliomycetes, and one in the Dothideales but not related to Amniculicola. Only the type species of Anguillospora, A. longissima, is monophyletic with the three species of Amniculicola. Thus, if Amniculicola is protected over Anguilllospora, only one new combination is required. The use of Anguillospora with a new type species belonging to the Leotiomycetes will be proposed. This will conserve Anguillospora in the sense in which it has been most commonly used.
One new combination is necessary:
Amniculicola longissima (Sacc. & P. Syd.) Nadeeshan & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov.
Basionym: Fusarium longissimum Sacc. & P. Syd., Syll. Fung. 14: 1128 (1899).
Use Atichia Flot. 1850 (A) rather than Seuratia Pat. 1904 (S)
Atichia glomerulosa, the older name for A. mosigii, type species of Atichia, is commonly reported as a lichen-like, superficial, gelatinous, black fungus on evergreen leaves in warm temperate and tropical regions (Meeker 1975, Gillis & Glawe 2008). Its sexual morph was described as Seuratia coffeicola, later referred to as S. millardetii, type species of Seuratia (Meeker 1975). Three names have been placed in Seuratia, two of which have names in Atichia. Although Atichia includes 20 names, many of these appear to be synonyms. These fungi are most commonly reported as Atichia and that generic name has priority, thus Atichia is recommended for use.
The following new combination is required:
Atichia maunauluana (Meeker) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Seuratia maunauluana Meeker, Can. J. Bot. 53: 2490 (1975).
Use Blasdalea Sacc. & P. Syd. 1902 (S) rather than Chrysogloeum Petr. 1959 (A) or Singerella Petr. 1959 (S)
Petrak (1959) established the monotypic genus Chrysogloeum based on C. peruvianum to accommodate the asexual morph of Singeriella peruvianum, monotype of Singeriella. According to Kirk et al. (2008), Singeriella is a synonym of the monotypic Blasdalea based on B. disciformis. Hence, these three monotypic generic names are all based on the same species. Swart (1971) established the family Vizellaceae for the genera Blasdalea and Vizella. Neither Chrysogloeum nor Singeriella have been considered by any but the original author. Blasdalea has priority, thus this generic name is recommended for use.
Use Capnodium Mont. 1849 (S) rather than the additional synonym Fumagospora G. Arnaud 1911 (A)
Following Hughes (1976), Crous et al. (2007) demonstrated that the sexual morph of Fumagospora, F. capnodioides, is Capnodium salicinum, type of Capnodium, thus Fumagospora is an additional synonym of Capnodium, which was recommended for protection over Polychaeton 1846 by the Dothideomycetes Working Group (Rossman et al. 2015b).
Use Dilophospora Desm. 1840 (A) rather than Lidophia J. Walker & B. Sutton 1974 (S)
Twist disease caused by Dilophospora alopecuri occurs on the leaves, stems and glumes of cereals and grasses in temperate regions throughout the world (Gibson & Sutton 1976, Riley 1996). The generic name Dilophospora is based on the type species, D. graminis, a synonym of D. alopecuri (Walker & Sutton 1974). The generic name Lidophia was established by Walker & Sutton (1974) for the later homonym Dilophia Sacc. 1883 non Dilophia Thomson 1853 (Brassicaceae). The type species of Lidophia is L. graminis based on Dilophia graminis, the sexual morph of Dilophospora alopecuri (Walker & Sutton 1974), thus Dilophospora and Lidophia are synonyms. Lidophia is a monotypic genus while Dilophospora now includes two species, is widely used, and has priority, thus we recommend the use of Dilophospora.
Six new combinations in Elsinoë:
Based on deliberations of the Dothideomycetes Working Group (Rossman et al. 2015b), it was recommended that the generic name Elsinoë should be protected over Sphaceloma. Six names in Sphaceloma of importance to plant quarantine officials in the United States are herein transferred to Elsinoë.
Elsinoë bucidae (A.M.J. Watson & Jenkins) Romberg & W.C. Allen, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaceloma bucidae A.M.J. Watson & Jenkins, Mycologia 61:276(1969).
Elsinoë caricae (Ikata & Katsuki) Romberg & W.C. Allen, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaceloma caricae Ikata & Katsuki, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 21: 14 (1956).
Elsinoë choisyae (A.M.J. Watson & Jenkins) Romberg & W.C. Allen, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaceloma choisyae A.M.J. Watson & Jenkins, Mycologia 61:276(1969).
Elsinoë paeoniae (Kuros.) Romberg & W.C. Allen, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaceloma paeoniae Kuros., Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 9: 131 (1939).
Elsinoë psidii (Bitanc. & Jenkins) Romberg & W.C. Allen, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaceloma psidii Bitanc. & Jenkins, Archos Inst. biol., S. Paulo 19: 105 (1949) [“1949-50”].
Elsinoë zorniae (Bitanc. & Jenkins) Romberg & W.C. Allen, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaceloma zorniae Bitanc. & Jenkins, Aq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 11:47 (1940).
In addition, Sphaceloma fawcettii var. scabiosa, differentiated from Elsinoë fawcettii on the basis of morphological and cultural characteristics, should be considered synonymous with E. fawcettii based on molecular analyses (Tan et al. 1996, Hyun et al. 2009).
