Although a list has been published of recommendations for competing genera in the Dothideomycetes (Rossman et al. 2015b) based on Wijayawardene et al. (2014), a number of additional competing generic names have been noted since then and are listed here with recommendations for the generic name to use.
Use Abrothallus De Not 1845 (S) rather than Vouauxiomyces Dyko & D. Hawksw. 1979 (A)
The generic name Abrothallus, typified by A. bertianus, represents a relatively well-known group of lichenicolous fungi including about 60 names, while Vouauxiomyces based on V. truncatus (Hawksworth & Dyko 1979), the asexual morph of A. microspermus. The connection between these generic names was confirmed using electrophoretic methods by Pérez-Ortega et al. (2011), who cited numerous papers in which this relationship was noted. In addition two recent accounts of Abrothallus have been published in which the phylogeny and species of this genus are elaborated (Pérez-Ortega et al. 2014, Suija et al. 2015). Given the greater number of species, widespread use, and priority, use of Abrothallus is recommended.
Use Acroconidiellina M.B. Ellis 1971 (A) rather than Zeuctomorpha Sivan. et al. 1984 (S)
The monotypic genus Zeuctomorpha, based on Z. arecae, was described as the sexual morph of Acroconidiellina arecae. No molecular work exists to confirm that A. arecae is congeneric with the type species of Acroconidiellina, A. loudetiae, but this seems likely. Assuming that these type species belong in the same genus, it follows that Acrodonidiellina and Zeuctomorpha are congeneric. Acroconidiellina includes four species, is more commonly used, has priority, and was accepted by Hernández-Restropo et al. (2016), thus we recommend the use of Acroconidiellina.
Protect Amarenographium O.E. Erikss. 1982 (A) over Amarenomyces O.E. Erikss. 1981 (S)
The type species of Amarenomyces, A. ammophilae, was determined to be the sexual morph of Amarenographium metableticum, type of Amarenographium (Eriksson 1982, Phooksamsak et al. 2014), thus these generic names are synonyms. Although Amarenomyces ammophilae is widely reported as an aquatic fungus, it remains the only name placed in this genus while four species have been included in Amarenographium (Nag Raj 1989). Both generic names have been cited about equally. Rather than make three name changes, we recommend protecting the name Amarenographium forwhich no name changes are required.
Protect Amniculicola Y. Zhang ter & K.D. Hyde 2008 (S) over Anguillospora Ingold 1942 (A)
Both Zhang et al. (2009) and Shearer et al. (2009) showed that the type species of Anguillospora, A. longissima, groups with three species of Amniculicola including the type, A. lignicola, within Pleosporales, thus Anguillospora and Amniculicola are synonyms. Although more species of Anguillospora have been described, these aquatic hyphomycetous fungi tend to be morphologically convergent with most sequenced species belonging in the Leotiomycetes (Belliveau & Barlocher 2005, Baschien et al. 2006, Duarte et al. 2013). Although 18 species have been described in Anguillospora, five are known to belong in the Leotiomycetes, another in the Orbiliomycetes, and one in the Dothideales but not related to Amniculicola. Only the type species of Anguillospora, A. longissima, is monophyletic with the three species of Amniculicola. Thus, if Amniculicola is protected over Anguilllospora, only one new combination is required. The use of Anguillospora with a new type species belonging to the Leotiomycetes will be proposed. This will conserve Anguillospora in the sense in which it has been most commonly used.
One new combination is necessary:
Amniculicola longissima (Sacc. & P. Syd.) Nadeeshan & K.D. Hyde, comb. nov.
Basionym: Fusarium longissimum Sacc. & P. Syd., Syll. Fung. 14: 1128 (1899).
Use Atichia Flot. 1850 (A) rather than Seuratia Pat. 1904 (S)
Atichia glomerulosa, the older name for A. mosigii, type species of Atichia, is commonly reported as a lichen-like, superficial, gelatinous, black fungus on evergreen leaves in warm temperate and tropical regions (Meeker 1975, Gillis & Glawe 2008). Its sexual morph was described as Seuratia coffeicola, later referred to as S. millardetii, type species of Seuratia (Meeker 1975). Three names have been placed in Seuratia, two of which have names in Atichia. Although Atichia includes 20 names, many of these appear to be synonyms. These fungi are most commonly reported as Atichia and that generic name has priority, thus Atichia is recommended for use.
The following new combination is required:
Atichia maunauluana (Meeker) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Seuratia maunauluana Meeker, Can. J. Bot. 53: 2490 (1975).