Use Eupelte Syd. 1924 (S) rather than Maurodothina G. Arnaud ex Piroz. & Shoemaker 1970 (S) or Pirozynskia Subram.1972 (A)
The genus Eupelte, based on E. amicta, was considered by von Arx & Müller (1975) to include the type species of two other genera, namely E. dothideoides, type of Maurodothina, and E. farriae, the sexual morph of the type of Pirozynskia, P. farriae, thus these three generic names are synonyms. Eupelte farriae causes a black mildew on Abies in north temperate regions (Pirozynski & Shoemaker 1970). Among the four names included in these three genera, all but one have been included in Eupelte, thus use of the oldest generic name is recommended.
Eupelte shoemakeri (Subram.) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Pirozynskia shoemakeri Subram., Curr. Sci. 41: 711 (1972).
Use Koordersiella Höhn. 1909 (S) rather than Hansfordiellopsis Deighton 1960 (A) and Ascohansfordiellopsis D. Hawksw. 1979 (S)
The synonymy of these three lichenicolous generic names was presented by Hawksworth (2016). Based on morphology, he considered the type species of Koordersiella, K. javanica, and the type species of Hansfordiellopsis, H. aburiensis (now regarded as a synonym of K. insectivora), to be congeneric. Although Hansfordiellopsis includes eight species names while Koordersiella has only five, he accepted priority because all of these fungi are relatively obscure and thus used Koordersiella, and we concur.
Protect Metacapnodium Speg. 1918 (S) over Antennularia Rchb. 1838 (S) and rather than Torulopsiella Bender 1932 (A), Capnocybe S. Hughes 1966 (A), Capnophialophora S. Hughes 1966 (A), Capnobotrys S. Hughes 1970 (A), and Capnosporium S. Hughes 1976 (A)
The genus Metacapnodium is typified by M. juniperi (Hughes 1972). This genus was recently considered to be congeneric with Antennularia based on A. ericophila, which was placed in Metacapnodium as M. ericophilum (Hyde et al. 2013). In addition they considered Capnocybe typified by C. fraserae to be an asexual morph of Metacapnodium fraserae (Hughes 1976). Hughes (1972, 1981) also listed Capnobotrys, Capnophialophora and Torulopsiella as names for the synanamorphs of Metacapnodium. Thus these six generic names compete for use. Four of these names, Capnocybe with three species, Capnophialophora with three species, monotypic Capnosporium, and Torulopsiella with two species, are rarely used. Although Antennularia includes 17 names and Capnobotrys includes ten, Metacapnodium with 14 names is widely used and should be protected as suggested in Hyde et al. (2013).
Use Microxiphium (Harv. ex Berk. & Desm.) Thüm. 1879 (A) rather than Dennisiella Bat. & Cif. 1962 (S)
The generic name Microxiphium (previously often spelled “Microxyphium”) is typified by M. footii while the type of Dennisiella is D. babingtonii. The types of these generic names are considered the same species (Dennis & Ellis 1952, Hughes 1976, Sivanesan 1984). Little molecular study has been conducted on these fungi, nevertheless, Microxiphium fagi, the earliest name for this species (Hughes 1976), is reported commonly in the literature. At present Microxiphium includes 33 names while Rocha et al. (2010) provided a key to the nine species of Dennisiella. Based on priority, the greater number of names, and widespread use, Microxiphium is recommended for use.
Use Mirandina G. Arnaud ex Matsush. 1975 (A) rather than Chaetonectrioides Matsush. 1996 (S)
The type of Mirandina, M. corticola, is a relatively common fresh-water hyphomycete that is known from Europe and Asia (Czeczuga et al. 2007, Kobayashi 2007). The sexual morph of the congeneric species, M. flagelliformis, was described as Chaetonectrioides malaysiana, in the monotypic genus Chaetonectrioides, thus these generic names are synonyms. About 10 species have been included in Mirandina with two species described recently (Ma et al. 2015, Fiuza et al. 2016). No DNA sequences exist for any of these species. Given the greater number of species and priority, use of Mirandina is recommended.
Use Protoventuria Berl. & Sacc. 1887 (S) rather than Ramalia Bat. 1957 (A)
The genus Protoventuria is typified by P. rosae based on Venturia rosae and includes 46 names. Zhang et al. (2012) demonstrated that this species groups with Protoventuria alpina to form a distinct lineage of Dothideomycetes that should be regarded as Protoventuria. The type species of Ramalia, R. veronicae, was placed in the genus Fusicladium as F. veronicae by Sutton & Pascoe (1988). They also described Protoventuria parahebicola for the sexual morph of this species, which causes leaf spots on Parahebe (Scrophulariaceae), thus Protoventuria and Ramalia are synonyms. Although one additional name, R. byrsonimatis was described in Ramalia (Braun & Mouchacca 2000), that name has remained obscure. Protoventuria includes over 40 names, is widely used, and has priority over Ramalia, thus Protoventuria is recommended for use.
Use Sarcinella Sacc. 1880 (A) rather than Schiffnerula Höhn. 1909 (S) and Questieriella S. Hughes 1983 (A)
When Hughes (1983) described the genus Questieriella based on Q. pulchra, he stated that the sexual morph was Schiffnerula pulchra and that Sarcinella heterospora, type of Sarcinella, represented a second asexual morph of the same species. Thus the generic names Sarcinella and Questieriella are synonyms. Earlier Hughes (1952) had distinguished the asexual morph of Schiffnerula mirabilis, type of the genus Schiffnerula, from S. pulchra. Hughes (1952) and Hosagoudar (2003) considered S. mirabilis and S. pulchra to be congeneric, thus Schiffnerula is also congeneric with Questieriella and Sarcinella. A second species of Schiffnerula, S. corni, was described from Quebec having Questieriella and Sarcinella synasexual morphs (Hughes 1990), again suggesting this generic synonymy. None of these species have been sequenced. Sarcinella provides the oldest generic name for these fungi, is used about equally with Schiffnerula, and has about the same number of names, thus the principle of priority is followed and Sarcinella is recommended for use.
The following new combinations are required:
Sarcinella mirabilis (Höhn.) Seifert, comb. nov.
Basionym: Schiffnerula mirabilis Höhn., Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Kl., Abt. 1 118: 868 (1909).
Sarcinella pulchra (Sacc.) Seifert, comb. nov.
Basionym: Apiosporium pulchrum Sacc., Mycoth. Univ., cent. 1: no. 52 (1875).
Synonyms: Dimerosporium pulchrum (Sacc.) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 1: 52 (1882).
Schiffnerula pulchra (Sacc.) Petr., Ann. mycol. 26: 397 (1928). Sarcinella heterospora Sacc., Fungi italica autogr. del. 1-4: tab. 126 (1877).
Questieriella pulchra S. Hughes, Can. J. Bot. 61: 1730. 1983.
An additional new combination in Schizothyrium
Previously the generic name Schizothyrium was recommended for use rather than Zygophiala and most names have been placed in Schizothyrium, however, one name was overlooked.
Schizothyrium jamaicense (E.W. Mason) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Zygophiala jamaicense E.W. Mason, Mycol. Pap. 13: 5 (1945).
Use Trichothallus D. Stevens 1925 (A) rather than Plokamidomyces Bat. et al. 1957 (A) or Trichopeltheca Bat. et al. 1958 (S)
Hughes (1965) monographed Trichopeltheca and accepted two species including the type species T. asiatica and listing the type species of Plokamidomyces, P. colensoi, as a synonym. He also accepted a second species, T. stevensii, with the type species of Trichothallus, T. hawaiiensis, as a synonym, thus these three generic names are synonyms. These sooty moulds develop from a distinctive one-cell thick stroma growing over living plant tissue, with setae, conidia and perithecia developing from the same stromata. Although there are no cultures or DNA sequence data, there is little doubt that these two species are congeneric and that the constituitive morphs are part of the same fungus. None of the three generic names is frequently cited in the literature. Adopting either the older asexual morph name Trichothallus or the sexual morph name Trichopeltheca would require making a new combination. We opt to respect priority in this case and recommend the adoption of the oldest generic name Trichothallus.
Trichothallus niger (Jennings) Seifert, comb. nov.
Basionym: Phycopeltis nigra Jennings, Proc.R. Irish Acad. 3: 758 (1896).
Type: New Zealand: Rotorua, on Nesodaphne towa (sic, = Beilschmiedia tawa), A.V. Jennings (DBN-lectotype designated here, MBT-isotype).
Synonyms: Plokamidomyces colensoi Bat. et al., Atti Ist. bot. Univ. Lab. crittog. Pavia, ser. 5, 15: 47 (1957).
Trichopeltheca asiatica Bat. et al., Publicações Inst. Micol. Recife 90: 13 (1958) [“1957”].
Notes: On the basis of the protologue of Phycopeltis nigra, Santesson (1944) concluded that the type material was mixed and that the name should be considered a nomen confusum, as was common practice at the time and permitted under the Code then in force. Hughes (1965) examined co-type (i.e. syntypes) specimens in DBN and MBT and recognized that P. nigra was identical with T. asiatica, arguing that the ‘type form’ described in the protologue corresponded with the Trichopeltheca component. He did not make the new combination, presumably because the species had originally been described as an alga. The lectotype proposed above is selected based on Hughes’ observations.
Use Xenodium Syd. 1935 (S) rather than Xenodiella Syd. 1935 (A)
The generic names Xenodium typified by X. petrakii and Xenodiella typified by X. petrakii were published in the same article as sexual and asexual morphs of the same species (Sydow 1935), thus these generic names are synonyms. Both generic names are monotypic, however, Xenodium has been used in the literature more than Xenodiella, thus Xenodium is recommended for use.
Use Yoshinagaia Henn. 1904 (A) rather than Japonia Höhn. 1909 (S), Yoshinagamyces Hara 1912 (A) or Monoloculia Hara 1927 (A)
The type species of each of these four monotypic generic names, Yoshinagaia, Japonia, Yoshinagamyces and Monoloculia, are the same species as explained by Sivanesan & Hsieh (1995). All of the names are relatively obscure but Yoshinagaia is used more frequently than the others. In addition, Japonia is also used as the name for an insect, thus we recommend use of the name that has priority, namely Yoshinagaia.
The nomenclator for the type species of these four generic names is:
Yoshinagaia quercus Henn., Hedwigia 43: 143 (1904).
Synonyms: Monoloculia quercus (Henn.) Hara, Diseases of Trees: 171 (1927).
Japonia quercus Höhn., Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Kl., Abt. 1, 118: 879. (1909).
Yoshinagamyces quercus Hara, Bot. Mag., (Tokyo) 26: 143 (1912).
Allen C, Castlebury LA, Rossman AY (2016) (2425) Proposal to conserve the name Discula (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales) with a conserved type. Taxon 65: 388.
Arx JA von (1957) Revision der zu Gloeosporium Gestellten Pilze. Verhandlingen der Koninklijke Nedertlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afd. Naturkunde, Tweede Reeks 51(3): 1–153.
Arx JA von (1981) Xenostilbum, a synonym of Calostilbella. Persoonia 11: 391.
Arx JA von, Müller E (1975) A re-evaluation of the bitunicate ascomycetes with keys to families and genera. Studies in Mycology 9: 1–159.