Use Blasdalea Sacc. & P. Syd. 1902 (S) rather than Chrysogloeum Petr. 1959 (A) or Singerella Petr. 1959 (S)
Petrak (1959) established the monotypic genus Chrysogloeum based on C. peruvianum to accommodate the asexual morph of Singeriella peruvianum, monotype of Singeriella. According to Kirk et al. (2008), Singeriella is a synonym of the monotypic Blasdalea based on B. disciformis. Hence, these three monotypic generic names are all based on the same species. Swart (1971) established the family Vizellaceae for the genera Blasdalea and Vizella. Neither Chrysogloeum nor Singeriella have been considered by any but the original author. Blasdalea has priority, thus this generic name is recommended for use.
Use Capnodium Mont. 1849 (S) rather than the additional synonym Fumagospora G. Arnaud 1911 (A)
Following Hughes (1976), Crous et al. (2007) demonstrated that the sexual morph of Fumagospora, F. capnodioides, is Capnodium salicinum, type of Capnodium, thus Fumagospora is an additional synonym of Capnodium, which was recommended for protection over Polychaeton 1846 by the Dothideomycetes Working Group (Rossman et al. 2015b).
Use Dilophospora Desm. 1840 (A) rather than Lidophia J. Walker & B. Sutton 1974 (S)
Twist disease caused by Dilophospora alopecuri occurs on the leaves, stems and glumes of cereals and grasses in temperate regions throughout the world (Gibson & Sutton 1976, Riley 1996). The generic name Dilophospora is based on the type species, D. graminis, a synonym of D. alopecuri (Walker & Sutton 1974). The generic name Lidophia was established by Walker & Sutton (1974) for the later homonym Dilophia Sacc. 1883 non Dilophia Thomson 1853 (Brassicaceae). The type species of Lidophia is L. graminis based on Dilophia graminis, the sexual morph of Dilophospora alopecuri (Walker & Sutton 1974), thus Dilophospora and Lidophia are synonyms. Lidophia is a monotypic genus while Dilophospora now includes two species, is widely used, and has priority, thus we recommend the use of Dilophospora.
Six new combinations in Elsinoë:
Based on deliberations of the Dothideomycetes Working Group (Rossman et al. 2015b), it was recommended that the generic name Elsinoë should be protected over Sphaceloma. Six names in Sphaceloma of importance to plant quarantine officials in the United States are herein transferred to Elsinoë.
Elsinoë bucidae (A.M.J. Watson & Jenkins) Romberg & W.C. Allen, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaceloma bucidae A.M.J. Watson & Jenkins, Mycologia 61:276(1969).
Elsinoë caricae (Ikata & Katsuki) Romberg & W.C. Allen, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaceloma caricae Ikata & Katsuki, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 21: 14 (1956).
Elsinoë choisyae (A.M.J. Watson & Jenkins) Romberg & W.C. Allen, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaceloma choisyae A.M.J. Watson & Jenkins, Mycologia 61:276(1969).
Elsinoë paeoniae (Kuros.) Romberg & W.C. Allen, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaceloma paeoniae Kuros., Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 9: 131 (1939).
Elsinoë psidii (Bitanc. & Jenkins) Romberg & W.C. Allen, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaceloma psidii Bitanc. & Jenkins, Archos Inst. biol., S. Paulo 19: 105 (1949) [“1949-50”].
Elsinoë zorniae (Bitanc. & Jenkins) Romberg & W.C. Allen, comb. nov.
Basionym: Sphaceloma zorniae Bitanc. & Jenkins, Aq. Inst. Biol. São Paulo 11:47 (1940).
In addition, Sphaceloma fawcettii var. scabiosa, differentiated from Elsinoë fawcettii on the basis of morphological and cultural characteristics, should be considered synonymous with E. fawcettii based on molecular analyses (Tan et al. 1996, Hyun et al. 2009).
Use Eupelte Syd. 1924 (S) rather than Maurodothina G. Arnaud ex Piroz. & Shoemaker 1970 (S) or Pirozynskia Subram.1972 (A)
The genus Eupelte, based on E. amicta, was considered by von Arx & Müller (1975) to include the type species of two other genera, namely E. dothideoides, type of Maurodothina, and E. farriae, the sexual morph of the type of Pirozynskia, P. farriae, thus these three generic names are synonyms. Eupelte farriae causes a black mildew on Abies in north temperate regions (Pirozynski & Shoemaker 1970). Among the four names included in these three genera, all but one have been included in Eupelte, thus use of the oldest generic name is recommended.
Eupelte shoemakeri (Subram.) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Pirozynskia shoemakeri Subram., Curr. Sci. 41: 711 (1972).
Use Koordersiella Höhn. 1909 (S) rather than Hansfordiellopsis Deighton 1960 (A) and Ascohansfordiellopsis D. Hawksw. 1979 (S)
The synonymy of these three lichenicolous generic names was presented by Hawksworth (2016). Based on morphology, he considered the type species of Koordersiella, K. javanica, and the type species of Hansfordiellopsis, H. aburiensis (now regarded as a synonym of K. insectivora), to be congeneric. Although Hansfordiellopsis includes eight species names while Koordersiella has only five, he accepted priority because all of these fungi are relatively obscure and thus used Koordersiella, and we concur.