Bacon CW, White JF jr (1994). Biotechnology of Endophytic Fungi of Grasses. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Baschien C, Marvanov’a L, Szewzyk U (2006) Phylogeny of selected aquatic hyphomycetes based on morphological and molecular data. Nova Hedwigia 83: 311–352.
Belliveau MJ, Bärlocher F (2005) Molecular evidence confirms multiple origins of aquatic hyphomycetes. Mycological Research 109: 1407–1417.
Booth C, Holliday P (1973) Sphaerostilbe repens. Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria 391: 1–2.
Booth C, Waller JM (1979) Drepanopeziza ribis. Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria 638: 1–2.
Bove FJ (1970) The Story of Ergot. For physicians, pharmacists, nurses, biochemists, biologists and others interested in the life sciences. Basel: S. Karger.
Braun U (1978) Beitrag zur Systematik und Nomenklatur der Erysiphales. Feddes Repertorium 88: 655–665.
Braun U (2012) The impact of the discontinuation of dual nomenclature of pleomorphic fungi: the trivial facts, problems, and strategies. IMA Fungus 3: 81–86.
Braun U (2013) (2210-2232) Proposals to conserve the teleomorph-typified name Blumeria against the anamorph-typified name Oidium and twenty-two teleomorph-typified powdery mildew species names against competing anamorph-typified names (Ascomycota: Erysiphaceae). Taxon 62: 1328–1331.
Braun U, Cook RTA (2012) Taxonomic Manual of the Erysiphales (Powdery Mildews). [CBS Biodiversity series no. 11.] Utrecht: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre.
Braun U, Mouchacca J (2000) Reassessments of Cercospora byrsonimatis and Ramularia ligustrina. Mycological Research 104: 1009–1011.
Castlebury LA, Rossman AY, Jaklitsch WJ, Vasilyeva LN (2002) A preliminary overview of the Diaporthales based on large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycologia 94: 1017–1031.
Chaverri P, Liu M, Hodge KT (2008) A monograph of the entomopathogenic genera Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia gen. nov. (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Clavicipitaceae), and their aschersonia-like anamorphs in the Neotropics. Studies in Mycology 60: 1–66.
Cole GT, Kendrick WB (1968) Conidium ontogeny in hyphomycetes: the imperfect state of Monascus ruber and its meristem arthrospores. Canadian Journal of Botany 46: 987–992.
Crous PW, Braun U, Groenewald JZ (2007) Mycosphaerella is polyphyletic. Studies in Mycology 58: 1–32.
Czeczuga B, Muszynska E, Godlewska A, Mazalska B (2007) Aquatic fungi and straminipilous organisms on decomposing fragments of wetland plants. Mycologia Balcanica 4: 31–44.
Dallyn H, Everton JR (1969) The xerophilic mould, Xeromyces bisporus, as a spoilage organism. International Journal of Food Science Technology 4: 399–403.
Daniel H-M, Lachance M-A, CP Kurtzman (2014) On the reclassification of species assigned to Candida and other ascomycetous yeast genera based on phylogenetic circumscription. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 10: 67–84.
de Beer ZW, Seifert KA, Wingfield MJ (2013) A nomenclator for ophiostomatoid genera and species in the Ophiostomatales and Microascales. In: Ophiosptomatoid Fungi: expanding frontiers (Seifert KA, de Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ, eds): 245–322. [CBS Biodiversity Series no. 12.] Utrecht: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre.
Decock C, Hennebert GL, Crous PW (1997) Nectria serpens sp. nov. and its hyphomycetous anamorph Xenocylindrocladium gen. nov. Mycological Research 101: 786–790.
Dennis RWG, Ellis MB (1952) Capnodium footii and Strigula babingtonii. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 35: 196.
Diehl WW (1950) Balansia and the Balansiae in America. Agriculture Monographs USDA 4: 1–82.
Duarte S, Seena A, Bärlocher F, Pascoal C, C’assio F (2013) A decade’s perspective on the impact of DNA sequencing on aquatic hyphomycete research. Fungal Biology 27: 19–24.
Eriksson OE (1982) Notes on ascomycetes and coelomycetes from NW Europe. Mycotaxon 15: 182–202.
Fathima SK, Shankara Bhat S, Girish K (2004) Variation in Phomopsis azadirachtae, the incitant of die-back of neem. Indian Phytopathology 57: 30–33.
Fiuza PO, Monteiro JS, Gusmõa LFP, Castaheda-Ruiz RF (2016) Mirandina uncinata sp. nov. from submerged leaves from Brazil. Mycotaxon 131: 141–144.
Fries EM (1819) Novitiae florae Sueciae. Part. 5. Lund: Berling.
Fries EM (1821) Systema Mycologicum. Vol. 1. Lund: Berling.
Fries EM (1832). Systema Mycologicum. Vol. 3(2). Greifswald: E Mauritii.
Fuentes SF, de Lourdes de la Isla M, Ullstrup AJ, Rodriquez AE (1964) Claviceps gigantea, a new pathogen of maize in Mexico. Phytopathology 54: 379–381.
Heluta VP (1988) Filogeneticheskie vzaimosvyazi mezhdu rodami erizifal’nykh gribov i nekotorye voprosy sistematika poryadka Erysiphales. Biologicheskii Zhurnal Armenii 41: 351–358.
Gibson IAS, Sutton, BC (1976). Dilophospora alopecuri. Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria 490: 1–2.
Gillis IM, Glawe DA (2008) Characterization of Seuratia millardetii on Camellia species and in artificial culture. North American Fungi 3: 215–229.
Girish K, Shankara Bhat S (2008) Phomopsis azadirachtae— the die-back of neem pathogen. Electronic Journal of Biology 4: 112–119.
Gräfenhan T, Schroers H-J, Nirenberg HI, Seifert KA (2011) An overview of the taxonomy, phylogeny, and typification of nectriaceous fungi in Cosmospora, Acremonium, Fusarium, Stilbella, and Volutella. Studies in Mycology 68: 79–113.
Hawksworth DL (2015) Proposals to clarify and enhance the naming of fungi under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. IMA Fungus 6: 199–205; Taxon 64: 858–862.
Hawksworth DL (2016) [“2015”] Asynopsis of the tropical pleomorphic lichenicolous genus Koordersiella (syn. Hansfordiellopsis) under a unified nomenclature. Journal of Fungal Research 13: 227–232.
Hawksworth DL, Dyko BJ (1979) Lichenodiplis and Vouauxiomyces Two new genera of lichenicolous coelomycetes. Lichenologist 11: 51–61.
Hawksworth DL, Tulloch M. (1972) Proposal to conserve the generic name Volutella Fr. (1832) [Fungi] against Volutella Forsk. (1775) [Lauraceae]. Taxon 21: 707–708.
Healy R, Pfister DH, Rossman AY, Marvanov’a L, Hansen K (2016) Competing sexual-asexual generic names of Pezizomycetes and recommendations for use. IMA Fungus 7: 285–288.
Hern’andez-Restrepo M, Schumacher RK, Wingfield MJ, Ahmad I, Cai L, et al. (2016) Fungal systematics and evolution: FUSE2. Sydowia 68: 193–230.
Herrera CS, Rossman AY, Samuels GJ, Chaverri P (2013) Revision of the genus Corallomycetella with Corallonectria gen. nov. for C. jatrophae (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales). Mycosystema 32: 518–544.
Hosagoudar VB (2003) The genus Schiffnerula and its synanamorphs. Zoos’ Print Journal 18: 1074–1078.
Hughes SJ (1952) Studies on micro-fungi. XIV Stigmella, Stigmina, Camptomeris, Polythrincium, and Fusicladiella. Mycological Papers 49: 1–25.
Hughes SJ (1965) New Zealand Fungi 5. Trichothallus and Plokamidomyces states of Trichopeltheca. New Zealand Journal of Botany 3: 320–332.
Hughes SJ (1972) New Zealand Fungi. 17. Pleomorphism in Euantennariaceae and Metacapnodiaceae, two new families of sooty moulds. New Zealand Journal of Botany 10: 225–242.
Hughes SJ (1976) Sooty molds. Mycologia 68: 693–820.
Hughes SJ (1981) New Zealand Fungi. 31. Capnobotrys an anamorph of Metacapnodiaceae. New Zealand Journal of Botany 19: 193–226.
Hughes SJ (1983) Five species of Sarcinella from North America, with notes on Questieriella n. gen., Mitteriella, Endophragmiopsis, Schiffnerula, and Clypeolella. Canadian Journal of Botany 61: 1727–1767.
Hughes SJ (1990) Schiffnerula corni n. sp. and its Sarcinella and Questieriella synanamorphs from Quebec. Mycologia 82: 657–658.
Hulvová H, Galszka P, Frébortová J, Frebort I (2013) Parasitic fungus Claviceps as a source for biotechnological production of ergot alkaloids. Biotechnology Advances 31: 79–89.
Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Liu J-K, Ariyawansa H, Boehm E, et al. (2013) Families of Dothideomycetes. Fungal Diversity 63: 1–313.
Hyun JW, Yi SH, MacKenzie SJ, Timmer LW, Kim KS, et al. (2009) Pathotypes and genetic relationship of worldwide collections of Elsinoë spp. causing scab diseases of Citrus. Phytopathology 99: 721–728.
Hywel-Jones NL, Evans HC (1993) Taxonomy and ecology of Hypocrella discoidea and its anamorph, Aschersonia samoensis. Mycological Research 97: 871–876.
Jaap O (1914) Sechstes verzeichnes zu meinem Exsiccatenwerk “Fungi selecti exsiccate” serien XXI bis XIV (nummern 501 bis 600) nebst Beschreibungen neuer Arten und Bemerkungen. Verhandlungen des Botanisches Vereins für die Provinz Brandenburg und die angrenzenden Länder 56-58: 77–92.
Johnston PR, Seifert KA, Stone JK, Rossman AY, Maranová L (2014) Recommendations on generic names competing for use in Leotiomycetes (Ascomycota). IMA Fungus 5: 91–120.
Kirk PM, Stalpers JA, Braun U, Crous PW, Hansen K, et al. (2013) A without-prejudice list of generic names of fungi for protection under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. IMA Fungus 4: 381–443.
Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008) Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of Fungi 10th edn. Wallingford: CAB International.
Klebahn H (1906) Untersuchungen über einige Fungi imperfecti und die zugehörigen Ascomycetenformen. III. Gloeosporium ribis (Lib.) Mont, et Desm. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten 16: 65–83.
Kobayashi T (2007) Index of Fungi Inhabiting Woody Plants in Japan: host distribution and literature. Tokyo: Zenkoku-Noson-Kyoiku Kyokai Publishing.
Konrad H., Stauffer C, Kirisits T, Halmschlager E (2007) Phylogeographic variation among isolates of the Sirococcus conigenus P group. Forest Pathology 37: 22–39.