Protect Metacapnodium Speg. 1918 (S) over Antennularia Rchb. 1838 (S) and rather than Torulopsiella Bender 1932 (A), Capnocybe S. Hughes 1966 (A), Capnophialophora S. Hughes 1966 (A), Capnobotrys S. Hughes 1970 (A), and Capnosporium S. Hughes 1976 (A)
The genus Metacapnodium is typified by M. juniperi (Hughes 1972). This genus was recently considered to be congeneric with Antennularia based on A. ericophila, which was placed in Metacapnodium as M. ericophilum (Hyde et al. 2013). In addition they considered Capnocybe typified by C. fraserae to be an asexual morph of Metacapnodium fraserae (Hughes 1976). Hughes (1972, 1981) also listed Capnobotrys, Capnophialophora and Torulopsiella as names for the synanamorphs of Metacapnodium. Thus these six generic names compete for use. Four of these names, Capnocybe with three species, Capnophialophora with three species, monotypic Capnosporium, and Torulopsiella with two species, are rarely used. Although Antennularia includes 17 names and Capnobotrys includes ten, Metacapnodium with 14 names is widely used and should be protected as suggested in Hyde et al. (2013).
Use Microxiphium (Harv. ex Berk. & Desm.) Thüm. 1879 (A) rather than Dennisiella Bat. & Cif. 1962 (S)
The generic name Microxiphium (previously often spelled “Microxyphium”) is typified by M. footii while the type of Dennisiella is D. babingtonii. The types of these generic names are considered the same species (Dennis & Ellis 1952, Hughes 1976, Sivanesan 1984). Little molecular study has been conducted on these fungi, nevertheless, Microxiphium fagi, the earliest name for this species (Hughes 1976), is reported commonly in the literature. At present Microxiphium includes 33 names while Rocha et al. (2010) provided a key to the nine species of Dennisiella. Based on priority, the greater number of names, and widespread use, Microxiphium is recommended for use.
Use Mirandina G. Arnaud ex Matsush. 1975 (A) rather than Chaetonectrioides Matsush. 1996 (S)
The type of Mirandina, M. corticola, is a relatively common fresh-water hyphomycete that is known from Europe and Asia (Czeczuga et al. 2007, Kobayashi 2007). The sexual morph of the congeneric species, M. flagelliformis, was described as Chaetonectrioides malaysiana, in the monotypic genus Chaetonectrioides, thus these generic names are synonyms. About 10 species have been included in Mirandina with two species described recently (Ma et al. 2015, Fiuza et al. 2016). No DNA sequences exist for any of these species. Given the greater number of species and priority, use of Mirandina is recommended.
Use Protoventuria Berl. & Sacc. 1887 (S) rather than Ramalia Bat. 1957 (A)
The genus Protoventuria is typified by P. rosae based on Venturia rosae and includes 46 names. Zhang et al. (2012) demonstrated that this species groups with Protoventuria alpina to form a distinct lineage of Dothideomycetes that should be regarded as Protoventuria. The type species of Ramalia, R. veronicae, was placed in the genus Fusicladium as F. veronicae by Sutton & Pascoe (1988). They also described Protoventuria parahebicola for the sexual morph of this species, which causes leaf spots on Parahebe (Scrophulariaceae), thus Protoventuria and Ramalia are synonyms. Although one additional name, R. byrsonimatis was described in Ramalia (Braun & Mouchacca 2000), that name has remained obscure. Protoventuria includes over 40 names, is widely used, and has priority over Ramalia, thus Protoventuria is recommended for use.
Use Sarcinella Sacc. 1880 (A) rather than Schiffnerula Höhn. 1909 (S) and Questieriella S. Hughes 1983 (A)
When Hughes (1983) described the genus Questieriella based on Q. pulchra, he stated that the sexual morph was Schiffnerula pulchra and that Sarcinella heterospora, type of Sarcinella, represented a second asexual morph of the same species. Thus the generic names Sarcinella and Questieriella are synonyms. Earlier Hughes (1952) had distinguished the asexual morph of Schiffnerula mirabilis, type of the genus Schiffnerula, from S. pulchra. Hughes (1952) and Hosagoudar (2003) considered S. mirabilis and S. pulchra to be congeneric, thus Schiffnerula is also congeneric with Questieriella and Sarcinella. A second species of Schiffnerula, S. corni, was described from Quebec having Questieriella and Sarcinella synasexual morphs (Hughes 1990), again suggesting this generic synonymy. None of these species have been sequenced. Sarcinella provides the oldest generic name for these fungi, is used about equally with Schiffnerula, and has about the same number of names, thus the principle of priority is followed and Sarcinella is recommended for use.