Leuchtmann A, Bacon CW, Schardl CL, White JF jr, Tadych M (2014) Nomenclatural realignment of Neotyphodium species with genus Epichloe. Mycologia 106: 202–215.
Lombard L, Crous PW, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ (2010) Phylogeny and systematics of the genus Calonectria. Studies in Mycology 66: 31–69.
Lombard L, van der Merwe NA, Groenewald JZ, Crous PW (2014) Lineages in Nectriaceae re-evaluating the generic status of Ilyonectria and allied genera. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 53: 515–532.
Lombard L, van der Merwe NA, Groenewald JZ, Crous PW (2015) Generic concepts in Nectriaceae. Studies in Mycology 80: 189–245.
Luangsa-ard JJ, Hywel-Jones NL, Samson RA (2004) The polyphyletic nature of Paecilomyces sensu lato based on 18S-generated rDNA phylogeny. Mycologia 96: 773–780.
Luangsa-ard JJ, Hywel-Jones NL, Manoch L, Samson RA (2005) On the relationships of Paecilomyces sect. Isarioidea species. Mycological Research 109: 581–589.
Luo J, Zhuang W-Y (2010) Chaetopsinectria (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales), a new genus with Chaetopsina anamorphs. Mycologia 102: 976–984.
Ma Y-R, Xia J-W, Zhang X-G, Castaheda-Ruiz RF (2015) New species of Phaeomonilia and Mirandina from dead branches in China. Mycotaxon 130: 775–781.
Matsushima T (1975) Icones Microfungorum a Matsushima Lectorum. Osaka: Nippon Printing Publishing.
McNeill J, Barrie FF, Buck WR, Demoulin V, Greuter W, et al. (eds) (2012) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code). [Regnum vegetabile no. 154.] Königstein: Koeltz Scientific Books.
Meeker JA (1975) Revision of the Seuratiaceae. II. Taxonomy and nomenclature of Seuratia. Canadian Journal of Botany 53: 2483–2496.
Mejia LC, Rossman AY, Castlebury LA, Yang ZL, White JF jr (2012) Occultocarpon, a new monotypic genus of Gnomoniaceae on Alnus nepalensis from China. Fungal Diversity 52: 99–105.
Minnis AM, Lindner DL (2013) Phylogenetic evaluation of Geomyces and allies reveals no close relatives of Pseudogymnoascus destructans comb, nov, in bat hibernacula of eastern North America. Fungal Biology 117: 638–649.
Mulder JL, Holliday P (1971) Ustilaginoidea virens. Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria 299: 1–2.
Nag Raj TR (1989) Genera coelomycetum. XXVI. Amarenographium, Callistospora, Hyalothyridium, Orphanocoela anam.-gen.nov, Scolecosporiella, and Urohendersoniella. Canadian Journal of Botany 67: 3169–3186.
Nag Raj TR (1993) Coelomycetous Anamorphs with appendage-bearing conidia. Waterloo, ON: Mycologue Publications.
Ono Y, Kobayashi T (2003) Notes on new and noteworthy plant-inhabiting fungi from Japan (2): Griphosphaerioma zelkovicola sp. nov. with Sarcostroma anamorph isolated from bark of Zelkova serrata. Mycoscience 44: 109–114.
Paul YS, Kapoor JN (1985) Taxonomy of anamorphs of Erysiphaceae. Indian Phytopathology 38: 761–763.
Pažoutová S, Pešicová K, Chudicková M, Srutka P, Kolafik M (2015) Delimintation of cryptic species inside Claviceps purpurea. Fungal Biology 119: 7–26.
Pérez-Ortega S, Suija A, de los Rios A (2011) The connection between Abrothallus and its anamorph state Vouauxiomyces established by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Lichenologist 43: 277–279.
Pérez-Ortega S, Suija A, Crespo A, de los Rios A (2014) Lichenicolous fungi of the genus Abrothallus (Dothideomycetes: Abrothallales ordo nov.) are sister to the predominantly aquatic Jahnulales. Fungal Diversity 64: 295–304.
Petrak F (1959) Singeriella n. gen., eine neue, mit den Entopeltaceen verwandte Gattung aus den Hochgebirgen Peru. Sydowia 12: 252–257.
Pettersson OV, Leong S-I, Lantz H, Rice T, Dijksterhuis J, et al. (2011) Phylogeny and intraspecific variation of the extreme xerophile, Xeromyces bisporus. Fungal Biology 115: 1100–1111.
Phookamsak R, Liu J-K, McKenzie EHC, Manamgoda DS, Ariyawansa H, et al. (2014) Revision of Phaeosphaeriaceae. Fungal Diversity 68: 159–238.
Pirozynski KA (1974) Antipodium, a new genus of hyphomycetes. Canadian Journal of Botany 52: 1143–1146.
Pirozynski KA, Shoemaker RA (1970) Some Asterinaceae and Meliolaceae on conifers in Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 48: 1321–1328.
Prasad MN, Shankara Bhat S, Sreenivasa MY (2010) Antifungal activity of essential oils against Phomopsis azadirachtae- the causative agent of die-back disease of neem. Journal of Agricultural Technology 6: 127–133.
Prasad MN, Shankara Bhat S, Charith Raj AP, Janardhana GR (2009) Detection of Phomopsis azadirachtae from dieback affected neem twigs, seeds, embryo by polymerase chain reaction. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant protection 42: 124–128.
Quandt CA, Kepler RM, Gams W, Araüjo JPM, Ban S, et al. (2014) Phylogenetic-based nomenclatural proposals for Ophiocordycipitaceae (Hypocreales) with new combinations in Tolypocladium. IMA Fungus 5: 121–134.
Réblov’a M, Miller AN, Rossman AY, Seifert KA, Crous PW, et al. (2016) Recommendations for competing sexual-asexually typified generic names in Sordariomycetes (except Diaporthales, Hypocreales, and Magnaporthales). IMA Fungus 7: 131–153.
Reddy PV, Bergen MS, Patel R, White JF jr (1998) An examination of molecular phylogeny and morphology of the grass endophyte Balansia claviceps and similar species. Mycologia 90: 108–117.
Redlin SC (1991) Discula destructiva sp. nov., cause of dogwood anthracnose. Mycologia 83: 633–642.
Riley IT (1996) Dilophospora alopecuri on Lolium rigidum and Holcus lanatus in south-eastern Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology 25: 255–259.
Rimpau RH (1961) Untersuchungen ueber die Gattung Drepanopeziza (Kleb.) Hoehnel. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 43: 257–306.
Rocha FB, Barreto RW, Bezerra JL, Meira Neto JAA (2010) Foliar mycobiota of Coussapoa floccosa, a highly threatened tree of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Mycologia 102: 1240–1252.
Rossman AY (1977) The genus Ophionectria (Euascomycetes, Hypocreales). Mycologia 69: 355–391.
Rossman AY (1979) Calonectria and its type species, C. daldiniana, a later synonym of C. pyrochroa. Mycotaxon 8: 321–328.
Rossman AY, Adams GC, Cannon PF, Castlebury LA, Crous PW, et al. (2015a) Recommendations of generic names in Diaporthales competing for protection or use. IMA Fungus 6: 145–154.
Rossman AY, Crous PW, Hyde KD, Hawksworth DL, Aptroot A, et al. (2015b) Recommended names of pleomorphic genera in Dothideomycetes. IMA Fungus 6: 507–523.
Rossman AY, Samuels GJ, Rogerson CT, Lowen R (1999) Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae, and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1–248.
Rossman AY, Seifert KA, Samuels GJ, Minnis AM, Schroers H -J, et al. P. (2013) Genera in Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae, and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) proposed for acceptance or rejection.
Rossman AY, Udayanga D, Castlebury LA, Hyde KD (2014) Proposal to conserve the name Diaporthe eres, with a conserved type, against all other competing names (Ascomycota, Diaporthales, Diaporthaceae). Taxon 63: 934–935.
Samson RA, Hoekstra ES, Frisvad JC, Filtenborg O (eds) (2000) Introduction to Food- and Airborne Fungi, 6th edn. Utrecht: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre.
Samson RA, Houbraken J, Varga J, Frisvad JC (2009) Polyphasic taxonomy of the heat resistant ascomycete genus Byssochlamys and its Paecilomyces anamorphs. Persoonia 22: 14–27.
Samson RA, Visagie CM, Houbraken J, Hong S-B, Hubka V, et al. (2014) Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus. Studies in Mycology 78: 141–173.
Samuels GJ (1973) The genus Macbridella with notes on Calostilbe, Herpotrichia, Phaeonectria, and Letendraea. Canadian Journal of Botany 51: 1275–1283.
Samuels GJ (1977) Nectria consors and its Volutella conidial state. Mycologia 69: 255–262.
Samuels GJ (1985) Four new species of Nectria and their Chaetopsina anamorphs. Mycotaxon 22: 13–32.
Samuels GJ (1989) Nectria and Penicillifer. Mycologia 81: 347–355.
Samuels GJ, Rodrigues KF (1989) Batistia annulipes and its anamorph, Acrostroma annellosynnema. Mycologia 81: 52–56.
Santesson R (1944) Phycopeltis nigra Jennings, a misunderstood epiphyllous ‘alga’. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 38: 243–248.
Sateesh MK, Shankara Bhat S, Devaki NS (1997) Phomopsis azadirachtae sp. nov. from India. Mycotaxon 65: 517–520.
Schoch CL, Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD (2000) Phylogeny of Calonectria and selected hypocrealean genera with cylindrical macroconidia. Studies in Mycology 45: 45–62.
Seifert KA (1985) A monograph of Stilbella and some allied hyphomycetes. Studies in Mycology 27: 1–234.
Seifert KA (1987) Stromatographium and Acrostroma gen. nov.: two tropical hyphomycete genera with distinctive synnema anatomies. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 2196–2201.
Seifert KA, Morgan-Jones G, Gams W, Kendrick B (2011) The Genera of Hyphomycetes. [CBS Biodiversity Series no. 12.] Utrecht: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre.
Shearer CA, Raja HA, Miller AN, Nelson P, Tanaka K, et al. (2009) The molecular phylogeny of freshwater Dothideomycetes. Studies in Mycology 64: 145–153.
Shoemaker RA (1963) Generic correlations and concepts: Griphosphaerioma and Labridella. Canadian Journal of Botany 41: 1419–1423.
Sivanesan A (1984) The Bitunicate Ascomycetes and their Anamorphs. Vaduz: J. Cramer.
Sivanesan A, Hsieh WH (1995) A re-appraisal of the systematic status of the ascomycete genus Yoshinagaia. Mycological Research 99: 1295–1298.
Sogonov MV, Castlebury LA, Rossman A, White JF jr (2007) The type of species of Apiognomonia, Apiognomonia veneta, with its Discula anamorph is distinct from Apiognomonia errabunda. Mycological Research 111: 693–709.