The following new combinations are required:
Sarcinella mirabilis (Höhn.) Seifert, comb. nov.
Basionym: Schiffnerula mirabilis Höhn., Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Kl., Abt. 1 118: 868 (1909).
Sarcinella pulchra (Sacc.) Seifert, comb. nov.
Basionym: Apiosporium pulchrum Sacc., Mycoth. Univ., cent. 1: no. 52 (1875).
Synonyms: Dimerosporium pulchrum (Sacc.) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 1: 52 (1882).
Schiffnerula pulchra (Sacc.) Petr., Ann. mycol. 26: 397 (1928). Sarcinella heterospora Sacc., Fungi italica autogr. del. 1-4: tab. 126 (1877).
Questieriella pulchra S. Hughes, Can. J. Bot. 61: 1730. 1983.
An additional new combination in Schizothyrium
Previously the generic name Schizothyrium was recommended for use rather than Zygophiala and most names have been placed in Schizothyrium, however, one name was overlooked.
Schizothyrium jamaicense (E.W. Mason) Rossman, comb. nov.
Basionym: Zygophiala jamaicense E.W. Mason, Mycol. Pap. 13: 5 (1945).
Use Trichothallus D. Stevens 1925 (A) rather than Plokamidomyces Bat. et al. 1957 (A) or Trichopeltheca Bat. et al. 1958 (S)
Hughes (1965) monographed Trichopeltheca and accepted two species including the type species T. asiatica and listing the type species of Plokamidomyces, P. colensoi, as a synonym. He also accepted a second species, T. stevensii, with the type species of Trichothallus, T. hawaiiensis, as a synonym, thus these three generic names are synonyms. These sooty moulds develop from a distinctive one-cell thick stroma growing over living plant tissue, with setae, conidia and perithecia developing from the same stromata. Although there are no cultures or DNA sequence data, there is little doubt that these two species are congeneric and that the constituitive morphs are part of the same fungus. None of the three generic names is frequently cited in the literature. Adopting either the older asexual morph name Trichothallus or the sexual morph name Trichopeltheca would require making a new combination. We opt to respect priority in this case and recommend the adoption of the oldest generic name Trichothallus.
Trichothallus niger (Jennings) Seifert, comb. nov.
Basionym: Phycopeltis nigra Jennings, Proc.R. Irish Acad. 3: 758 (1896).
Type: New Zealand: Rotorua, on Nesodaphne towa (sic, = Beilschmiedia tawa), A.V. Jennings (DBN-lectotype designated here, MBT-isotype).
Synonyms: Plokamidomyces colensoi Bat. et al., Atti Ist. bot. Univ. Lab. crittog. Pavia, ser. 5, 15: 47 (1957).
Trichopeltheca asiatica Bat. et al., Publicações Inst. Micol. Recife 90: 13 (1958) [“1957”].
Notes: On the basis of the protologue of Phycopeltis nigra, Santesson (1944) concluded that the type material was mixed and that the name should be considered a nomen confusum, as was common practice at the time and permitted under the Code then in force. Hughes (1965) examined co-type (i.e. syntypes) specimens in DBN and MBT and recognized that P. nigra was identical with T. asiatica, arguing that the ‘type form’ described in the protologue corresponded with the Trichopeltheca component. He did not make the new combination, presumably because the species had originally been described as an alga. The lectotype proposed above is selected based on Hughes’ observations.
Use Xenodium Syd. 1935 (S) rather than Xenodiella Syd. 1935 (A)
The generic names Xenodium typified by X. petrakii and Xenodiella typified by X. petrakii were published in the same article as sexual and asexual morphs of the same species (Sydow 1935), thus these generic names are synonyms. Both generic names are monotypic, however, Xenodium has been used in the literature more than Xenodiella, thus Xenodium is recommended for use.
Use Yoshinagaia Henn. 1904 (A) rather than Japonia Höhn. 1909 (S), Yoshinagamyces Hara 1912 (A) or Monoloculia Hara 1927 (A)
The type species of each of these four monotypic generic names, Yoshinagaia, Japonia, Yoshinagamyces and Monoloculia, are the same species as explained by Sivanesan & Hsieh (1995). All of the names are relatively obscure but Yoshinagaia is used more frequently than the others. In addition, Japonia is also used as the name for an insect, thus we recommend use of the name that has priority, namely Yoshinagaia.
The nomenclator for the type species of these four generic names is:
Yoshinagaia quercus Henn., Hedwigia 43: 143 (1904).
Synonyms: Monoloculia quercus (Henn.) Hara, Diseases of Trees: 171 (1927).
Japonia quercus Höhn., Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Kl., Abt. 1, 118: 879. (1909).
Yoshinagamyces quercus Hara, Bot. Mag., (Tokyo) 26: 143 (1912).