Sogonov MV, Schroers H-J, Gams W, Dijksterhuis J, Summerbell RC (2005) The hyphomycete Teberdinia hygrophila gen. nov., sp. nov. and related anamorphs of Pseudeurotium species. Mycologia 97: 695–709.
Stadler M, Kuhnert E, Persoh D, Fournier J (2013) The Xylariaceae as model example for a unified nomenclature following the “One fungus-one name” (1F1N) concept. Mycology 4: 5–21.
Stalpers J (1984) A revision of the genus Sporotrichum. Studies in Mycology 24: 1–105.
Stchigel A, Cano JF, Abdullah SK, Guarro J (2004) New and interesting species of Monascus from soil, with a key to the known species. Studies in Mycology 50: 299–306.
Stolk AC, Samson RA (1971) Studies on Talaromyces and related genera I. Hamigera gen. nov. and Byssochlamys. Persoonia 6: 341–357.
Suija A, de los Rios A, Pérez-Ortega S (2015) A molecular reappraisal of Abrothallus species growing on lichens of the order Peltigerales. Phytotaxa 195: 201–226.
Sutton BC (1980) The Coelomycetes: Fungi Imperfecti with pycnidia, acervuli and stromata. Kew: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.
Sutton BC (1981) Sarcopodium and its synonyms. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 76: 97–102.
Sutton BC, Pascoe IG (1988) Fusicladium veronicae (Batista), comb. nov., causing brown leaf blight of Parahebe species. Australian Systematic Botany 1: 79–86.
Swart HJ (1971) Australian leaf-inhabiting fungi: I. Two species of Vizella. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 57: 455–464.
Sydow H (1935) Fungi venezuelani-Additamentum. Annales Mycologici 33: 85–100.
Tan MK, Timmer LW, Broadbent P, Priest M, Cain P (1996) Differentiation by molecular analysis of Elsinoë spp. causing scab diseases of Citrus and its epidemiological implications. Phytopathology 86: 1039–1044.
Tanaka E, Ashizawa T, Sonoda R, Tanaka C (2009) [“2008”] Villosiclava virens gen. nov, comb, nov, telemorph of Ustilaginoidea virens, the causal agent of rice false smut. Mycotaxon 106: 491–501.
Tooley PW, Bandyopadhyay R, Carras MM, Pažoutov’a S (2006) Analysis of Claviceps africana and C. sorghi from India using AFLPs, EF-1 gene intron 4, and B-tubulin gene intron 3. Mycological Research 110: 441–451.
Tulasne L-R (1853) Mémoire sur l’ergot des glumacéses. Annales de Sciences Naturelle, Botanique, sér. 2, 20: 5–56.
Udayanga D, Castlebury LA, Rossman AY, Chukeatirote E, Hyde KD (2014a) Insights into the genus Diaporthe phylogenetic species delimitation in the D. eres species complex. Fungal Diversity 67: 203–229.
Udayanga D, Castlebury LA, Rossman A, Hyde KD (2014b) Species limits in Diaporthe a molecular reassessment of D. citri, D. cytosporella, D. foeniculina and D. rudis. Persoonia 32: 83–101.
Verkley GJM (2002) A revision of the genus Sphaerographium and the taxa assigned to Rhynchophoma (anamorphic ascomycetes). Nova Hedwigia 75: 433–450.
Verma RK, Sharma N, Soni KK (2008) Forest Fungi of Central India. Lucknow: International Book Distributing.
Visagie CM, Houbraken J, Frisvad JC, Hong S-B, Klaassen CHW, et al. (2014) Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium. Studies in Mycology 78: 343–371.
Walker J, Sutton BC (1974) Dilophia Sacc. and Dilophospora Desm. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 62: 231–241.
White JF jr (1997) Systematics of the graminicolous Clavicipitaceae applications of morphological and molecular approaches. In: Neotyphoidiuml Grass Interactions (Bacon CW, Hill NS, eds): 27–39. Athens, GA: Springer Science.
White JF jr, Bacon CW, Hywel-Jones NL, Spatafora JW (2003) Clavicipitalean fungi: evolutionary biology, chemistry, biocontrol, and cultural impacts. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Wijayawardene NN, Crous PW, Kirk PM, Wang Y, Woudenberg JHC, et al. (2014) Naming and outline of Dothideomycetes — 2014 including proposals for the protection or suppression of generic names. Fungal Diversity 69: 1–55.
Wijayawardene NN, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD (2012) Towards incorporating anamorphic fungi in a natural classification-checklist and notes for 2011. Mycosphere 3: 157–228.
Zhang N, Luo J, Rossman A, Aoki T, Chuma I, et al. (2016) Generic names in Magnaporthales. IMA Fungus 7: 155–159.
Zhang Y Crous PW, Schoch CL, Bahkali AH, Guo LD, Hyde KD (2012) A molecular, morphological and ecological re-appraisal of Venturiales — a new order of Dothideomycetes. Fungal Diversity 51: 249–277.
Zhang Y, Fournier J, Crous PW, Pointing SB, Hyde KD (2009) Phylogenetic and morphological assessment of two new species of Amniculicola and their allies (Pleosporales). Persoonia 23: 48–54.
About this article
Cite this article
Rossman, A.Y., Allen, W.C., Braun, U. et al. Overlooked competing asexual and sexually typified generic names of Ascomycota with recommendations for their use or protection. IMA Fungus 7, 289–308 (2016). https://doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2016.07.02.09
- dual nomenclature
- pleomorphic fungi
- protected lists of names